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case they may be commonly translated by the English passive; as, kaśkapi, (theybound-him) he is bound ; niłaśkapi, (they-bound-thee) thou art bound ; makaśkapi, (they-bound-me) I am bound ; wićakaśkapi, (they-bound-them) they are bound.

Neuter and Adjective Verbs.

§ 54. Neuter and adjective verbs seem likewise to be used impersonally, and are varied by means of the same pronouns; as, ța (it-dies-him) he dies, nița (it-dies-thee) thou diest, mața, I die, tapi, they die, etc.; waste (good) he is good, niwaste (thee-good) thou art good, etc.

The termination pi’in tapi, nitapi, etc., does not appear to be used to mark plurality in the subjective pronoun understood, but in the objective pronoun either expressed or understood; and this is corroborated by the form wićața, (it-dies-them) they die, where the subject understood is evidently singular.

It appears practically convenient to include these verbs, and a few others which are varied in a similar manner, in one group, to which we will give the name of third conjugation.


$ 55. This conjugation is distinguished by the pronouns • ni’ in the second, and ma' in the first person singular. Those verbs included under the first variety take these pronouns in their full form. The second variety embraces those in which the pronouns appear in a fragmentary state, and are irregular in their conjugation.


§ 56. To this variety belong neuter and adjective verbs. The proper adjective verbs always prefix the pronouns ; but while some neuter verbs prefix, others insert them.

A. Pronouns Prefixed.

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§ 57. Verbs in this variety have only ‘n’ and “m, fragments of the pronouns “ni’ and ma,' in the second and first persons singular. These appear to be mostly active transitive verbs.

A. Pronouns Prefixed.

1. The fragmentary pronouns, ‘n’and ‘m,' are prefixed to the entire verb.

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In this and the following examples only the Indicative Aorist is given, the formation of the remaining parts having been already sufficiently exhibited.

Unpa and cannúnpa, to smoke a pipe, are conjugated like un, to use.

The reflexive form of verbs which in the third person singular commences with “ihd' (see $ 40. 3.) is also conjugated like 'un;' as, ihdáska, to bind oneself ; nihdáśka, thou bindest thyself; mihdáska, I bind myself.

2. The prefixed ‘n’and.m’take the place of the initial •

a. Yanka, to be.


Sing. 3. yanká, he is. 2. nanká, thou art. 1. manki, I am.

Plur. yaŋkápi, they are. naŋkápi, ye are. unyánkapi, we are.

unyánka, we two are.


b. Yanka, to weave, as snow-shoes.


Sing. 3. yánka, he weaves. 2. nánka, thou weavest. 1. mnánka, I weave.

Plur. yánkapi, they weave. nánkapi, you weave. unyánkapi, we weave.

unyánka, we two weave.

Yánka, to weave, differs in conjugation from yanká, to be, only in the first person singular.

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This second example differs from the first in the change of vowels, 'u'taking the place of a.' Wánka and iwánka, to lie down, go to bed, are conjugated like iwánja.

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5. The pronouns when suffixed take the forms 'ni' and .mi.'

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$ 58. These are formed of two verbs compounded together (§ 37. 2.). They usually have the pronouns proper to both verbs, though sometimes the pronouns of the last verb are omitted ; as, hdiyotanka (hdi and iyotanka), to come home and sit down ; wahdimdotayka, I come home and sit down : they also say wahdiyotanka.

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Hdiyotanka is conjugated like hiyotanka. Hinazin, hdinazin, and kinazin, in both parts, are of the first conjugation; as, wahinawaćin, yahinayažin, etc.

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Hiwanka, kiwanka, and hdiwanka are conjugated like kaśka of the first conjugation and iwanga of the third.


§ 59. 1. Eya, to say, with its compounds héya and kéya, are conjugated irregularly, “h' and 'p'taking the place of 'y' in the second and first persons singular.

Eya, to say any thing.


Sing. 3. éya, he says. 2. ehá, thou sayest. 1. epá, I say or said.

Plur. éyapi, they say. ehápi, you say. unkéyapi, we say.

unkéya, we two say.

2. Epća, I think, with its compounds hepóa and kepća, are defective, being used only in the first person singular.

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a knife or saw.

or punch off. paksa, to break off naksa, to break off kaksa, to cut off with boksa, to shoot of, baksa, to cut off with

KSA, to break off, separate.

with the foot. by pushing.

an axe.

Sing. 3. kaks í

nićáksa 2. yakéksa

1. wakíksa cićáksa
Dual unkáksa
Plur. 3. kaksápi nićáksapi

2. yakáksapi
1. unkáksapi unnićaksapi

makáksa .wićákaksa nićáksapi mayakaksa wićáyakaksa

wićáwakaksa cićáksapi

wićúnkaksa makáksapi wićákaksapi nićáksapi mayákaksapi wićáyakaksapi

wićúnkaksapi unníćaksapi

unkáksapi unyákaksapi

naúnksapi naúnyaksapi

Sing. 3. naksá naniksa

2. nayaksa

1. nawáksa naćiksa Dual

Plar. 3. naksápi naníksapi

2. nayaksapi
1. naúyksapi naúnniksapi

namáksa nawićáksa naníksapi namayaksa nawićayaksa

nawićáwaksa naćiksapi

nawićúnksa namáksapi nawićáksapi naníksapi namáyaksapi nawićáyaksapi

nawićúnksapi naúnniksapi

naúnksapi naúnyaksapi

unpáksapi unyápaksapi

Sing. 3. paksa nipáksa

2. yapíksa
1. wapáksa cipáksa

Plur. 3. paksípi nipáksapi

2. yapáksapi
1. unpáksapi unnipaksapi


mapáksa wićápaksa nipáksapi mayápaksa wićáyapaksa

wićáwapaksa cipáksapi

wićúnpaksa mapíksapi wićápaksapi nipíksapi mayápaksapi wićáyapaksapi

wićúnpaksapi unnípaksapi

unpáksapi unyápaksapi

unyáksapi uŋyádaksapi

yaksa, to bite off.

Sing. 3. yaksa niyáksa

2. daks í

1. mdaksá diyaksa Dual

Plur. 3. yaksápi niyáksapi

2. daksápi
1. unyáksapi unniyaksapi

mayaksa wićáyaksa niyáksapi mayádaksa wićádaksa


wićúŋyaksa mayáksapi wićáyaksapi niyáksapi mayádaksapi wićádaksapi

wićúnyaksapi unniyaksapi

unváksapi unyádaksapi

unyúksapi unyáduksapi

Sing. 3. yuks í niyúksa

2. duksá

1. mduksa ciyúksa Dual

Plur. 3. yuksápi niyúksapi

2. duks ápi
1. unyúksapi unniyuksapi


wićáyuksa niyuksapi mayáduksa

wićámduksa tiyúksapi

mayúksapi wićáyuksapi niyúksapi
mayáduksapi wiéíduksapi

wićúnyuksapi unniyuksapi

unyúksapi uŋyáduksapi

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