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fication are at once apparent. There is, of course,

the river Aire ; but then it is difficult to conceive CONTENT 8.-No 69.

how any obstruction in the navigation of the Aire NOTES :-Turnbrigg-Parliamentary Polls. 301-Cephisus and the Ilissus-Indian Folk-lore, 303–N, Hone-Wed

the interests of the inhabitants of the counties of ding and Marriage, 304–Sidney and Shakspeare-Tobacco at Windsor-Annesley-The Russian Language, 305—Low

Nottingham and Derby. A glance, however, at land Scotch-Rev. W. Thompson-New Testament, 306– an old map-Saxton's, for iostance- will at once Jacobite not Williamite, 307.

solve the mystery. We find that the Dike, or QUERIES :-Wife of Viscount Bourke-T. G. Wainewright Thornbrigg Dike, to all appearance an artificial -"The White Christ "-Quotation in Lamb-W. Farren

water-course, formed an overflow channel for the Dibdin's Song-General Claye - George Eliot-Jonson's Masques-Abernethy-Waterloo__"Second Sight,” 307— surplus waters of Tborne Mere, and that it bad for Dallom-Lee-Tipping-Long-Sir Geo. Chudleigh-“Cura its tributaries the rivers Don and Went, and distion"-Folk-tale-Source of Quotation-Quadruple Birthscharged their combined waters into the river Aire -English Actress in Paris-Sir H. Langford-Anecdote of Queen Victoria, 308- Belt-Theodor Körner-Erasmus

the four counties, or, to speak more correctly, the Lloyd--Old Book, 309. REPLIES :- Accurate Language, 309 - Urian - Reeds - one that replaced it, or possibly even a successor of

Oldest Trees, 311-Judges' Robes--Turk's Island-Article the latter, is clearly shown over the Dike on the in Periodical-Recorder of Salisbury-Tananarivo-John road from Snaith to Rawcliffe, and its name is still Newton, 312-Folk-lore of Gems, 313- Cene'-Tithe

preserved in the name of the hamlet Tunbridge, to Barns-Charles, Lord Sturton-Flowers on Graves, 314

the east of East Cowick. Thorne Mere bas disMotto for Managers-Tennyson's 'Crossing the Bar,'315– “ Hospitale Conversorum"-Alice Fitz Alan, 316 " Wig.

appeared from the maps ; it formerly occupied the gin"-Lely- Tumblers-Ghost Miners-Children of the Chapel '— Feast of St. Michael, 317–Root of Scarcity- Thorne and north-east of Hatfield Turf Moors, Arthur Onslow-Francis, Duke of Leeds - Shakspeare between Sandtoft Grange and Brodholme. All and Molière, 318—Kearney, 319.

that now remains of the Dike is the portion lying NOTES ON BOOKS:-Ward's . Vanbrugh's Works' -Robin

between Thorne Quay, at what was formerly an son's History of Coffee Houses 'Campbell's “Puritan in Holland, England, and America'-Barine's ‘Bernardin de old mouth of the river Don, and New Bridge, at St. Pierre'-Mac Donald's Poems.'

what is the present junction of the Don with the Notices to Correspondents.

Dutch River, cut by Sir Cornelius Vermuyden,

which discharges the waters of both rivers directly Notes. into the Ouse by the rising port of Goole.

L. L. K. TURNBRIGG IN YORKSHIRE. M. Jusserand, in his 'English Wayfaring Life in

POLLS AT PARLIAMENTARY ELECTIONS the Fourteenth Century' (p. 414), quotes in extenso

BEFORE 1832. from the 'Rolls of Parliament'(vol. v. p. 43) a petition of the Commons of the counties of York, Lin

(Conlinued from p. 64.) coln, Nottingham, and Derby, in 20 Henry VI.

Hampshire. (A.D. 1442), for the demolition and rebuilding of a 1705 Thomas Jervoise ...

2298 timber bridge, called Turnbrigg, over a tidal stream, Richard Chaundler

2088 called the Dike, in the parish of Snaith, in the

Thomas Lewis ... ...

1617 county of York. Petitioners alleged that the 1710 George Pitt ...

2646 bridge complained of was too narrow and too low

Sir Simeon Stuart, Bart. ...

2590 for the “voiding” of flood waters, and in con

Marquis of Winchester

2167 Thomas Jervoise ...

2137 sequence about twenty miles of the country were

1713 Thomas Lewis ...

2042 flooded every year. Moreover, the bridge was a Sir Anthony Sturt, Knt. ...

1947 serious impediment to navigation, as at every time Marquis of Winchester ...

1879 of “creteyne" (flood) and abundance of water" John Wallop ...

1842 vessels could not pass it, and consequently their 1734 Edward Lisle

2669 cargoes of wool, lead, stone, timber, victuals, and

Lord Harry Powlett

2575 “ fewaille" (fuel), intended “for the cities” of

Sir Simeon Stuart, Bart. ...

2573 York, Hull, Hedon, Holderness, Beverley, Barton

Anthony Chute ... ...

1779 (-on-Humber), Grimsby, and other places, by the

Vice Sir Simeon Stuart, dead.
Jervoise Clarke

2105 high sea, tbe coasts, into London and elsewhere Sir Richard Worsley, Bart.

1484 were detained at the bridge for half a year or more. Polls in Smith, 1790, 1806, 1807. Neither M. Jusserand nor his learned trans. lator Miss Lucy Toulmin Smith attempts to

1749 Vice Lord Lymington, dead. identify either the site of the bridge or the tidal John G. Griffin ... river, and on consulting a modern map of the Francis B. Delaval... ... neighbourhood the difficulties of such an identi- ! Polls in Smith .1727, 1741, 1768, 1774.



Como con

210 163



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1699 Vice Sir B. Newland, dead.

Roger Mompesson ... 1723 Vice Francis Gwyn, chose to sit for Wells,


... Edward P. Gwyn ...

Mitford Crow

33 Joseph Hinman ... 1714 Thomas Lewis

229 Lymington.

Richard Fleming ... ... 1710 Paul Burraud

Adam Cardonnell ... ... Lord William Powlett ...

1737 Vice John Conduit, dead. John Walter

Thomas L. Dummer William Forbes ...

Alderman Taunton

183 Newport.

Polls in Smith, 1734, 1741, 1774, 1780, 1790, 1794, 1698 Vice Lord Cutts, chose to sit for Cambridgeshire. 1802, 1806, 1812, 1818, 1820, 1830 (vice Chamberlayne),

Henry Greenhill ...
Job Acton ... ...

Slockbridge, 1768 John Eames ... ...

1614 Sir Walter Cope, Knt. ...
Hans Sloane...

Sir Henry Wallop, Knt. ...
Sir Thomas Worsley

Sir Richard Gifford, Knt.
Sir William Oglander

John St. Jobn
Poll in Smith, 1784.

The return of Cope and Wallop was declared not good. Newtown.

1689 Vice Oliver St. John, dead. 1727 James Worsley ... ...

William Montagu ... ...
Thomas Holmes ...

William Strode
Hon. Charles A. Powlett ...

This election was declared void.
Sir John Barrington, Bart.

1772 Vice Gen. Worge, resigned. The latter two on petition.

James Hare...

Ambrose Gilbert ... ... ... ... 35 1688 Thomas Bilson Robert Mitchell ...

Polls in Smith, 1774, 1775, 1780, 1790, 1796, 1826, 1830. ... Richard Norton ...


Whitchurch. This was a double return, Bilson and Mitchell were 1702 Richard Wollaston declared duly elected.

John Shrimpton ... 7726 Vice Edmund Miller, made a Baron of the Ex

Daniel Parke ... chequer in Scotland.

1707 Vice Sbrimpton, dead.
Joseph Taylor ... ... ...

Frederick Tilney (with the Mayor)
Edmund Miller ... ...

Charles Whithers (without the Mayor)
On petition Taylor was declared elected by the com- On petition Whithers vice Tilney.
mittee, but the House disagreed and declared Miller | 1708 Frederick Tilney .

Thomas Lewis 1734 Sir William Jolliffe, Kot....


Ricbard Wollaston ...
Edward Gibbon, Jun. ...


George Bridges
Norton Powlett ... ...

The latter two on petition.
Polls in Smith, 1741, 1818, 1820, 1830, 1831.

1722 Thomas Vernon Portsmouth.

John Conduit 1695 Vice Edward Russell, chose to sit for Cambridge

Frederick Tilney ... ...

Isaac Wollaston ...
Matthew Aylmer ... ... ...

John Gibson


The first poll was that taken by the mayor, the second This election was declared void, and Gibson was chosen that by the clerk of the legal freeholders. Vernon and

Conduit were returned, and the others petitioned, but upon a new writ.

the petition was afterwards withdrawn. 1709 Vice Sir Thomas Littleton, Bart., dead. Sir Charles Wager, Kpt. ...

1726 Vice Vernon, dead.

Thomas Farrington
Henry Norton ...


Isaac Wollaston ... ... 1710 Sir Charles Wager, Knt. ... ... ...

- Shrimpton ...
Sir John Jenninge, Knt. ... ...
Sir James Wishart, Knt. ...

Sir William Gifford, Knt. ...

1689 Frederick Tilney. The latter two on petition,

Lord William Powlett 1774 Vice Sir M. Featherstonbaugh, dead.

Charles Morley ... ... ...
Peter Taylor ...

George Rodney Bridges ...
Jobbua Iremonger ... ...

** ***

Lord William Powlett ... 1777 Vice Peter Taylor, dead.

Frederick Tilney ...
Sir William Gordon, K.B.

Vice Lord William Powlett, dead.
Sir H. Featherstonbaugh, Bart. ... .

Norton Powlett ...
Polls in Smith, 1774 (General Election), 1780, 1820.

Powlett St. John ... ..

1812 Sir Henry Mildmay, Bart. 1695 Sir Charles Windbam, Knt.

Richard Meyler ...
Sir Benjamin Newland, Knt.

H. Baring ... ... ...
John Smith ... ... ...

Polls in Smith, 1747, 1831.







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Yarmouth. 1695 Henry Holmes -- Anthony Morgan -- - - - --- 33 John Acton... --- --- --- --- 32 1714 Henry Holmes --- --- --- --- 39 Sir Robert Raymond, Knt. --- --- 38 Anthony Morgan ... --- --- --- 20 Sir Theodore Janssen, Bart. --- --- 18

The latter two on petition.

1768 William Strode
Jervoise Clarke ... ---
Thomas Dummer ...
Hon. George Parker

The latter two on petition.

4, Montague Place, Bedford Square. (To be continued.)

THE CEPHISUs AND THE ILissus.-Gautier, in “L'Orient,’ chap. v., in speaking of the neighbourhood of Athens and the Piraeus, says: “Quant à la rigole vaseuse, je suis fäché de dire que c'était le Céphise, mais, comme Magnus dans les Burgraves, “la vérité my pousse.” There were three rivers of this name. We must, therefore, hope that the Cephisus to which Wordsworth alludes in his beautiful lines in the fourth book of ‘The Excursion” was either the Cephisus in Phocis and Boeotia or the Cephisus in Argolis. To hear that the “running river” to which the votary “presented his severed hair,” and the “crystal lymph” which “refreshed his thirsty lip,” is really a “rigole vaseuse” and “la boue noire,” is a colder douche than to hear that Belted Will, the picturesque warrior of Scott's poem, paid poor-rate in the county of Middlesex (see ‘N. & Q., 7° S. viii. 418). “There's no romance in that l” It is no doubt possible that the Attic Cephisus is not always a “rigole vaseuse.” I think I have read somewhere that Gray’s “cool Ilissus” disappears, or nearly so, during the summer months; and yet the Ilissus has obtained most “honourable mention,” not only in Gray's glorious ode, but in “Paradise Regained ’ (book iv. line 249). I see that Dr. Smith, in his “Student's Greece,’ ed. 1871, says:— “On the eastern and western sides of the city [Athens] there run two small streams which are nearly exhausted before they reach the sea by the heats of summer and by the channels for artificial irrigation. That on the east is the Ilissus, which flowed through the southern quarter of the city: that on the west is the Cephisus." JonATHAN Bouchier. Ropley, Alresford.

YELLow-KNIFE INDIAN Folk-Lore.—I have culled a few flowers in the “Barren Ground of Northern Canada’ (London, 1892) by Mr. Warburton Pike, in the hope that they may be sweet to readers of ‘N. & Q.” who may not have seen them, or who, having seen them, may have neglected to secure specimens. The story of the Deluge,

with which I begin, was told to Mr. Pike by King Beaulieu, a French half-breed, whom he employed as guide. It may be remarked that Mr. Pike takes it be “a curious mixture of old tradition. with some details from the Biblical version as taught to the Northern Indians on the arrival of the first priests in the country”:—

“Many years ago, so long ago in fact that as yet no man had appeared in the country of the Slave Lake, the animals, birds, and fishes lived in peace and friendship, supporting themselves by the abundant produce of the soil. But one winter the snow fell far more heavily than usual; perpetual darkness set in, and when the spring should have come the snow, instead of melting away, grew deeper and deeper. This state of affairs lasted many months, and it became hard for the animals to make a living; many died of want, and at last it was decided in a grand council to send a deputation to Heaven to inquire into the cause of the strange events, and in this deputation every kind of animal, bird, and fish was represented. They seem to have had no difficulty in reaching the sky, and passing through a trapdoor into a land of sunshine and plenty. Guarding the door stood a deerskin lodge resembling the lodges now in use among the Yellow Knives; it was the home of the black bear, an animal then unknown on the earth. The old bear had gone to a lake close at hand to spear caribou from a canoe, but three cubs were left in the lodge to take care of some mysterious bundles that were hung up on the cross-poles; the cubs refused to say what these bundles contained, and appeared very anxious for the return of the old bear. “Now the idea of spearing caribou did not find favour with the deputation from below, and as the canoe was seen lying on the shore of the lake the mouse was dispatched to gnaw through the paddle, and as he had nearly accomplished this feat the bear came running down in pursuit of a band of caribou that had put off from the far shore. When he was close up to his intended victims, and was working his best, the paddle suddenly broke, the canoe capsized, and the bear disappeared beneath the water. Then the animals, birds and fishes grew bold, and pulling down the bundles found that they contained the sun, moon, and stars belonging to the earth; these they threw down through the trapdoor to lighten the world and melt the snow, which by this time covered the tops of the tallest pine-trees. “The descent from Heaven was not made without some small accidents. The beaver split his tail and the blood splashed over the lynx, so that ever afterwards till the present day the beaver's tail is flat and the lynx is spotted; the moose flattened his nose, and many other casualties occurred which account for the peculiarities of various animals, and the little bears came tumbling down with the rest. “And now the snow began to melt so quickly that the earth was covered with water, but the fish found for the first time that they could swim, and carried their friends that could not on their backs, while the ducks set to work to pull up the land from beneath the water. “But it was still harder to make a living, so the raven, then the most beautiful of birds, was sent to see if he could find any place where dry land was showing; but on coming across the carcase of a caribou he feasted upon it, although the raven had never before eaten anything but berries and the leaves of the willow. For this offence he was transformed into the hideous bird that we know, and to this day is despised of every living thing; even omnivorous man will not eat of the raven's flesh unless under pressure of starvation. The ptarmigan was

then sent out, and returned bearing in his beak a branch and Queries,” and as it has elicited no satisfactory of willow as a message of hope ; in remembrance of this

reply, and appears to me to deserve one, I beg leave good action, the ptarmigan turns white when the snow I to forward it to the "mother and mistress ” of all begins to fall in the Barren Ground, and thus warns the animals that winter is at band.

minor ‘N. & Q.'s.' The result, I hope, will go to " But the old life had passed away, and the peace that show that the “old original ” still stands facile had reigned among all living things was disturbed. The princeps as the best field in which to plant all fish, as the water subsided, found that they could no such inaniries :longer live on the land, and the birds took to flying long distances. Every animal chose the country that suited “I wish to know, from some one who is more acquainted it best, and gradually the art of conversation was lost. with mediæval English terms than I am, what was the About this time too, in a vague and indefinite manner difference, if any, say from about the year 1100 to 1500, about which tradition says little, the first human being / in meaning between wedding and marriage. I ask the appeared on the shore of the Great Slave Lake."-Pp. 79, question because in the course of my reading our old 80. 81,

romances of chivalry I have come across passages where The North American reindeer :

the words seem to be used in different sepses. In the

* Romance of Partenay, or Tale of Melusine,' occurs the “The caribou afford a wide scope for the superstitions following passage :-* 80 ingrained in the Indian nature, and the wildest tales

Honestly was done without the least foundation are firmly believed in,

The mariage and weddying greabilly. One widely-spread fancy is that they will entirely for

LI. 1542-3. sake a country if any one throws #stick or stone at

If the two words in question mean exactly the same them, and their disappearance from the neighbourhood 1 of Fort Resolution is accounted for by the fact of a boy

thing, why does the poet use them in such close con

| nexion ? Further we have : who had no gun joining in the chase when the caribou were passing in big numbers, and clubbing one to death

The mariage bad with all the weddying with a stick; this belief holds good also down the

Which endured eight days plenerly, Mackenzie River, as does the idea that these animals on

They had ioustes and tornements myghty. some occasions vanish either into the air or under the

L. 1930-2. ground. The Indians say tbat sometimes when follow. Here again the two words are used in combination, ing close on a herd they arrive at a spot wbere the tracks inclining still more to two different meanings. It is not suddenly cease and the hunter is left to wonder and now simply the marriage and the wedding, but the starve. It is very unlucky to let the dogs eat any part of marriage with the wedding, and not only that, but with the bead, and the remaining bones are always burnt or all the wedding, and the two ideas are linked one to the put up in a tree out of reach, the dogs goin: hungry, other as two separate and distinct things. In the same unless there happens to be some other kind of meat poem the poet, speaking of a certain earl, uses the words: handy. Another rather more sensible superstition, pre.

Never after thens went oumably invented by the men, is that no woman must eat

To no place here ne there thys Erle reuerent. the gristle of the nose (a much-esteemed delicacy) or she

As by wifing ne by mariage. LI. 6369-71. will infallibly grow a beard.”—Pp. 55, 56.

Where wifing and mariage seem to mean different things. Reverence for the stars, which in Europe As we got our word marriage through the French word, strengthens the superstition that it is wrong to wbich French word is not derived immediately from the stare at them, is probably latent in the Barren Latin word matrimonium, as many might suppose, but from Ground. Mr. Pike records :

the mediæval Latin marilagium, it might be worth our

wbile to make some research into the bistory and mean"I was awakened by hearing the universal Indian (ing of this word. Maritagium, as its form shows, comes chant (Hi, hi, he, Ho, hi, he) and much clapping of from maritus, a husband, and means the dowry given by hands......I looked out to see what was going on, and the bride's parents to the bridegroom. (See Glanville, found egerybody sitting in the snow shouting; Saltatha vii. 1.) The word also occurs in this sense in the laws had discovered a single star, and the noise I had heard of Edward the Confessor. Formerly then both in was the applause supposed to bring out one of the France and England the word mariage referred to the principal constellations, so that we might get an idea of temporal and material part of the ceremony, and was our direction."-P. 113.

only used vulgarly of the sacramental part, for which

St. SWITHIN. | the more respectable word nopces (noces) was used in NATHANIEL HONE, R.A. (1718–1784), PAINTER.

France. We find the following expressions : "Nopces

vulgairement appellez mariage" ("Cout. Gén.,' ii. 726). -The register of York Minster records the mar- La dot ou donation pour noces est vulgairement appellé riage, by licence, on Oct. 9, 1742, of Nathaniel | mariage' (Laurière)." Mariage divis, c'est la dot ou le Hope, of the city of York, with Mary Earl, of the mariage prefix et distinct et separé du reste des biens

St. Michael le Belfrey in the game cite des pere et mere'[sic]. As far as I can make out, the He was buried in Hendon Churchyard, co. Mid

opposite course was followed in England after the time

of William the Conqueror, namely, the word wedding was dlesex, on Aug. 20, 1784. This note will serve as used for the material part, the dowry, the joys, the an interesting addition to the account of bim feasting, &c. (note the word wad, root of wedding), and appearing in ‘Dict. Nat. Biog.,' vol. xxvii. p. 242.

the word marriage was used of the ecclesiastical cereDANIEL HIPWELL.

mony, though the Latin word maritagium was used in

legal documents in the same sense as it was in France, 17, Hilldrop Crescent, N.

In the example quoted above, where both terms occur WEDDING AND MARRIAGE. — The following:

| together, marriage comes before wedding, as we should

18 expect if my notion be correct, wedding including all the query from a learned divine appeared somo weeks external acts. My question is this : Did our ancestors, ago in a provincial newspaper's column of "Notes within the period stated, attach two different meanings

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