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general description of the contents of the Patent Rolls.
The existing calendars to these rolls, so important to the historical student, are not of a very satisfactory nature. First, there is a folio calendar, printed, of selections from the rolls from John to Edward IV., similar to that of the Charter Rolls. Portions of this period are more fully dealt with as follows: The entries on the rolls from their commencement to 18 John are printed in full and indexed (a copy of the print is placed in the Literary Search Room); there is also a printed calendar to the roll for 1 Henry III. (Twenty-sixth Report of the Deputy Keeper of Records, pp. 66-86), and a full calendar, in MS., to the close of Henry III.'s reign. From 1 to 9 Edward I. there is a full printed calendar (Forty-second to Fiftieth Deputy Keeper's Reports), 1-3 Edward III., a full printed calendar, published as a separate volume. For the reigns of Edward V. and Richard III. there is a printed calendar (Ninth Report, Appendix ii., pp. 1-14). From Henry VII. to 45 Victoria there is a MS. calendar. A list of all creations entered on the Patent Rolls, of peers and baronets from 1 Richard III. to the reign of Charles I. has been printed in the Deputy Keeper's Forty-seventh Report, App. pp. 78–138.
The Close Rolls derive their name from the nature of the entries upon them-mandates, letters and writs of a private nature, addressed, in the king's name, to individuals, and folded or closed and sealed on the outside with the Great Seal. The entries on the Patent Rolls, which we last described, were, on the other hand, always left open, with the seal hanging from the bottom. The early Close Rolls are of the highest historic importance, for the entries in them are of the most varied description, illustrating the exercise of the royal prerogative in every form, the administration of the revenue and the several branches of the Judicature. On the same membrane of one of these rolls we have sometimes an order for the execution of a treaty or the observance of a truce, the assignment of dower, the pardon of a state prisoner, the order to provision or fortify a castle, a letter to the ruler of a foreign country; indeed, on the Close Rolls may be looked for a record of almost any event in history, general or individual. As time goes on the Close Rolls degenerate, and those from, say, the period of the Reformation onwards, contain little more than the enrolment of private deeds; these, however, are obviously of importance to the compiler of family history and the topographer.
The Close Rolls from their commencement in the sixth year of King John to the eleventh year of Henry III. are printed in full with indices nominum and locorum, and the volume stands in the Literary Search Room beside the print of the early Charter and Patent Rolls, already referred to.
There is a full calendar, in the twelfth year of Henry III., printed in the Twenty-seventh Report of the Deputy Keeper, Appendix, pp. 48-93, and there is a similar calendar in MS., from 13 Henry III. to 3 Edward I., each volume (there are eleven) being arranged alphabetically, with cross references. After this date, to the close of the reign of Edward IV., there is a MS. calendar to some, but by no means all, the entries; each volume of this calendar has indices. From the last-named date there is a calendar, also in MS., but which professes to contain reference to everything on the rolls, down to the year 1848.
So much for the three principal classes of Chancery enrolments. Besides these there are many others, from which may be noted theFine Rolls, John to 23 Charles I.-Containing entries of the bestowal of money or anything else upon the sovereign by way of fine for obtaining the royal favour.
Carte Antiquæ, Ethelbert to Edward I.A collection of transcripts, made about the twelfth or thirteenth century, of grants and charters of every kind. There is a printed calendar to this class.
Coronation Rolls.-Entries of the services performed at the coronation, and by whom, at the following coronations: Edward II., Henry IV., Henry V., James I., Charles II., James II., William and Mary, Anne, George I., George II., George IV., William IV., Victoria.
French Rolls, 1 Edward II. to 26 Charles II.— On these are entries, mostly diplomatic, relating to foreign countries generally, and they are often, espe cially by earlier writers, referred to as Treaty Rolls.
Gascon or Vascon Rolls, 26 Henry III. to 7 Edward IV.-These contain entries of the same nature as those on the French Rolls, but they chiefly relate to Gascony.
Irish Rolls, 1-50 Edward III.-Contain entries relating to Ireland generally, and are of much historic importance.
Norman Rolls, 2 John to 10 Henry V.-On these are entries relating to the Duchy of Normandy whilst governed by England, but they also contain entries of certain grants by the English king, made whilst in Normandy, of lands and offices in England. The series is not regular, and entries relating to Normandy also occur on the early Patent, Charter, and Člose Rolls.
Roman Rolls, 34 Edward I. to 31 Edward III. Are filled mostly by entries of letters to popes and cardinals relating to the ecclesiastical affairs of England.
Scotch Rolls, 19 Edward I. to 7 Henry VIII. -On these we have a most valuable and interesting series of entries relating to the dealings of this country with Scotland, and also of those relating to affairs within Scotland itself; to give two instances, we may mention the mass of material there
to be found concerning the disputed succession to the Scottish crown on the death of Margaret of Norway, and of the contest betwixt Bruce and Balliol.
of Cyprus; and Pope Julius II. sent a consecrated Golden Rose, dipped in chrism and perfumed with musk, to Archbishop Warham, April 5, 1510, to be presented to Henry VIII. at high mass with the Apostolical blessing. Nor was this the only occasion on which this worthy defender of the
To all the last-named classes calendars or indices exist, more or less perfect. A very complete list of all these, compiled by Mr. Scargill-faith received the Golden Rose, for Leo X. also sent Bird, is placed in each of the search rooms.
(To be continued.)
W. J. HARDY.
THE POPE'S GOLDEN ROSE.
(See 6th S. iii. 464; 7th S. ii. 125; iv. 289, 491; vi. 114, 384; xi. 166, 431; xii. 13, 152.)
Amongst nature-worshipping peoples the rose was the symbol of life and death. It was sacred to Aphrodite, but it was also dedicated to Dionysius. Naturally white, it was fabled to have taken its beautiful colour, the colour for which there is no other name, from the blood of the dying Adonis. Both Greeks and Romans made use of roses in their religious ritual. Brides were crowned with them, and their petals were scattered on the dead. The rose in its full freshness and sweetness was the type of youth and beauty, and figured, in the short duration of its loveliness, the fleeting nature of these charms. Thus, "in the hand of a conqueror it expressed not only his glory and joy, but also his mortality and humility."
With the introduction of Christianity the rose festival, or rosalia, of the Romans was transferred to Whit Sunday, the so-called Dominica de rosa, when roses were scattered on the people from the roofs of the churches, and on the occasion of certain solemn processions at the present day the priests strew roses before the Host. The " queen of flowers became sacred to the Virgin, upon whose altars the rich incense of its peerless perfume is ever present.
him one, but at that time the doctrine of infalli bility had not been insisted on.
Previous to the Reformation Frederic, the Elector of Saxony, received the Golden Rose. The value of the rose appears to have increased from time to time. We find Alexander VII. ordering one rose at 6,000 fr. and another at 4,000 fr. Pope Innocent XI. had a Golden Rose made which weighed over eight pounds, and was ornamented with several sapphires, and represented a value of more than 10,000 fr. Towards the close of the last century the Golden Rose appears to have been given almost indiscriminately to any travelling prince who would pay a sum equivalent to about 2001, in fees for it. The authors of the 'Wanderings of Plants and Animals' regard the origin of the Golden Rose to be connected with the ancient symbolism of the flower already referred to; but we elsewhere find it stated that the rose is said to be a symbol of the Creator, the splendour and richness of the metal representing the eternal light which surrounds the Divine presence, and the perfumes and spices which are placed in the vase by the Pope symbolize the glory and resurrection of Christ.
At Rome, it was the practice of the Church to bless the rose on a special day set apart, which was called Rose Sunday. The benediction of the rose is pronounced with particular solemnity on the fourth Sunday in Lent, the Holy Father, clothed in white robes, reads the formula from a book which is held by a bishop. Two other bishops, holding lighted candles, stand by his side. The high dignitaries of the Papal Court surround the Pontiff, holding the incense, the holy water, the spices and other perfumes, while another digni
dips it in balsam, sprinkles it with holy water and incense, reads the prayer, blesses the incense, the spices, the perfumes, which are in turn presented to him by a cardinal. After putting these into the vase which holds the rose, the Golden Rose is blessed, and the ceremony ends. In modern times the Golden Rose has taken the form of a branch with several flowers, a natural rose which has been blessed by the Pope forming the centre. Quite lately the Golden Rose has been worth over 10,000 fr.
It had been a practice of the Popes to send silver doves, consecrated and blessed, to royal personages; but at what period the custom of bestow-tary, kneeling, presents the rose to the Pope, who ing the Golden Rose began there is no known record. At first these roses were simple flowers of red enamel, representing the natural colour of the rose. Later the colour was left white and a large ruby was put in the centre, the reflection of which gave a rosy tint to the petals. It is not until the twelfth century that we find Alexander III., who became Pope in 1159, sending a blessed Golden Rose to Louis the Young, as an acknowledgment of the honour with which he had been received in the course of a journey in France. "Subsequently the giving of the Golden Rose became an authoritative act, by which the Pope recognized the rights of Christian sovereigns." Thus in 1368 Urban V. gave the Golden Rose to Joan of Sicily, thereby preferring her over the King
Such was the rose which Queen Isabella II. of Spain received in 1856. It was planted in a magnificent vase of silver gilt, a splendid example of Roman workmanship. The Golden Rose is supposed to convey a blessing to its royal recipients, and even to churches and towns.
Pio Nono conferred it upon the unfortunate Charlotte, Empress of Mexico, and, if I remember aright, upon the equally unfortunate Eugénie, late Empress of the French.
When Queen Isabella II. was honoured with the Pope's Golden Rose, it brought forth in various newspapers many interesting paragraphs concerning the custom. C. A. WHITE.
ELIZABETH AND MARY, QUEEN OF SCOTS. (Continued from p. 282.)
A Memoriall deliuered to Thomas Randolphe beinge
sent to the Queene of Scottes in message from the Queenes Majestie the 4 of October 1564.
You shall after our most hartie comendations made to
our good sister with the deliuerie of our l'res saie, that your comminge was appointed, and yourselfe readie to come before the cominge of servaunte James Melvin last hither, to haue declared to hir the causes that moved us to forbear so longe the returninge of answer to your last meassage brought to us from thence and have shewed unto hir our determination for the continuenaunce of our amitie and further proceadinge to the good course allreadie begone betwixt us two: And althoughe we did imparte to the saide Melvin some of the causes that moved us to forbear our answare and have receved full satisfaction by his meassage to all doubt conceaved yet as well for the assured satisfaction of our good sister in all eventes, as for answer to be gyuen to your message wee thought it verie pertenent to both our amities to send you at this time thither: And before you shall enter to declare the causes of our former staie you shall fyrste praye our good Sister to rest hir selfe still upon hir olde opinion of us for our constante and unchaungeable amitie towardes hir, whatsoever accident hath happened to come to our knowledge that might in aparaunce any wise deminishe or alter the same in us: And upon that request graunted to us, you shall saie you are comanded to signifie to hir the particulerrities of the matters which staid us from asweare: and so you shall begine.
Fyrst upon our returne ye shall saie we did so well like the offer of our said Sister to have the mater somewhat treated upon by trustie persons of both parties with secreacie that we did both determine whoe the persons should be for our parte and upon what pointes they should treate and to what end: In the most of which our considerations, the same beinge suche as wee weare not a little delighted to be therin occupied, wee had intelligence given us out of Fraunce by parties of no smale creditte that it was then understanded and frequently reported in that Courte that newes weare lately come from Scotlande what motion and particuler offers we had made to hir for hir marriage: and how neuer the lesse shee was determined so to use the matter as shee would intertaine us in a communication therof but shee would directe hirselfe by advise of hir other frindes to take an other waie than that we propounded: and so we weare advised to be warre how wee should enter any further in this matter, lest wee shoulde lose both our good will and our labour: This manner of advertisement, you maye well saie, seemed unto us verie straunge, beinge also so well confirmed by sondrie arguementes to have creditte that ther with we weare muche perplexed: And to encrease our perplexitie within a fewe daies after wee harde the same newlie confirmed by reporte heare in our Realme and funde this muche thereof to be trewe that some of the Frenche ministers did not only reporte by speach here in England,
But advertised by rightinge into Fraunce the verie particuleryties of our offer of marriage made to hir: Whereof we could not but conceave some mislikinge at the lest that a matter meant by us for diverse respectes to be secreatly dealt in should thus be made open and so common in that sorte: And yet notwithstandinge, findinge no chaunge of good wyll in our selues we continewed our purpose so to haue advertised hir what persons we intended to send to confere with some of hire, But behold upon a just occasion given us to write a lettere somwhat before that tyme to our said Sister for a matter concerninge the Erle of Lenox comminge thither, wee receaved in that unseasonable tyme an answeare from our said Syster by writinge muche different from our deserte and expectation: And therwithall we did see some letters, written from the L. of Lethington to some of ours in the same matter, of a stranger manner, than ever had been to our knowledge before, usinge some sharpper wordes in dissalowinge of our request then was resonable in suche an argumente: Wherin our dealinge was suche, the repose of our said Sister & her countrie: yet wee did as althoughe wee had not thankes for our care had te not like to have our frindly considerations reproved or reprehended: And how iustly wee did conceaue so muche of bothe the letteres you shall saie that we weare not to have hir understand it now by you: but we could not but shewe it to hir servante James Melvin whoe hath seene the letters selfe.
This manner of writinge to us, moved us to thinke that some newe humor might be entred not into hir breaste but rather conveighed into some of their heades that weare in creditte and in counsell with hir: And therfore beinge by these accedentes muche perplexed and caried into diuerse dispositions, som tyme to neglecte all these scruples and to send answeare accordinge to our first intention wold proue but vaine and be abused in thend, we thus determined: that understandinge how the Lord Robarte and our Secretarie whoe weare also muche per plexed herewith, had written both to the E: of Murray and L: of Liddington by waie of complainte of this oblique dealinge with us in the matter of the Erle of Lenox we should see by the answeare to their letters some proffe where of this forainge answeare, made unto us, proceade, that meant so sincerely hopinge therwith that they shoulde haue answeare with speede, and so ther upon it would appeare whether there weare in deade suche chaunge of that parte in any intention as by the former accidentes we did gather: And so ether we should proceade as we first intended and earnestly desired, or els case and leaue of without more inconvenience But with what grife our mind after this was burdened, hearinge of no answeare made to the said letters, we are lothe to haue any repetition made, mislikinge alltogether with our selues the remembrance thereof: And after some tyme pleasantly passed, wher in answear might baue been once or twice sente, behold inhappely it cometh to our knowledge that our subjectes upon our borders, specially the Est and middle marches, had knowledge given them by meanes to them crediable, that their wardens bad commandemente secreatly from the Courte there, that they should not use suche diligence & readines in administration of justice to our said subjectes, as they had of lat used: but they shoulde houlde their handes some what straighter: And for the profe of suche an intention in the wardens in deede, they, at their next meetinges with ours refused directly without couller to answeare justice in manifest causes.
You shall now praie our Sister, but imagine with your self how farre we weare tempted herby to call our former since are intentions in question: So as notwithstandinge all thise foremer scruples and unseasonable accidents from the whiche notwithstandinge all provo
GLENDOVEER.—Mr. J. Chamberlain, speaking at Hatfield, said :—
"The Prime Minister reminds me of Glendoveer in
the poem of Thomas Moore:
I am the blessed Glendoveer,
'Tis mine to speak, and yours to hear." Readers may search in vain for these lines in Moore's poems; and for this reason-they are not there. They are from the 'Rejected Addresses, Imitation of Southey, by James Smith, and are the first two lines in 'The Rebuilding' verses. The original reads,—
I am a blessed Glendoveer, &c.,
and a note in the twenty-second edition, says, "For
"LIKE A BOLT FROM THE BLUE."-As this
cations how far of we weare to do any thinge here to breade offence, It may manifestly appeare by this one thinge that in this verie tyme beinge so combersome contrarie to the expectation and desier of our people yea contrarye to the disposition of no smale nomber of our Councell and that also to some parte of detrimente to our selfe for our owne privat lucre by the intention of our people to have gratifiede us with some subsidie, we did even then by proclamation prolonge our Parlymente that now should haue been gone in October meaninge of purpose to haue an assemblie wherein the intreste of our Sister might be brought in question untill it weare better considered that no harme might therof ensue to hir and that wee two had further proceaded in the Establishemente of our amitie: thoughe in consideration of wisdome wee had cause to make some staye yet our inward frindshippe and our naturall affection towardes our Sister had taken so deepe roote as neither suspition nether doubt could shake it And to saie the uerye truthe our judgmente was overcome with our loue and from that wherunto reason and advise would have leade us love and nature carried us and provoked us not to forbeare any longer tyme nor to conceave any phrase seems to be rather in favour just now, it is, doubte of hir parte, but to sende you thither with our letters and with all this message that now you bringe. perhaps, not uninteresting to examine how far the And as we had resolued with ourselfe and you com-idea prevails in other languages. I have found it permanded to put yourself in readines you maye shewe her fectly reproduced in German, where it appears as as the truthe was howe hir servant James Melvine came "Wie ein Blitzstrahl aus blauem Aether" (London by whome bothe by the good letters he brought from our good Sister and from others ther we weare made sodenly Hermann for April 8, p. 6, feuilleton). In Italian, so glade as havinge beene burdened a longe tyme in our an Italian lady tells me, they use "Come un fulminde with care and troubled with the inwarde con- mine a ciel sereno," and it will be found in tention between love and reason and therby tossed 'Petrocchi.' In French I have never met with a hither and thither wee haue founde by this our messengers similar expression, though very likely it exists. cominge a whole delivery of all thise offences and have receaved more good for quietnes sake at this one instante We do, indeed, find "comme la foudre," " then euer wee did before by any messenger sent to us. un foudre (Littré), but these expressions have So as ye shall conclude that wee thought it convenient reference merely to the violence and rapidity of a not to chaunge the sendinge of you to declare this com- thunderbolt, and, in consequence of the absence of moditie howe had passed from the beginninge: assur- anything equivalent to "from the blue," by no inge hir that the passions therin haue been altogether like a tragedie but because thende hath brought quiet- means render the picturesque suddenness and unnes for the matters that have trubbled us howsoever expectedness which these words give to our phrase. F. CHANCE. they haue happened wee are mynded to neglecte them all without further thinkinge of the natures the causes or other circumstances therof and you shall assure hir that ther is no chaunge in us towards hir neyther do wee thinke that any hath been in her towardes us.
And therfore ye shall saie that wee are determined fully to recontinew our former motion and to thend some conference may be had therupon secreatly and without delaye with some of hirs as shee hath desired wee have thought meete for the avoidinge of inconvenience of makinge the matter to open to appointe you to atende with our cosen the Erle of Bedforthe to commune hereupon with any such persones as shee shall name: or otherwise yf shee shall so thinke better to send any of hirs hither to us wee will appointe like persons to commune with them: Wherein wee meane to proceade frankly and plainly without obscurities as to our amities dothe belonge.
And if shee will haue the matter treated upon our frontiers as was first mentioned: you shall saye that you haue Comandemente Instructions and Authoritie for the Erle of Bedforthe and yourselfe to conferre thereone for which purpose you shall as you see cause returne to Berwicke and upon conference with the saide Erle you shall agree upon some tyme and convenient place for that purpose and thereof advertise us with speede to thend as cause shalbe wee maye give you further directions. E. E. THOYTS.
(To be continued.)
[See 7th S. iii. 388, 522; iv. 212, 333.]
THE GARDEN OF THE HESPERIDES.-Occupying the post of honour at the Royal Academy Exhibition of 1892 was a picture by the President, the story of which seemed unfamiliar to many who recognized its beauty. "What's 204?" would be the question. "The Garden," would be the answer, after reference to the Catalogue," of the Hesperides.' "O yes, of course." And they passed on in a conBut now and again would spiracy of silence. arrive a party in possession of a guide-book larger than the Catalogue, and containing illustrations and the answer would be as follows:
"The sacred tree round whose trunk the three nymphs are grouped bears golden fruit. The nymph whom the dragon has selected for his victim is fascinated, and powerless to rouse her sleeping sisters."
When I heard this I was amazed. There was the picture plainly telling the tale that I had heard from childhood of the familiar dragon who helped the maids to guard the golden fruit. Two might well afford to idle or go to sleep, while the third could rely on the powerful friend with whom she
was gracefully toying. Writing from the Garden of the Hesperides, I would ask, Is there a legend, contrary to the received one, in which the dragon appears as the girls' enemy instead of as their friend?
I remember that Hercules was sent to kill the dragon and bring away the fruit; but I also remember that when he had performed this stupidest of all his labours, he was told to take them back again; and here I am thankful to say they still are for our delight. And here, too, till five-andtwenty years ago, there lived, though metamorphosed into the semblance of a tree, the dragon of the days of myth, with scales and blood and bristling head, an object of pilgrimage to visitors from afar, as it had been an object of religious significance to the Guanch inhabitants. KILLIGREW.
COGERS' HALL. (See 7th S. i. 9, 52.)-The following cutting from the Daily Chronicle of April 19 is perhaps worthy of transplantation to 'N. & Q.':
"The Barley Mow,' in Salisbury Court, Fleet Street, historically famous as Ye Old Cogers' Hall,' was brought to the hammer yesterday. The first offer was 6,000l., the last was 7,6401, and as this amount works out at about 51. 8s. a foot, it is not surprising that no sale was declared. Indeed, one would expect a better price to be realized if the land were merely to be utilized for the building of a printing establishment. It was evident that most of the persons who thronged the Mason's Hall Tavern yesterday were brought there through curiosity. The well-known Old Cogers'' Debating Society, which still meets in this ancient hostelry, was founded in 1755, and is associated with such prominent men as John Wilkes, Judge Keogh, Daniel O'Connell, and John Philpot Curran. The late James Hannay, novelist, journalist, and quarterly reviewer, was also a frequent speaker at Cogers' Hall.'
W. F. PRIDEaux.
STEPHEN GOSSON.-There is an account of him in the 'Dictionary of National Biography,' in which he is said to have been born in Kent. He was baptized at St. George's, Canterbury, April 17, 1554, and was the son of Cornelius Gooson. Christopher Marlowe was baptized in the same church on Feb. 26, 1563/4. It may be worth while to add that a variant of Gosson or Gooson is Goschen. J. M. Cowper. Canterbury.
CHARLES ROSSI, R.A. (1762-1839), SCULPTOR. -The inscription on a tombstone in the burial ground of St. James's Chapel, Hampstead Road, London, furnishes the information that he died Feb. 21, 1839, in his seventy-seventh year. It were impossible, owing to their illegibility, to notice the further inscriptions on the same stone.
"STEP-GIRL."-This word has no reference to relationship. She is employed by careful house
wives to clean the door-steps, and is unpopular with servants, neighbours, and employers. PAUL BIERLEY.
SHAKSPEARIAN RELICS. -The following, from the Daily News of March 16, is going the round of the papers :
has just taken to his residence, from Stratford-on-Avon, "Mr. Thomas Hornby, of Kingsthorpe, Northampton, the whole of the Shakesperian relics formerly in the possession of his grandmother, Mary Hornby, who was the occupant of Shakespeare's birthplace from 1793 to 1820. Mary Hornby, who is picturesquely described by Washington Irving in his 'Sketch Book, removed from Shakespeare's house, in consequence of the rent being raised fourfold, taking with her everything movable, She exhibited these things in her new house opposite the birthplace; but in recent years they have been kept in comparative obscurity, and were only taken to Northampton this month, on the death of their last owner, who devised them to Mr. Hornby. They include five carved oak chairs, portions of carved bedstead, carved oak Shakespeare, and said to have been his property; his chests, and other furniture, all contemporary with iron deed box, sword, and lantern; portions of the famous mulberry tree; the visitors' book to the birthplace from 1812 to 1819; and several oil paintings. speare's daughter Judith, and oval portraits of his grandThese last include a fine contemporary portrait of Shakedaughter Elizabeth Hall and her husband, Mr., afterwards Sir John Barnard. It is suggested that Northampton should purchase the relics to place in Abington Abbey, recently presented to the town by Lord and Lady Wantage, Abington Abbey being the residence and death-place of Lady Barnard (Elizabeth Hall), the last of Shakespeare's lineal descendants."
W. D. PINK.