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Natural History, 8c.

Sept. 27, 1817. seemed chiefly indebted for his knowledge of different mal will have the effect of drawing down the milk, and persons. He appeared to know bis relations and inti- of continuing for some time longer its secretion. These mate friends by smelling them very slightly, and be at singular facts were known in this country some centuries once detected strangers. He could distinguish people by ago, as will be seen by the following quotation from Dr this sense at a copsiderable distance. This was particu- Jameson's Dictionary: Jarly striking when a person entered the room, as he In explanation of the word Tulchane, he says, seemed to be aware of this before he could derive infor- “ A calf skin, in its rough state, stuffed with straw, and mation from any other sense than that of smell. The set beside a cow to make her give milk :- hence the moment he knew of the presence of a stranger, be fearplarase tulchane bishops.. “. Here is a fair shew of restolessly went up to him, touched bim all over, and smelled ring benefices of cure, great and small, to the kirk :: bot him with eagerness. He commonly took hold of the arm, in effect it was to restore only titleswhich noblemen pere which he held near his nose, and after two or three strong ceived could not be given conveniently to themselves ; inspirations through the nostrils, he appeared to form a but they gripped to the commodity, in obtaining from the decided opinion regarding him. If this was favourable, titulars, either temporal lands feued to themselves, or he showed a disposition to become more intimate, exami: titles, or pensions to their servants, or dependers, and ned more minutely his dress, and expressed by his coun. therefore the bishops admitted according to this pew or, renance more or less satisfaction ; but if it happened to der were called in jest tulchane bishops. A tulchane is be unfavourable, he suddenly went off to a distance, with a calf's skin stuffed full with straw, to cause the cow expressions of carelessness or disgust.—The other case give milk. The bishop bad the title, but my

lord got the is that of a young lady, who, being seized by the confloent milk, or commoditie. - Calderwood," small-pox, was deprived of her bearing, sight, and speech. Voyage to the Congo.-In lat. 7.30. lon, 18. W, During the privation of her sight and bearing, her touch porpoises, flying-fish, and tropic birds, were seen in great and smell became so exquisite, that she could distinguish numbers, and at the distance of two hundred and fifty the different colours of silk, and knew when any stranger miles from the land, a swallow was observed for several was in the room with her. She discovered the colours in the days on the yards. The towing. net bad been kept out figures of some embroidery to be red, blue, and green. But during the greater part of the passage, and now, for the what was perhaps still more extraordinary, she was able first time, it presented an inmense number of perfect to discriminate between the different modifications of co- crustacea, of four different species. They were of glassy lour, by discovering pink from red. This lady could appearance, and, according to Doctor Smith, of the Scylwork with her needle, and it is remarkable that her nee- larus genus. They continued to take these creatures in dle work was uncommonly neat and exact. She used also great numbers till they made the coast of Africa. They sometimes to write, and her writing was yet more extra- also caught a small squalas of a new species, which the ordinary. It was executed with regularity and exact. naturalists thought might not improperly be termed the ness, the character was very pretty, the lines were all squabus serrata. The crews were occupied for some time even, and the letters placed at equal distances from each in taking sharks, for the most part of the white species ; other. But tbe most extraordinary particular of all, with the largest of which, a male, measured twelve feet in respect to her writing, was, that she could by some means length. This was struck by the people on board the Congo. discover when a letter bad been, from mistake, omitted, Another, taken by those in thie transport, was ten feet and she would place it over that part of the word where long. One, and one only of the blue species, was caught it should bave been inserted, with a caret under it. or indeed seen, on the passage. It proved to be a female; Previous to the knowledge of these cases, some persons was impregnated, and measured seven feet. No pilotwere disposed to doubt certain familiar facts in the in- fish or sucking-fish was taken with her, though many of stinct of animals. It is pretty well known, that a dog is both accompanied the white sharks. It was rensarked, not only able to follow a traveller many miles along a the pilot-fishı attendant on the white shark took special road, aster an interval of some hours, but also to discria care to keep out of the way of the shark's mouth, conminate between the walks which different persons had ta stantly playing over the back part of the head; and the ken, and, in this way, to discover the particular course shark, without change of position, was frequently seen to which bis master may have followed. Hence, it would lift his head above the water to seize his prey. After seem, that some subtile effluvia is thrown off from the bo- the heavy falls of rain, many skip-jacks were observed dy, which is different in different individuals. As a far- near the ship. The first bonitos were remarked in lather proof of the acuteness of this sense in animals, and titude 53. Great flights of tropic and other'oceanic of the nicety of its discrimination, we find that an ewe, birds were here seen in constant pursuit of the flyingas well as a cow, frequently smell their young before they fish. On crossing the meridian of Cape Palmas, at the permit them to suckle. The knowledge of this fact bas distance of 15 leagues from the Cape, a large shoal led the shepherd to deceive the dam when its lamb has of bottle-nosed porpoises, or dolphins, was seen. They been killed, by taking the skin, and throwing it over were attended by numerous tropic and men-of-war birds. anotheș lamb, perhaps of a different colour and size. It The former, it was observed, fish in the manner of the would seem to be by the smell alone that the female of common gull, while the latter ascend very high, dart permany animals discover their offspring. As the ass will pendicularly down on their prey, and, diving into the sea, give milk no longer than she is followed by her colt, it will snatch from their own element the largest flying fish, has been found that its skip thrown over any other ani- il and carry them off in their beaks, soaring high as before.


Sept, 27, 1817.]

35 On the farm of Mr W. Hall, of Landbeach, in Cam- , Life of Sir William Jones, in which it is related, that bridgeshire, a leash of white partridges were killed on Sir William saw the Chumulary mountains from Bangal. Tuesday week; these birds were part of a covey of four. pore, a distance of 244 miles. P. H. Bruce (Memoirs, teen, the remainder of which were of the usual colour. p. 282,) saw Mount Ararat from Derbabent, à distance

Geography of Insects.-M. Latreille has published, at of 210 geographical, or 240 British miles. Paris, a work on the distribution of insects. This is

Lake of Geneva-On the 11th ult. was observed the intimately connected with the distribution of plants, and, | phenomenon peculiar to this lake, known under the name in reality, the same insects are found upon the mountains of seiche. The water rose with such rapidity for about of a warm country that inhabit the plains of colder five minutes, that it reached the highest point which it countries. The difference of 10 or 12 degrees of lati- had attained this year, and in some places even above it. tude, at an equal height, brings with it particular in-The rise was between 26 and 33 inches. The water, in sects; and when the difference amounts to 20 or 24 de falling again, left a great quantity of fish on the shore. grees, almost all the insects are different. There are

Some strangers, who were unacquainted with this phenoanalogous changes corresponding to the latitude, but at menon, were drawn along by the receding water. It seems distances much more considerable. The old and the to be now agreed, that the cause of these sodden increases new, world have genera of insects peculiar to each is a momentary pressure of the atmosphere upon the surEven those which are common to both present appreci-face of the lake, which, as it contracts itself near Geneva, able differences. In the western parts of Europe the do- is there much more sensibly raised than elsewhere. main of southern insects appears very distinctly, as soon as, in going from North to South, we come to a country

Literature. favourable to the cultivation of the olive. This change of temperature is marked by the presence of scorpions.

NEW PUBLICATIONS. Geography of Plants. — Humboldt has published, at Paris, a work on the geograpbical distribution of plants, Hints for the Improvement of Prisons, and for their better Re. according to the temperature, latitude, elevation of the gulations ; by James Elmes, architect. 6s. soil, &c. In this work, he opens up some new and in- Civil Architecture of Vitruvius, comprising those Books of the teresting views with regard to vegetable forms. On

Author which relate to the Public and Private Edifices of the An.

cients; by Wm. Wilkins, jun. M.A. F.A.S. fellow of Gonvil and comparing, in each country, the number of plants of cer.

Caius College, Cambridge, member of the Society of Dilettanti, and tain well-determined families with the whole number of

Author of Antiquities of Magna Græcia. With 27 engravings, by vegetables, he discovers numerical ratios of a striking W. Lowry. Part II. £.3 - 3s. in elephant 4to.-or £.6 i 6s. royal regularity. Certain forms become more common as we

folio. advance towards the pole, wbile others augment towards

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53, Coleman-street : consisting of French, Italian, Spanish, Por. perate zones, and diminish equally by too much beat and tuguese, German, Russian, Dutch, &c.; 'Greek and Latin Classics, too much cold; and, what is remarkable, this distribu- with French and English translations ; ' also dictionaries, gram. tion remains the same round the whole globe, following, mars, and elementary books, in all Languages. Part IV. not the geographic parallels, but those which Humboldt

A Supplement to Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme, and Brown's

General Catalogue of Old Books for 1817. 2s. 6d. calls isothermic, that is, lines of the same mean temper- Catalogue of a Library now selling at Perth, in Scotland, con. ature. These laws are so constant, that if we know in sisting nearly of 20,000 volumes of scarce Books, and many rare a country the number of species of one of the families, we Prints ;' by Mr Morison, bookseller there. may nearly conclude from it the total number of plants, and that of tbe species of each of the other families.,

The Sexagenarian, or Recollections of a Literary Life. 2 vols,

8vo. £.1.,1. Number of known Vegetables.---The number of plants Historical Anecdotes of some of the Howard Family; by Charles, yet known amounts, according to the calculation of Baron tenth Duke of Norfölk. 8vo. 73. Von Humboldt, to 44,000, of which 6,000 are cryptoga.

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Ancient History, abridged for the Use of Schools ; by the Rev. remainder there are found,

John Robinson, L.L.D. stereotyped, with engravings, 6s. 6d. In Europe.................

7,000 The Schoolmaster's Assistant; or, the First Introduction to In the temperate regions of Asia............

1,500 Geography. 4to. 7s. containing twelve half-sheet.copper plates. In equinoxial Asia and the adjacent islands..... 4,500 A New School for Adults ; with three hundred instructors, In Africa............

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learn to read almost without a teacher. Also a book to teach spheres......... ........

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(Sept. 27, 1817. not conversant with the mathematics : accompanied by plates,

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Sept. 27, 1817.]
American Literature.


berg, Prussia can never attempt to defend any territory north of The History and Antiquities of the Parochial Church of St Sa- the Oder, and her line of fortresses on that river is now the only viour, Southwark; illustrated by sixteen engravings; by W. G. rampart of Gerinany; a rampart too of no value, if there are not Moss. With historical and biographical delineations : by the Rev. supporting armies in the field equal, or nearly so, to the attacking 3. Nightingale. Part I. 10s. 6d. or 21s.

force, and especially in the arm of cavalry, which is almost imAn Excursion to Windsor, through Battersea, Putney, Kew, posșible ; since Russia, without any extraordinary exertion, could Richmond, Twickenham, Strawberry Hill, and Hampton Court; bring one hundred and twenty thousand (regular and irregular) ca. by John Evans, jun. A.M. Ss.

valry into action on the Prussian frontier. The Russian frontier The Gentleman's Guide in his Tour through France ; by Henry having reached the Pruth, continues along that river (so disas. Coxe, Esq. 75.

trous in her history) to its confluence with the Danube ; when Walks in Oxford : comprising an original historical and descrip- this great artery of Austria, and main support to the Turkish tive account of the colleges, halls, and public buildings of the Uni-frontier, rolls its stream, now also tributary to the flag of Russia, versity: with an introductory outline of the academical history of into the water of the Black sea. In this position Russia is disOxford; by W. M. Wade. 2 vols. Svo. 16s. ; 12mo 8s.

tant only 100 miles from Transylvania, about 250 from Constan

tinople by wates, and 300 by land, in a direct line; whilst the two Sketch of the Military and Political Power of Russia in the year interjacent provinces of Moldavia and Wallachia are in fact regu1811.This work is understood to have proceeded from the pen lated by her policy, though the Ottoman Porte retains the nominal of Sir Robert Wilson. The population of Russia, according to sovereignty. the St Petersburg Almanack for 1808, amounts to 42 millions ; " Having traced the extensions of this gigantic power in other but since that period Alexander has added 193,800 square miles directions, the author shews that Russia, if attacked at every as. to the empire, including the duchy of Warsaw, Finland, Georgia, sailable point, could not only defend herself, but would still have &c. Of this population not above five millions are Asiatic. Not. a greater disposable force remaining than any other power pos. withstanding a destructive invasion, and wars of great waste and sesses_He says, “ Aster posting 30,000 men, with artillery, &c. expenditure, out of an establishment of 1,200,000 men, exclusive in Finland, 80,000 on the frontier of Gallicia, 60,000 in Moldaof militia, Tartar cavalry, &c. she can range in order of battle via, 30,000 on the frontier of Armenia, as many in Persia, and 640,000 men. But the formidable nature of the power of Rus. leaving a reserve of 100,000 men to sustain these armies, she still sia does not so much arise from the great population, and the ar. possesses a disposable force of above 200,000 infantry, 80,000 mies which she can keep up, as from the peculiar strength of her cavalry, and 1,200 guns, better horsed for service than any artilsituation. “In forming the van of Russia, (says our author,) she lery or cavalry in the world ;-an army than which there is none either enjoys tranquillity, or, if she marches, is certain, from the more brave, and with which no other can march, starve, or sutfer weight of supporting force, and the offensive advantages of her physical privations and natural inconveniencies." salient position, to carry her ravages into a foreign territory." The view of what he calls the profiles, the points, the pinnacles Differeuce of opinion. The following extract from Lady Morgan's of the vantage ground on which Russia now reclines, the bold work on France, accompanied with the succeeding critique, ap. line of her frontiers, and the domineering influence which her sta- pears in the 33d number of the Quarterly Review. tion gives her over the whole world, is executed with great spirit.. “ Bastiles, lettres de cachet, mysterious arrestation, and solitary After describing the geographical situation of Russia in 1810, confinement, started upon my sacred imagination, and I had already the author gives a sketch of her position at the present period. classed myself, with the iron mask and caged Mazarine, the Wil.

In the year 1819, the right of the frontier still rests on the sons, Hutchinsons, and Bruces. p. 136. Northern ocean, but, advancing 160 miles, touches the frontier “ This is the tie by implication. Wilson, Hutchinson, and of Norway, and bends round it for 190 miles, until it reaches a Bruce, had grievously violated the laws of France: they were dine drawn due north from the Torneo, when it descends on that openly arrested, legally coufined, publicly tried, leniently sentenced, river, and continues running paranel until it falls into the gulf of and generously pardoned."-Reviczo, p. 260. Bothnia. • A line is then drawn through the gulf of Bothnia, which sweeping round Aland, regains the continent in the province The Culonics and Colonization. The Colonial Journal, just pube of Livonia, thus giving to Russia the ports of Abo and of Swea- lished, contains several articles of the first interest to persons con. burg, which was the great naval establishment of the Swedes on cerned in the trade with South America -to those who contemplate the coast of Finland, and all the numerous islands which cluster a remoyal to North America-to those who think that one of the between Aland and the main land, and which are inhabited by a most effectual remedies for the distresses of the poor, and for the Tich and happy population. But the island of Aland is distant heavy burden of the poor's rate, is in colonization-and, not least, from the shore of Sweden only 24 miles, from the archipelago of to those connected with the British West Indies. islands in advance of Stockholm not above 30, and not above 70 from Stockholm itself ; while the intervening sea is frequently fro.

AMERICAN LITERATCIE. zen, so that carriages may pass. Thus Russia has completely Character of the inhabitants of the Pelew Islands, from the Voyages changed her relative position with Sweden. On the Niemen, and Travels of Amaso Delano, published at Boston 1817.-There is the frontier remains in statu quo for about 100 miles; when it tra. one trait of character, for which the Pelews were remarkable verses the Memel or Niemen river, and running along East Prus- their fidelity in the engagements of friendship. They carried their sia, strikes the Vistula near, Thorn, from whence Dantzic is dis ideas of the sacredness of this virtue to a very great extent, and tant about 50 miles, and Berlin nearly 170. The line then cros. doubted whether it were proper to make a profession of it, in the ses the Vistula, and advances to Kalish, a point nearly equidistant first degree, to two persons at the same time. In this they were from Dresden and Berlin ; thence taking a southern direction, and probably too scrapulous ; for it belongs not to the nature of true passing within 30 miles of the Oder, it bends in an eastern course friendship to justify an alliance in guilt, or to force an individual along the district of Cracow, which it respects ; but at this point into a confederacy against the interests of society or religion. Perits distance from a third capital, Vienna, is again only 170 miles ; sonal attachments are entirely compatible with general benevolence, the Gallician frontier is then rounded, when the line traverses the and ought always to be regulated by it. He only is a genuine Dneister, allongates the Bukovine frontier, until it reaches the friend who imbibes this spirit, and regards it in his intercourse river Pruth ; thus circumventing all that part of Poland, except with those to whom he is bound by specific promises and pledges. the duchy of Posen, which belonged to Prussia by the partition. On our arrival, the king proposed to us, that we should each choose treaties. In this position, which may be called the very heart of a friend. We answered, that we intended to be the friends of Europe, she rides alongside the Brandenburgh possessions with the them all, and hoped that they would all be our friends in return. lofty and fearful superiority of one of her 120 gun ships over a This, however, did not meet the sentiments of the king. He spoke Prussian galliot, when there is no escape from pressure, and when to us of the pleasure, the peace, and the mutual safety which would the weaker must be crushed or overwhelmed. Notwithstanding arise from the kind of confidence required by their laws of partithe possession of the fortresses of Dantzic, Graudentz, and Col- cular and inviolable friendship. We complied with his wishes,

American Literature,

[Sept. 27, 1817. and the commodore chose Abba Thule, each of our officers chose a many virtues as we have, they certainly had at first fewer vices. chief, and the crew made selections from among the people, accord. And even if the proportion between their virtues and vices, when ing to their judgment or caprice. For myself, it is my prayer al. compared with tie proportion among us, should be found, as I ways to find as faithful a friend as he was whom I chose at Pelew. think it would, in our favour, still one cannot help lamenting, that This man was always watching for opportunities to do me service, the machinery of civilization, the means and motives for extensive anticipating my wants, and giving me information of every danger. improvement, should develope as many selfish and base passions, When I was about to leave the Pelew islands for the last time, and destroy, in as many instances, the simplicity and confidence and for ever, I found it difficult to persuade the friend whom I had which gave such a peculiar charm to the character of the natives chosen to accept of the presents which I had purchased for him in of the Pelew islands when they were first visited by the English. A previous voyage, and whick, I knew, were particularly agreeable But man seems to be destined to taste of the tree of the knowledge to his taste. My fellow-officers found the same disinterestedness of evil as well as of good, in order to learn how to taste of the tree in their intercourse with others.

of life and live for ever. Vice and virtue, misery and happiness, In regard to the religion of these people, I learned that they be. are not relative terms more than they are relative states of the lieve in one God, in the uplimited extent of his government, in the mind and the character. That good appears never to be fully esmost important moral distinctions and religious duties, as taught timated and permanently secured, till the evil has been felt, and, by the light of nature ; in the immortality of the soul, and in future after a painful trial dismissed ; the simplicity, amiableness, and conrewards and punishments. They have very few forms of religion, lidenee of natives are never proof against the temptations to an little ceremony in their worship, and no houses or temples devoted abuse of their intercourse with the inhabitants of civilized countries, to this purpose. That their creed was not merely speculative, in the efforts which are at first made to meliorate their character and that the want of houses of worship did not proceed from a dis- and condition. The innocence and loveliness of children must suffer tegard of God or his laws, may be inferred from the benevolence great changes in the transition from youth to manhood, and must and humanity of their hearts, from the honesty and fidelity of their be frequently assailed and tried, before confidence can, in all situalives, and from the actual fruits of their principles in their mutual tions, be reposed in them. An experiment of our weakness is confidence and trappiness. I have several times heard some pious sometimes necessary to persuade us to adopt the means of obtainhymns, which will serve to give more precise ideas of their devo- | ing and confirming strength. The critical stages, in the formation tion. I have often seen the men and women sitting together after of individual or national character, are frequently attended by er. sunset, particularly in moonlight evenings, and heard the women rors and exceșses, not witnessed before or afterward, but which are chant their prayers and praises, while the men would listen, and the proof of the previous feebleness of virtue, and the parent of its at intervals join in the chorus. The meaning of the words was not succeeding force and dignity. Unhappily for the Pelew islanders, always the same, but always included a prayer for Abba Thule. they have lost much of their early simplicity and goodness, and I remember one instance, in which the impression made upon my have not yet gained the intelligence and virtue of a civilized people. mind by their devotion was deep and interesting. It would not They have mixed their native character and habits with those of be in my power to give an adequate translation of the hymn, but the Europeans, and have not now the excellencies or the enjoy it began with thanksgiving for the serene and beautiful evening;

ments of either. Had their virtues been as vigorous and perma. for the peace which they enjoyed under Abba Thule ; for health nent, after their intercourse with the Europeans, as they were un. and prosperity ; and then it offered a prayer for his continuance affected and genuine at the period of their discovery, and had they in life, for his success in war, and his wisdom in government; for

continued to be happy under an increase of relations and wants, their parents, children, and friends; for good seasons, abundant with the means of gratification, we might now acknowledge it to fruit, and tranquil days; for their enterprises on the water, and the || be our duty to study their history more minutely, in order to arrive collection of fish and food ; for deliverance from civil war and do- at the secret of their moral worth and social blessings. But their mestic contentions; and for the fruitfulness of the women and the failure under the experiment places them upon a level with other prosperity of the islands. The Panther carried two women and a savage nations; and while it warns the agents of civilized comPelew man to Macao; one of them was the daughter of Abba Thule, munities not to repeat for ever the same injudicious plans of im. who had formed the design of visiting China. While we were ly- || provement upon the aborigines of the soil, it teaches us also, that if ing in the harbour of Macao, and on the passage back to the Pelew our vices are more numerous than theirs, our virtues are not only islande, it was a custom with these women, as it likewise was more various, but are much stronger, better guarded, more fruit. with the women whom we afterwards carried to New Guinea, to ful, and more elevated. take their seats in some retired part of the deck, and sing a reli. By the most recent accounts from these islands, adds the author, gious hymn in a peculiarly plaintive and touching manner. We the inhabitants were still friendly to the white people, bat had lost were often listening to them, while we appeared to be engaged only all spirit of confidence among themselves, and were the victims of about our own concerns. We could plainly distinguish many of alternate stupidity and the violence of contest. It makes me melan. the sentiments which they sung, and heard prayers to the Deity, choly, whenever I think of the unhappy alteration in the character that he would protect and bless their fathers, their mothers, their and conduct of this people since they became acquainted with the sisters, and their brothers; that he would keep them in health, Europeans. ' It is a wise provision of nature, that savages should and make them bappy; that he would allow themselves to return be limited to few and simple weapons of warfare, till they have acto their native islands in safety, and make glad the hearts of their quired the habits, and have entered into the pursuits of civilized friends to receive them; that he would be kind to Abba Thule society, by which their passions shall be checked and regulated. and the people ; and that he would send them fruit, and give them This system of things ought not to be violated by us, as it is when peace. It was a frequent petition in their prayers, that they might we give them our instruments of mutual destruction, without giving have an abundance of arra root, the principal bread of the country, them, at the same time, the arts, the institutions, and the employand the chief object of their cultivation. There was also a great ments, which are necessary to render the instruments a safe possesaversion to barrenness among the females, and their prayers often sion, and to convert them into means of lawful defence and supply. ascended with an earnest entreaty that they might have children.

In looking at such a state of society as that which prevails a- Ewell's Account of the Capture of Washington. The following mong the inhabitants of Pelew, although it is unquestionably in- aneedotes of the capture of Washington are selected from Dr ferior to ours, yet we are sometimes tempted to regret that the Ewell's account of that event. The doctor is a gentleman of contentment, which appears to accompany a people of so few wants, character and respectability, and his statement may be relied cannot be preserved more perfectly amidst the relations and inter- upon. It will do us good occasionally to take a peep at the ests of civilized life. The increase of wants, while it often, and fair side of the enemy's character. We have been feasted long perhaps generally multiplies virtues and blessings, and calls out a enough with British perfidy and atrocity, dished up in as many greater variety of talents and sympathies, does also too often lead savoury and enticing shapes as a calf's head. The marauding individuals to the use of dishonest means of gratification, and to Cockburn, and the bloo red coats, have had their full share of vices which render a portion of polished nations more miserable execration. But the war is now over-never, we pray Heaven, than any savagce. If the inhabitants of the Pelew islands had not as to be renewed. Let us then have the manliness to be ashamed of

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