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STATUS OF CHILDREN IN THE HOUSEHOLDS STUDIED.

The status of children in the households studied may be seen in the following table, which shows by general nativity and race of individual the per cent of children 6 and under 16 years of

age

who were at home, at school, and at work:

TABLE 83.-Per cent of children 6 and under 16 years of age at home, at school, and at

work, by sex and general nativity and race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

(This table includes only races with 40 or more children reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.)

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Native-born of foreign father, by race of father:

Bohemian and Moravian.
Hebrew.
Italian, South.

Lithuanian
Foreign-born:

Hebrew
Italian, South.

Grand total..
Total native-born of foreign father.
Total native-born..
Total foreign-born..

252
69

8.3 5.8

84.5
85. 5

8.7

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750 776 371

7.9 7.7 7.8

88.1 88. 3 84.6

4.0 4.0 7.5

Of the total number of children of the prescribed age 87.1 per cent are at school, 7.8 per cent are at home, and 5.1 per cent at work. The native-born of foreign father have a greater proportion at school than the foreign-born. The latter have the largest proportion, 7.5 per cent, at work.

Attendance at school is more general among male children than among female. The latter show a greater proportion at home and a slightly greater proportion at work than the males. It should be noted, however, that the proportions of foreign-born male and female Hebrews at school are almost equal.

The native-born of foreign father generally show a greater proportion of males at school, but the Lithuanians of that class have 73.9 per cent males at school and 95.2 per cent females.

The table next presented makes possible a comparison of the status of the children of native and of foreign birth in the households studied, showing, according to general nativity and race of father and birthplace of child, the number and per cent of children 6 and under 16 years of age who were at home, at school, and at work.

TABLE 84.- Number and per cent of children 6 and under 16 years of age at home, at

school, and at work, by general nativity and race of father and by birihplace of child.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[This table includes only races with 20 or more children born in the United States and also 20 or more born

abroad. The native-born of native father are shown for comparative purposes.)

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The above table shows a report from 1,147 children between 6 and 16 years of age, of whom 7.8 per cent remain at home, 87.1 per cent attend school, and 5.1 per cent are at work. Generally, there are more children of foreign birth at home, fewer at school, and more at work than is the case among those of native birth.

The native-born South Italian, with 11.5 per cent, show a greater proportion of children at home than any other race; the foreign-born South Italian showing only 5.8 per cent.

The native-born llebrews show over 90 per cent attending school. Only 84.5 per cent of the llebrew children born abroad are found in school. The South Italians and Bohemians and Moravians show over 85 per cent of both l'nited States born and foreign-born children at school.

CITIZENSHIP.

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As regards the interest in, and the attainment of, citizenship by the operatives of foreign birth, the following table shows, by race, the present political condition of foreign-born male employees who have been in the United States five years or over and who were 21 years

of age or over at time of coming to this country: TABLE 85.- Present political condition of foreign-born male employees who have been in

the United States 5 years or over and who were 21 years of age or over at time of coming, by race.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.)

(By years in the United States is meant years since first arrival in the United States.)

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Of 2,167 males reporting in this table, 28.9 per cent are fully naturalized and 21.8 per cent have first papers only. The Germans, with 81.5 per cent show the highest proportion fully naturalized. They are followed by the Bohemians and Moravians, with 51.2 per cent. No other race has as many as 50 per cent naturalized. The proportion shown by the Magyars is 41.9 per cent and by the Lithuanians 38.9 per centThe Hebrews other than Russian report 33.6 per cent fully naturalized, and the Poles and Russians 31.4 per cent and 21.2 per cent, respectively. The North Italians show only 16.7 per cent naturalized, while the South Italians, with 9.1 per cent, have the smallest proportion recorded for any race for which computations have been made. The Russian Hebrews with 30 per cent holding first papers, and the Germans with 9.6 per cent so reported, show the largest and smallest proportions, respectively, in this classification.

The tendency to acquire citizenship after designated periods of residence in this country is set forth in the following table, which shows, by years in the United States and race, the present political condition of foreign-born male employees who were 21 years of age or over at the time of coming to the United States:

Table 86.- Present political condition of foreign-born male em ployees who were 21 years

of age or over at time of coming to the United States, by years in United States and race.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.)

[By years in the United States is meant years since first arrival in the United States. This table includes

only races with 100 or more males reporting. The total, however, is for all foreign-born.)

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The preceding table shows that of 2,167 male employees reporting who were 21 years of age or over at the time of coming to the United States 28.9 per cent are naturalized and 21.8 per cent have first papers only. Germans show a much higher proportion than any of the other races who are citizens of the United States, the per cent of this race who are aliens being very small. Only one other race, the Bohemians and Moravians, show over 50 per cent fully naturalized, while the proportion of South Italians who are fully naturalized and who have first papers only is very small, showing a large proportion of aliens of this race. Germans and Lithuanians with a residence of from five to nine years in the United States show a high per cent fully naturalized when compared with the other races given. Bohemians and Moravians show the lowest per cent fully naturalized, but on the other hand these races show the highest per cent having first papers only. Among males who have a residence of ten years

a or over in this country Germans show the highest per cent fully naturalized, and Russian Hebrews the highest per cent having first papers only. South Italians show a greater proportion of aliens in this group than any other race.

The table next presented shows by race of individual the present political condition of foreign-born males in the households studied who had been in the United States five years or over and who were 21 years of age or over at the time of coming to this country.

TABLE 87.- Present political condition of foreign-born males who have been in the United

States 5 years or over and who were 21 years of age or over at time of coming, by race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[By years in the United States is meant years since first arrival in the United States.)

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From the above table it will be seen that of the 421 foreign-born males for whom information was obtained, only 24.7 per cent are fully naturalized and an additional 17.8 per cent have secured first papers.

As regards those fully naturalized, the Bohemians and Moravians report by far the largest proportion, or 69.2 per cent.

Among those having first papers only the Hebrews show the largest proportion.

The degree of citizenship in the different localities studied may be seen from the table next presented which shows by locality, race, and length of residence in United States present political condition of foreign-born male employees who were 21 years of age or over at time of coming to this country:

TABLE 88.-Present political condition of foreign-born male employees who have been in

the United States each specified number of years and who were 21 years of age or over at time of coming, by locality and by race.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.)

[By years in the United States is meant years since first arrival in the United States. This table Includes

only races with 100 or more males reporting in each of two or more localities. The total, however, is for all foreign-born.)

IN UNITED STATES 5 TO 9 YEARS.

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Total..

7.7

5.1

7.5

41.7

18.9

27.0

22.4

28.8

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