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1831.] Proof founded on Handwriting fallacious.

319 413, (2d edit.) of that entertaining matory of other evidence. The testimony work. This leads me to remark that, of au accomplice, if unconfirmed by other from the honourable, benevolent, and

witnesses, is rejected, and I would put on generous mind, and the manly charac- the same footing testimony of this kind : ter of Mr. Burke, as there pourtrayed,

let it be regarded as a collateral, not as a he was incapable of the dark, cowardly, ship, not authorship. Cases

continually oc

substantive proof, -as proving amanuensisand assassin-like malignity evinced in

cur, where the personal identity of a prisoner many of Junius's letters; which suffi

is positively sworn to by a witness, while ciently accounts for that writer's dread

the prisoner himself establishes the fact of of being discovered. I might here add his non-identity. Hence I desire to see the marked difference in politics and courts of justice governed by this rule, that party connexions between Mr. Burke the personal identity of a prisoner should and that scorpion. Of Mr. Burke's not be admitted on the oath of a prosecutability to equal and excel the compo- ing witness, unless the identity should be sition of those letters, powerfully and

shown by corroborating circumstances. With elegantly as they are written, I think what propriety can a court of justice solemnly, few persons acquainted with the works

but from mere inspection, declare any partiof that extraordinary man can enter

cular letter, produced before its eyes, to be tain a doubt.

P. R.

the composition and the writing of any specific individual, unless the court has sa

tisfied itself that no other individual could Mr. URBAN, Thetford, March 15. write a very resembling hand? For what I DID not profess to advocate the crime is more common than the forgery of claims of Lauchlin Macleane to the hand-writing ? And what fraud oftener composition of Junius's Letters; but succeeds in eluding the vigilance of the made the quotation for the purpose of persons most accustomed to see the real

hand? But the difficulty of judging from showing that the fact of the sudden elevation of Macleane to an important great indeed; 1.' because we have before us

the hand-writing, in the case of Junius, is station in India, deprived the Francis

a mere fictitious personage ; 2. because we cans of one great argument, on which

have no evidence that all the Letters of they relied.

Junius were written in one and the same Your correspondent P. R. refers to hand; 3. because we have no proof to show the hand-writing of Macleane, which, that, if that were the case, the writing is

according to his recollection, bore not the hand of some amanuensis ; 4. beno resemblance to that of Junius;" cause it is an unascertained point, whether and as almost every writer on this per

Junius did (as Mr. Butler, in his Remiplexing question appeals to hand

niscences, i. 100, thinks) or did not (as Mr. writing as a test of authorship, permit Taylor, p. 370, thinks) employ an ama

nuensis; 5. because it is an equally undeme to lay before P. R. and your read

cided point whether, if any amanuensis were ers in general, two extracts from my

employed, he did or did not convey the Letters on the Authorship of Junius's

Letters to the office of Mr. Woodfall; 6. Letters, for the purpose of preventing because it is an equally undecided point such idle appeals in future, and of di

whether the writing, to whomsoever the recting inquiry to more legitimate hand belonged, was a real or a disguised sources of evidence. Even in a legal hand. This branch of the question, then, point of view the suggestions which I is involved in so much doubt and difficulty, have offered, are not unworthy of pub- that all reasoning about it is either unsatislic attention, and I know that these factory, or insecure ; and I must strongly suggestions, and some others contained impress on the reader the necessity of lookin my little volume, have attracted the ing at it with the greatest caution and the attention of gentlemen connected with

keenest suspicion, because the advocates for

particular claims appeal to hand-writing as the legal profession.

one of the best tests for detecting the author “ Hand-writing is a very fallacious cri- of Junius. I have remarked that any arguterion for determining the authorship of ment in favour of an individual, grounded Junius's Letters; and I would remark that

on this test, will have peculiar and striking in any ordinary case proof founded on hand

force, if the same argument be not employed writing, though generally in the courts of

to support other claims; but that, if it be justice considered the least liable to suspi

so employed, it loses much of its effect, cion, is often in the courts of conscience and half of its value. Its strength lies in very insufficient evidence to demonstrate its exclusive adaptation to one particular guilt. It ought in no case of importance claimant.”—p. 181. to be received as satisfactory proof in itself, though it may justly be admitted as confir- Yours, &c.

E. H. BARKER.

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320

Cheapside Cross.-Raphael's Cartoons. [April, Mr. URBAN, Coventry, March 21. MR. URBAN,

April 3. IF you think the following copy of AMONG other curious subjects of (I believe) an unpublished document inquiry contained in the recently concerning Cheapside Cross, is wor- edited'“Cartonensia” (published by thy of being preserved in the pages of Ridgway), I wish to direct the attenthe Gentleman's Magazine, it is heart- tion of your readers to those that folily at your service.

low. Yours, &c. Thos. SHARP.

From the view the author has given

of the establishment, progress, and A Letter from the Lords of the Coun- dereliction of the tapestry manufaccell to the Lord Maire of London, to

ture at Mortlake (p. 18), it is almost repaire the Crosse in Chepside, the

certain that the seven cartoons at 14 of Decemb. 1600.

Hampton Court were woven there. AFTER our hearty commendation to

Having learned from Dodsley's your good Lordship, some of us, her

“ London and its Environs,” (vol. III, Maiesties councellors, did write to

p. 113,) that in the apartment of that your predecessor by her highnes ex

palace called the “ Prince of Wales's,'

there was presse command, concerning the

a tapestry representing Crosse in Chepeside (an ancient and

“Elymas the Sorcerer struck with goodly monument), that forthwith it blindness,” he was induced to go and might have bin repaired, and placed inquire after it. againe as it formerly stood, but whe- In an apartment not usually shown ther it were his softenes or negligence, it was found as above directed. The or fancy, or opposition by some busie piece measures about 13 feet, includand undiscreete humorists, that gave ing a border elegantly designed, of impediment to the effecting of her about two feet three inches wide, and maiesties sayd pleasure (wherof we is in good preservation. While he can be content for the tyme past to

was examining it, the keeper of the take noe particuler notice), we meane apartments informed him that there not any longer to permit the continu- were many rolls of tapestry, of which ance of such a contempt. And, there- little was known, laid up in the storefore, we doe requier you by vertue of rooms of the palace (he also said there her highnes sayd former direction and was in that of St. James's a much commandment, that without any fur- larger quantity). The author therether delay you doe accomplish her fore asks the question, may not the Maiesties most princelie care therein, other six cartoons thus remain in respecting especially the antiquity and “ oblivious durance ?" Is not the continuance of that monument, but question, like all that belongs to Ranot aprooving the weaknes in many phael, worth attending to ? and may now that will take offence at the his- not the research be as successful as toricall and Civill use of such an an

one on a similar occasion was at Drestient ensigne of Christianity. In the den so late as the year 1814, when discharge of your duty herein, we are six in the same neglected condition of opinion that the lesse alteration you

were found? These had been woven make the better it is, and so not doubt- at Arras (p. 39). ing of your readines to performe the The Elymas was perhaps also woven premises, we bid you right heartily at Mortlake, as may be another of the farewell. From the Court at White- same subject now in Chester Cathehall, the 14 of Decemb. 1600.

dral. The latter is reported to him as Your loving friends,

in a decaying state, nor can he learn

whence it came. John Cant: J.EGERTON, C.S.

From the above work by Dodsley NOTTINGHAM, H. HUNSDON,

(vol. III. p. 160), there is a relation T. BUCKHURST, Rob. CECILL, of a trial in Westminster Hall, reJohn FFORTESCUE, John PoPHAM, specting a ruined cartoon. (p. 42.) HERBERT.

The subject,

The Massacre of the To our very loving friend Mr. Alder

Innocents.” Are any further particu

lars of this transaction known? man Rider, lord Maior of the City of London.

Yours, &c.

B. S.

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1831.]

[ 321 ]

CLASSICAL LITERATURE.

MR. URBAN,

March 22. THE name of the unfortunate Kirke White is so intimately connected with Classical Literature, no less than with Poetry, that I have taken the liberty of sending you a translation of Byron's beautiful lines, addressed to his memory, by a young friend of mine, who is much devoted to the cultivation of Latin verse.

Yours, &c.

P. B. Byroni Carmen Elegiacum ad memoriam poetæ Kirke White, Latinè redditum. “ Unhappy White! while life was in its spring, Ah miserum juvenem! dum vita in vere rubebat, And thy young Muse just waved her joyous wing, Tentabatque novos alacris tua Musa volatus, The spoiler came; and all thy promise fair Hostis adest. Spesque ante diem formosa sepulchro Has sought the grave, to sleep for ever there. Datur, et æternum dormit prærepia soporem. Oh! what a noble heart was here undone, Mens eversa fuit quàm nobilis, ipsa ubi uatum When Science 'self destroyed her favourite son! Dilectum Doctrina, parens incauta, peremit! Yes! she too much indulged thy fond pursuit,

Accensas aluit nimia indulgentia flammas, She sowed the seeds, but Death has reaped the Hæc posuit semen, Mors abstulit invida fruges! fruit.

Ingenium suprema tuum tibi vulnera fecit, 'Twas thine own genius gave the final blow, Direxitque aciem, quæ solvit funere membra, And helped to plant the wound that laid thee low. Haud aliter, quam stravit humi letalis arundo, So the struck eagle, stretch'd upon the plain, Non aquila ætherei reditura in luminis oras, No more through rolling clouds to soar again, Tam moritura oculos teli convertit ad alam, Viewed his own feather on the fatal dart,

Agnovitque suam, quæ rupto in corde tremebat. And winged the shaft that quiver'd in his heart. Ah !

grave

vulpus erat, gravior sed cura mo. Keen were his pangs, but keener far to feel

mordit, He nursed the pinion which impelled the steel: Namque aluit plumam, quâ læsit adacta sagitta; While the same plumage that had warm'd his nest Quæque pio nidos modò penna calore fovebat, Drank the last life-drop of his bleeding breast.” Ipsa bibit calidum vitæ de pectore fiumen.

(English Burds and Scotch Reviewers, lines 810 to 828).

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Mr. URBAN, Thetford, April 14. IN reply to your intelligent contributor, T. E. (p. 122), allow me to state, that, after a very extensive and careful search, I can find in no ancient Greek writer, and in no ancient Greek grammarian, lexicographer, or philologist, except the Schol. Aristoph., any mention of κάμηλος or κάμιλος in the sense of “a cable” or “rope.”

The passage in this Scholiast may be with great probability deemed an interpolation ;* and at all events it is posterior to the time of Christ. Theophylact, the Codex Coislinianus, Suidas, Zonaras, Phavorinus, &c. refer to the New Testament, and therefore

their authority, as too recent, carries no weight. The Schol. Aristoph, distinguishes between káundos, “ the ani. mal,” and káullos, a cable,” but he gives no authority, and adduces no examples to prove the propriety of this distinction. He does, however, seem to have been aware that there was an oriental word, (Arabic,) kápidos, which signified “a cable,” and which he supposed to differ from κάμηλος, , camel,” only in one letter, , for n. Some Hellenists in his day might have introduced the word in the sense of a

rope.” Theophylact, and others who refer to the words of Scripture, either recognise this distinction, for

a

* This opinion is supported by another communication with which we have been favoured, signed Jonas Holm; that correspondent also remarks—“I cannot believe that Origen ever wrote the passage in the Codex Coislinianus; for, besides that it is not to be found in his extant works, and the fact that it was written by him depends therefore solely upon this manuscript which belongs to the 11th century, a most conclusive proof to the contrary is to be had from his commentary upon the verse in St. Matthew, where he

saysέν ή παραβολή ο μεν πλούσιος παραβάλλεται καμήλω ου διά το ακάθαρτον του ζώου μόνον, ώς ο νόμος εδίδαξεν, αλλά και την όλην αυτού σκολιότητα. Now, if any other interpretation had been known in the writer's time, would he have let such an opportunity slip without noticing it? but here not a single hint of the kind is given—not the least doubt is expressed." Gent. Mag. April, 1831.

a

a

322

CLASSICAL LITERATURE.—Káunlos. [April, which they were doubtless indebted to the two former, what he calls' proverbia the Schol. Aristoph. (or to the writer του αδυνάτου. .' • Hoc adagium,' he adds, from whom he borrowed his inforna- • usurpat ó Ewrnp, Matt. 19, 24, in hytion,) or assign to káundos itself the perbola. Non enim účúvatov divitem indouble sense of “a camel,” and “ troire in regnum cælorum, sed admodum rope, ” but still following the authority difficile

. Ibidem pro elephante camelus les of the Schol. Aristoph.; or perhaps gitur. Nam kaundos est camelus vel Syro misled by the affinity or identity of intreprete, qui Soo vertit, voce minime am. the Arabic terms, which denote bigua : quæ animans, cum notior sit vulgo camel” and “a rope,

" and not in- in Judæa quam elephas, libet suspicari ideo disposed to adopt the latter, because

in elephantis loco positam esse a Christo.'" it seemed better suited to the subject. It will have been perceived, that to At all events, we may safely conclude understand cable by the word κάμηλος, that, prior to the birth of Christ, the is to rob the proverb of its nationality word κάμηλος or κάμιλος never had any

and its humour. In this light it is corsuch sense as that of " cable” or rectly regarded by Parkhurst, who, in “rope," and that in this sense it is his Greek and English Lexicon, obmerely the Arabic word, which was serves, that, in the common interpreintroduced by the Hellenists subse- tation given by our translators, quently to the birth of Christ.

“ The proverb seems quite agreeable to There have at all times been some the eastern taste. Thus Matt. xxiii, 24. authors, who, evidently without due "Straining off the gnat, and swallowing the consideration, have adopted what ap- camel,' is another proverbial expression, and peared, to European ideas of metaphor, is applied to those who at the same time the more

analogous” and “natu- they were superstitiously anxious in avoiding ral” sense. A correspondent in your

small faults, did without scruple commit the last number (p. 224), has adduced greatest sins. This latter proverb plainly resome examples of this from English both gnats and

camels were unclean animals,

fers to the Mosaic law, according to which authors of various dates ; and I may prohibited for food.” here mention another amusing instance,” noticed in " Adagia Hebrai- Yours, &c. E. H. BARKER.

ca:

“Vieyra, * quoting the text in one of his A Greek and English Lexicon for the use of Sermons, (T. io. p. 249) uses cable instead Schools and Colleges; containing a variety of camel, following a plausible but erroneous

of Critical, Philological, and Scientific interpretation. It suited his purpose better

maller, not hitherto found in any Greek in this place : What remedy then is there

Dictionary. Also, an English and Greek for the rich man, that he may enter hea

Lexicon, comprising a number of Idiomatic ven? I will tell you. Untwist the cable ;

Phrases, for the use of more advanced sluand then thread by thread it may go through dents. By George Dunbar, A.M. F.R.S.E. the needle. Christ himself has taught how and Professor of Greek in the University of this is to be done, by saying, Sell that thou

Edinlurgh ; and E. H. Barker, Esq. of hast, and give it unto the poor.'

Thetford, Norfolk. 8vo. " There is a print of the camel and the needle in one of the little buoks of Drexelius,

THE Greek is a language elevated if I remember rightly; a man is beating the

to music, without diminishing its gebeast forward towards a needle, which some

neral utility. On the contrary, it ofuoseen hand is holding down, and though it ten compresses the meaning of seveis big enough to have been Gargamelle's ral of our words into one; e. g. eewostocking-needle, the camel appears perfectly ons means one who drives out or expels, sensible of the impossibility of effecting his but we cannot say a driver out or expassage.

peller, without obvious barbarism ; and “That xáundos is to be rendered camel, fyXELDIĆw, to put into the hands, we is proved by three Hebrew adages, which ought to be able to render by a verb Drusius has collected : 1. Facilius elephas inhand; and if we have to hasten, per foramen acus; 2. Non est elephas, qui otevồw, we have no ovo trevdw, to make intret per foramen acus; 3. Fortè ex PamLodila tu es, uli traducunt elephantem per

haste together. Then, with regard to foramen acus. The latter applied to a liar; euphony, there are comparatively few

monosyllables in Greek, and in almost # A sketch of whose life and character, all words an equal number of vowels by the late Archdeacon Nares, appeared in to counteract the consonants. Not our vol. xcvii. i. 307.-Epit.

that we believe the language to have

1831.]
Lericon, by Dunbar and Barker.

323 been formed upon the artificial princi. And again, ples so ingeniously exhibited by Schei. παιδες Αθηναιων εβαλoντo φαεινην dius, but because we think that the κρηπιδ' ελευθεριαςoriental accentuation did not hold in is composed of musical syllables, very indifference cacophony, as did the unlike in sound, and in the English of northern nations. Improvements the which there is no music at all. language (like all others) did receive; We cannot, however, indulge in for the Doric and lonic are different; further (to scholars, superficial) diaand certainly our ancestors talked more tribes concerning this divine language. broadly than ourselves. But in all the We have here to speak of the εγχειριmodern languages, and their proto. dia by which it is taught. Now it types, there are, we repeat, the great would be a very curious feature in est defects compared with the Greek. any Lexicon or Dictionary, that it We have no yepupow, to build a bridge, should omit more words that it inno ypoßoo kew, to support the aged; serts. We cannot call it a lusus natuand circumlocution is always bad, un- re or a deceptio visus, but an inn, less it be used for emphasis or illustra- which tempts the traveller to alight, tion. Science has adopted many Greek and yet, as Matthews says, has nothing words with the best success, because in the house but an execution. Put it confers both vigour and precision; any tyro into Æschylus, for instance, and, if it be true that there is a secon. with no other aid but a Schrevelius. dary language, which in se teaches He will not find more than five words things as well as words (and it is true out of ten; and in such as he does of the chemical nomenclature), that find, he will often be misled by the may be said of most Greek compounds. definitions. We do not ascribe this to

With regard to the elevation of the neglect or incompetency, only to the language into music by mere enuncia. circumstance of there being but few tion, we assume the position. Adam Greek authors used in schools at the Smith* says " What are called the in- time of the original compilation, and tervals; that is, the difference in point long afterwards, viz. the Greek Tesof gravity or acuteness between the tament, Æsop, Homer, Xenophon, sounds or tones of a singing voice, are Theocritus, and Sophocles; to which much greater and more distinct than were sometimes added, in the higher those of the speaking voice. Though seminaries and universities, Herodothe former, therefore, can be measured tus, Thucydides, Demosthenes, Euripiand appropriated by the proportion of des, Lucian, Plato, and perhaps Aris. chords or strings, the latter cannot. tophanes and Pindar. These, as well The nicest instruments cannot express as various minor authors, were read the minuteness of these intervals." through the media of annexed Latin However this may be, it is certain translations, and therefore the deside. that accents were known in the time rata of the Dictionaries were not felt. of Alypius and much more ancient Since, however, Greek has been stuwriters, as Aristotle, Plato, &c., and died without these aids, the complaithat if they were used chiefly for pro- sant translation banker has stopped sody, they were employed in music payment, and when we go to the occasionally. Now, it is natural for Lexica, there is no drawing bills at prosody to unite musical sound, where- sight or after date. Of course, as the ever feasible; and, as prose passages language is more studied through it. have been quoted from Livy, which self, a larger extent of business enfall undesignedly into hexameters, so sues, and more easy acquisition of the there are words in Greek, and arrange- needful is necessary, and the Dictionments of words, which are in se music ary banking-shops must be accorcal, but which no translation can ren, dingly enlarged to meet the exigence. der so; e. g.

It is stated in the preface, that, to fa. “ω τυμβος, ο νυμφαιον,

cilitate discount, many thousand addi

tional words are added to this work of are composed of sounds, which echo the pathetic sense; not so,

our authors; and, although we believe

a perfect Greek Lexicon to be almost “Oh tomb! oh bridal bed !

an impossibility, we honestly think

that the authors have done more than * Essays, 184. + Burney, i. 14. they profess to claim. If they have

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