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are numerous, and many of them are octagonal in known, in fonts of the pure Norman style. That some of their parts (which is the question raised), at Perranzabuloe, in Cornwall

, is a remarkable especially the later ones. It seems that the earliest example ; while Stibbington, in Huntingdonshire, are circular altogether, then square and circular, and Stonesby, in Leicestershire, possess octagonal then square, circular, and octagonal, the structural fonts of a somewhat later (Norman transition) forms variously combined.

period. Other examples doubtless exist, but they The font in the church of St. Thomas, Launces- are far from common. ton, Cornwall , is Norman. It is square, standing

It may be of interest to note that the octagonal on an octagonal shaft. The font in the church of form was thought, so far back as the time of St. St. Nicholas, Eydon, Northamptonshire, is Nor- Ambrose, to symbolize regeneration,—" for even man. It consists of a circular bowl on a large as the old creation was complete in seven days, 80 octagonal base. The Norman font in St. Mary's the number next following may well signify the Church, Hunstanton, Norfolk, is square, with a new." central cylindrical pillar and four corner octugonal If COL. FISHWICK has access to the Few Words shafts. The same description will apply to the to Church-builders,' published by the Cambridge font in St. John's Church, Southover, Sussex. The Camden Society (second edition), he will find in large Norman font in St. Leonard's Church, Stan- the appendix a classified list of octagonal fonts, as ton Fitz Warren, Wiltshire, consists of a circular compared with those of other shapes, during the basin on an octagonal base.

different periods of English church architecture. In the church of St. Peter, Palgrave, Suffolk, is

OSWALD, O.S.B. a square font, standing on an octagonal pillar, Fort Augustus, N.B. with four smaller cylindrical pillars, one at each corner. This is Norman. In the parish church of stated that somewhere about seventy years ago a

QUADRUPLE BIRTHS (8th S. iii. 308).-It is Stibbington, Huntingdonshire, is an octagonal font, with eight cylindrical pillars; and in the Brigg, gave birth to five infants at one time. My

woman at Ashby, in the parish of Bottesford, near church at Stonesby, Leicestershire, is an octagonal father told me this, and fully believed it to be true. font with a broad eight-sided base. These last I have conversed with several old people in the two examples appear to be very late Norman, or village who were contemporary with the catastrophe, Transition. Fonts have been badly treated. They have often about it.

and not one of them expressed the slightest doubt

EDWARD PEACOCK. been moved from their original site, and so their

Dunstan House, Kirton-in-Lindsey. architectural and historical associations have been destroyed. Some years ago I discovered a large ANECDOTE OF QUEEN VICTORIA (8th S. iii. 309). font, apparently Norman, in a farmyard in this --The story is told on the Baroness Lebzen's own neighbourhood, where it had long been used as a authority; but the "cousins” are "aunts” in the drinking-trough for cattle. It is very large and original. See Sir T. Martin's 'Life of the Prince simple in form, and is composed of Purbeck Consort,' vol. i. p. 14. marble. There is no bistory to it; but it pro

EDWARD H. MARSHALL, M.A. bably belonged to a church half a mile distant, Hastings. which has much late Norman work, with which the font is most likely coeval. The font is now in the correct order is as follows: "The Warden,'

TROLLOPE's Novels (8th S. iii. 329).- I believe anotber church not far off. In my own parish church (Old Basing) we have a font that belonged Parsopage," "The Small House at Allington,

Barchester Towers,' 'Dr. Thorne,' 'Framley to Basingstoke, and was transported hither from Last Chronicle of Barset.' WM. H. PEET. the larger and more important church by a former incumbent of both livings, because it was "old. GEORGE ELIOT (8th S. iii. 307).—Miss Hickey's fashioned," and less beautiful than the novel query reminds me of something which it may successor ! S. JAMES A. SALTER,

be well to make a note of in your pages. When Basingstoke.

‘Adam Bede' was published it caused a great sensaThe font of old Hollington Church, Sussex (pro- tion. I was at the time staying at a country house, bably fourteenth century), is octagonal, though and one morning the wife of the squire said to me, learned

antiquaries for many years were unable to "My husband is certain the book is written by a count the sides, and called it a hexagon.

woman." I had no opportunity of cross-questioning EDWARD H. MARSHALL, M.A.

at the time; but after dinner I asked him how it

was that he had come to this conclusion, so conThe octagonal form of font was very generally trary to what was then the popular opinion. He introduced in England towards the close of what said that it was quite impossible for authors is known as the Early English period, after which to disguise their sex in writings of any length, the form in question became all but universal. and used some subtle arguments in proof of The octagon is extremely rare, although not un- his statement. I was interested, but by no

p. 142.

means convinced at the time. Shortly after it was which I quoted, intended to provide only salt demonstrated that he was right in this case. I fish. You might hope for a very good dinner at confess, however, that, even now, I am in doubt his hospitable table, as, indeed, you might from a whether sex must necessarily show itself. I must friend who should say, “Come and take pot-luck admit that the person of whom I speak was a with me.". Dr. Campbell offered "Poor Jack” great authority. There was probably no one then - Lenten fare-as the Spaniard does, but perhaps living who had a wider knowledge of English a haunch of venison smoked on the board. literature, English history, and the life of our The Dictionary of the Academy recognizes both people, from the highest steps on the social ladder spellings, bacalao and bacallao, but the former is to those who lie at the base and are crushed by the more familiar to my eye and ear. the classes above them. It would be a gain to

HENRY H. GIBBS. knowledge to have the matter settled, if such a St. Dunstan's. thing be possible.

ASTARTE.

TITUS OATES (6th S. ix. 445 ; 7th S. xii. 209; Perhaps the query implies more than appears at gin S. ii. 156, 254).- I copy from H. K. Cawston's the first blush, and may have been written later Howard Papers' the following relating to Titus than the publication of Jubal.' For Mr. Bayard Oates : Taylor's opinion is that :

“ Titus Oates was born at Oakham, in Rutland, son of "It is amazing to see how admirable her verse is, and Samuel Oates, a weaver by trade, and Anabaptist teacher, how near to high poetry-as if only a sheet of plate against whose proceedings the clergy of Rutland peti. glass were between--and yet it is not poetry. Her lines tioned Parliament (Lords Jour., v. 9 and 10), afterwarda are like the dancing figures on a frieze, symmetry itself, paraon of Hastings, in Sussex (Oldmixon, Hist., p.612). but they do not move." —Diversions of the Echo Club, • Titus Oates, Rutland de Oakham, filius Samuelis

Oates clerici, anno natus 18. Literis institutus in Com EDWARD H. MARSHALL, M.A.

Sussex, admissus in Collegium. Gonv. and Caii, June 29, Hastings.

1667. Idem admissus. in Coll. Jo. subsizator pro ma.

gistro Collegii, tutore Mr. Watson, 2. Feby, 1663." — RHYMED DEEDS (8th S. iii. 147, 233). — A Reg. Coll. Jo., Ad. MS. 5360, fo. 288, B.M. Lib.

"At the age of two and twenty he obtained the small parallel to the grant of John of Gaunt, given at living of Bobbing juxta Milton, in Kent. Titus Oates, the former reference, is quoted in Worth's 'History A,B, inducted 13 March, 1672."--Hasted's 'Hist. Kent,' of Devonshire,' p. 163:

vol. ii. p. 640. I, John of Gaunt,

In the marriage licence Titus states his age to Do give and do grant

be about forty-five, which agrees with that in the Hatherleigh Moor To Hatherleigh poor

college register :For evermore.

“ In 1685, Titus was wbipped from Aldgate to New. In the well-known Devonshire legend of Childe unable to stand or walk was dragged on a sledge from

gate, and 48 hours after, in a stupefied condition, quite of Plymstock'there are two versions of the rhymed Newgate to Tyburn, and it is said received 1,700 stripes will which he wrote with his own blood, or his in the course of the journey. In Partridge's • Almanack' horse's, when he was lost on Dartmoor and had for 1692, it is stated that Oates was whipt with a whip given up all hope of saving his life. They are 13,536 stripes.”

of six thongs, and received 2,256 lashes, amounting to given in Mrs. Bray's 'Borders of the Tamar and the Tavy,' vol. i. pp. 387–9, as follows :

If born in 1619, he would be sixty-five or sixty

six years old in 1685 ; too old, one would think, to He that finds and nga me to my tomb, My land of Plymstock shall be his doom.

have any chance of living, after such punishment, and

another twenty years; for the date of his death is

stated to be some time in 1705. C. H. I. G. They first that find, and bring me to my grave, My lands, which are at Plymstock, they shall have. MR. E. H. MARSHALL, M.A., can hardly have

The latter is copied from Prince's 'Worthies,' read my communication on this subject, or he and the following variant of it occurs in Mrs. would not have written that 1619 is thirty years Whitcombe's 'Bygone Days in Devonshire and later than 1649. The references to previous Cornwall,' p. 56 :

volumes of 'N. & Q.' would have shown him that The fyrste that fyndes, and brings me to my grave,

the one thing certain about the birth of Titus The lands of Plymatoke they shall have.

Oates is that it took place at Oakham in or about R. PEARSE CHOPE.

1649. Not to mention his school days at Mer[See 6th S. xii, 84, 194, 253, 314, 410, 475 ; 7th S. i. 94, been absurd even for so adroit a dissembler as the

chant Taylors' and Seddlescomb, it would have 231, 316, 376.1

Salamanca Doctor to attempt to pass himself off as “EATING POOR JACK" (gib S. ii. 529 ; iii. 76, eighteen at his matriculation in 1667, or as “about 131, 215).—MR. WALLER has misread my note. forty-five” at his marriage in 1693, if, as MR. I did not imply that the Spanish Amphytrion, if MARSHALL asserts, he had been born in 1619. he invited you to dinner in the modest phrase A verbatim extract from the Hastings registers

would be more welcome than the repetition of the bis side. When he succeeds in doing that he will loose statements of a handbook already given at have put to confusion a band of distinguished the first reference named above. It is not im. savants of his own country, such as Paul Lacroix, possible that the handbook may have misprinted Louis Moland, and Frédéric Godefroy, all convicted 1619 for 1649. Will MR. MARSHALL examine of being as illogical as myself and DR. CHANCE. the register itself !

A. T. M. In his first note M. RAMBAUD asserted, with

anything but “the modesty of a savant": "It FOLK-LORE (8th S. ii. 305, 416, 511; iii. 134). — is quite certain that "Saint-gris' does not mean See Brand's Popular Antiquities,' iii. 351 seqq. St. Francis," when the three erudite Frenchmen (ed. Bohn, 1849), where the familiar passage from just named, among others, are agreed that it does Theocritus (iii. 31) is quoted.

mean St. Francis. In his latest note he says only P. J. F. GANTILLON, that he is “very doubtful,” having been converted “VENTRE-SAINT-GRIS" (gld S. i. 453; ii. 49, to this degree of "modesty" by M. Quitard, the 131, 232, 289, 398, 529).- As Dr. Chance unites one authority whom he consulted. It seems to me with me in condemning Dr. BREWER's suggestion that English readers are likely to find it "highly and so vigorously supports me against M. Ram- instructive and amusing" to see a foreigner dealBAUD, I regret that there should be the semblance ing with a question on which he is so poorly of a difference between us. I do not dispute—it informed. would be absurd to dispute—the theory that saint. In thanking M. RAMBADD for pointing out oaths (to employ a convenient term) are substitutes what he regards as an error, I regret to say that I for deity-oaths, or indeed that all oaths other than cannot accept his correction. I do not treat the these last are used for the sake of avoiding blas- question relating to gris as one of etymological phemy. But it is evident from DR. CHANCE's descent-nor am I aware that any French scholar latest note that I took his theory in a sense which has ever done so-but as one of wilful substitution. be did not intend. His statement, however, that

F. ADAMS. his theory is quite distinct from the question of M. RAMBAUD says the word saint cannot be personal identity, makes explanation on my part attached to deity, yet is there St. Esprit and needless.

Ste. Trinité ; Jesus Christ is called in French "le I am more concerned with my French critic's Saint des Saints,” and in the beginning of his life strictures. He impeaches my logic wben I decline in the Petits Bollandistes' (vol. xvi.), we read his reading, “per sanctum ventrem Christi," for "La vie de......Jésus-Christ doit naturallement the very reason which he arges in support of it-trouver sa place dans la vie

de Saints qui l'Eglise Damely, that “the word ' saint' cannot be applied bonore dans le cours de l'année." la the two to the Law-giver Himself.”. What is M. Ram- genealogies, from the first and third Gospels, the BAUD's reason for contending that in the expressions dame of Jesus stands under that of (Saint) Joseph, (1) “Bon gré saint Gris,” (2) “Par sainct Gris," and a line of other names to which the Catholic (3) "Ventre saint Gris,” to which I may add a Church has attached the word "Saint"; and be is fourth quoted by Le Duchat

called over and over again the "Saint Enfant." I La gente Poitevin'rie,

think, therefore, that our phrase "St. Saviour's" Car & cors & bians en ertiant

is not so preposterous as M. RAMBAUD seems to De tot, Saint Gris, mis à niant

intimate. “Gris" means Christ in the third, and what you When I stated that there was a “St. Jesus" please, except Christ, in all the others ? No other and also a “ St. Cbrist” in the Bollandist collecTeason, forsootb, than that it is correct to say tion of saints, I distinctly said it was a rather

par le ventre saint du Christ.'" He does not tell curious, coincidence; and no one could possibly us that such an oath has ever been in vogue. I am suppose I referred to the son of Mary, especially sure it was not current among Frenchmen of the as I gave the days devoted to these two saints. seizième siècle, and if it had been it would have In regard to Gris, as a corruption of Cris (as in been phrased" par le saint ventre de Christ," with Cris or Criss Cross), I would emphatically insist the adjective before ventre, and de instead of du. that slang expressions, to wbich category vulgar Of analogous oaths in full I have already men. oaths belong, are not to be placed on the bed of tioned “Par le saint Sang bieu" and "Par le Procrustes like standard words. They are almost sainct sang breguoy" (8th $. ii. 131), and I may always fanciful perversions, often phonetic puds, refer to another Rabelaisian specimen which I dare and always intended to conceal their derivations, not reproduce ('Pantagruel,' v. 16, ed. Moland). as “'zoudds," "odsbud" or "odsbuddikin," "zooks“ M. Rambaod knows little of the old language- or "gadzooks," " bleu” (in French) as "ventrehow should be know much of it with such a con- bleu," “ corne'bleu," "sambleu," " sandis," which tempt for bouquins ? The weight of evidence is M. RAMBAUD truly says is a corruption of " par le against him, and it will be early enough for him to sang de Dieu," "cadedis," i.e., " par le cap (tête] call me illogical when he can turn the balance to de Dieu,” &c.

It is “contrary to every scientific method to originally settled by Scotch emigrants, I copied support a French etymology with facts of linguistics the same inscription as that given at the last observed in England," is M. RAMBAUD's axiom; reference by C. Č. B. The stone-cutter, however, but if accepted, Grimm's code, I fear, would have evidently did not hold by " the dictionary, for to be abandoned.

“affect," " waisting," and "sigh's," appear for the That "saint" in the compound word under corresponding words of the English record. The consideration may belong to ventre and not to gris date was 1757.

M. C. L. is unquestionable. M. RAMBAUD allows it, and New York City. we have “La Terre Sainte," “ Les lieux saints,"

Apropos of MRS. C. A. White's note at the “ Vie Sainte," &c., to confirm the statement.

last reference, may I remind your readers of our Without for one moment disputing that the good friend Mrs. Jarley ?ordinary meaning of Ventre is the belly, I yet con

“ * That,' said Mrs. Jarley in her exhibition tone, as tend that its perversion into corpus is quite in Nell touched a figure at the beginning of the platform, accordance with slang; and that Ventre-dieu or is an unfortunate Maid of Honour in the Time of Queen Ventre-bleu=corpus Dei, and not “God's belly," Elizabeth, who died from pricking her finger in conwhich to an English ear sounds horrible indeed. sequence of working upon a Sunday. Obsorve the E. COBHAM BREWER.

blood which is trickling from her finger; also the gold

eyed needle of the period with which she is at work, '". CAUSE OF DEATH (8th S. ii. 428, 533 ; iii. 76, The Old Curiosity Shop,' chap. xxviii. 154, 275). —Perhaps one of the very oddest monu

JONATHAN BOUCHIER. ments of the kind referred to under this head is

LADY OF THE BEDCHAMBER (8th S. iii. 247).the tablet at Farringdon Church, Berks, in memory When I wrote the article to which Prof. SKEAT of a soldier who had his left leg taken off by the refers (74 S. v. 289), I was under the impression above ball,” an actual cannon ball being inserted that ladies filling this office not only are, but at the top.

J. T. F. Winterton, Doncaster,

always were, married women. If this be not the

case, I must ask pardon for my “therefore.” But In Herne Churchyard, Kent, on an old tomb- I may add that whenever I have traced the position stone to the memory of John and Martha Smith, of any woman thus entitled, I have invariably is the following :

found her married ; and in the case of Philippa A pale consumption gave the fatal blow;

Chaucer, unless it can be conclusively shown-as The stroke was certain, but th' effect was slow; I believe it never has been yet—that Chaucer was With lingering pains death saw me long opprest : her maiden as well as her married dame, then the Pittied my sighs, and kindly gave me rest.

fact of her being termed Philippa Chaucer on the On the tombstone to the memory of William Patent Roll in September, 1366, goes far to show that May, in Chislet Churchyard, Kent, the following she was Geoffrey Chaucer's wife at that date. The appears :

exact reference to the Patent Roll is 40 Edw. III., Affliction sore long Time I bore

pt. 2, membr. 30. Philippa Pycard was pensioned Physicians was in vain; Till God did please & Death did cease

by that name three years after that date.

HERMENTRUDE. And eas'd me of my Pain. Slightly altered, the same verse is given on two

In a 'Life of Chaucer' by S. W. Singer, prefixed other tombstones. On the one, in the second line, to Chaucer's poems in the "British Poets” (edition

” is given for was"; the third line ends of 1822), we read as follows: to give me ease "'; in l. 4, "free" displaces “ His (Chaucer's] marriage took place about the year "eas'd.” On the other, were

occurs in l. 2, 1360, when he was thirty-two years old.” me to release" in the third, and “ease" in the Alexander Chalmers makes the same assertion, last.

KNOWLER. and in almost the same words, in his 'Life of In Ampthill Church, Bedfordshire, on the south Chaucer to Cowper”:

Chaucer' in the “Works of the English Poets from wall of the chancel, within the communion rails, is a mural monument to some officer whose name I the year 1360, when he was thirty-two years old.”

“He accordingly married her (Philippa Rouet), about cannot remember, as it is thirty-five years since I saw it. In the upper part the cannon ball with

I do not know on whose authority Singer and which he was killed was let in the slab, and de-Chalmers make this assertion, unless it is on that scribed as “instrumentum mortis et victoriæ."

of Speght, author of an earlier 'Life of Chaucer'

which I have never seen. In the Canterbury Jon PICKFORD, M.A. Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge.

Tales of Chaucer,' &c., by Thomas Tyrwbitt (edition

of 1798), we meet with quite a contrary statement. It may be worthy of a note, to show how such Tyrwhitt says :mortuary verse is copied from stone to stone, that in an old and now unused graveyard of a little Rymer, R. II., vol. ii. n. 3), that Chaucer, on the 24th

" It appears from the Exitus, Pasch., 4 R. II. (MSS. village about twenty-five miles from New York, May, 1381, received at the Exchequer a half-year's pay.

were

meat of his own two annuities of 20 marks each, and careful inspection of the individual words would also a half-year's payment of an annuity of 10 marks, seem to be required, as many anomalies present granted by Edw. III. and confirmed by Ric. I to his themselves ; for instance, righ, king, is propounced

wife' Philippa, 'nuper uni domicellarum Philippæ nuper Reginæ Angliæ. The title given to her of ree, and tigh, house, nearly as French taille. Difdomicella' proves that she

was unmarried at the time ference of etymology explains this, the former of her being in the queen's service. There is a patent word being Irish ri, gen. rig, Lat. rez; the latter, in Rymer, 43 Edw. III., by which the king, about four Ir. tech, Greek Téyos (see Windisch's ' Ir. Gram.');

Add to to nine of her · Domicellæ, viz., to four of them 10 marks, but the result is confusing all the same. to two 5 pounds, and to three 5 marks. One of them this that "there are sounds in the Gaelic to which is called Philippa Pykard, and might very well be sup- there are none perfectly similar in English, nor posed to be the lady whom Chaucer afterwards married, if perhaps in any modern European tongue," and it it were not for two objections, 1, that the annuity granted will be seen that this branch of Celtic might be to her is only 5 pounds, whereas Chaucer's wife appears characterized somewhat in the manner of Bradby this record to have had one of 10 marks; and 2, that the historians, though they own themselves totally shaw's succinct account of Russian : ignorant of the Christian name of Chaucer's wife, are all “Language. - The Alphabet numbers 36 lettere, agreed that her surname was Rouet, the same with that founded on the Slavic of Cyril's translation of the Bible, of her father and elder sister, Catherine Swynford.” about A.D. 800, and the pronunciation and accentuation Tyrwhitt appears nevertheless to think that the of words are nearly as irregular as in English." two objections can be explained away. In the

J. Young 'Encyclopædia Britannica' (ninth edition), under

Glasgow. the heading Chaucer, we read :

“WHETHER OR NO” (8th S. iii. 186, 238).- That " By this time (1360-1366) he would seem to have "more or less unknown writer of the Elizabethan been married, if the Philippa Chaucer, one of the de: age” quoted by St. SWITHIN used this “locution? moiselles of Queen Philippa, who in 1366 was granted in common with many others. It is to be found his wife (see the discussion of the question in Sir H! in our modern Bibles, and in all the early ones. Nicolas's memoir)."

Coverdale gives Deat. viii. 2:It may be that the marriage took place in 1366, "And thynke vpon all ye waie thorow the which the but—as the pension was not granted till four Lorde thy God hath led the this fortye yeares in the months after the queen's death-between the time wyldernesse, that he mighte chasten the, and proue the,

to wete what were in thyne herte, whether thou woldest of the queen's death and the date of the granting kepe his comaundemētes or no." of the pension.

C. W. Cass.

Matthew, Taverner, Cranmer, all “no," but Walter Long (8th S. iii. 207, 295). - Walter Wyckliffe has “ eithir nay”; thus supporting St.

SWITHIN's theory. Long, son of Thomas Long, of Melksham, and Mary Abbot, died without issue, 1807, æt. ninety- means "in any circumstances ""pothing shall

“Whether or no" is in common use here, and five. He had four sisters—Mary, died 1776; Anne, hinder ” _“I

pledge myself positively." R. R. died 1802; Ellen, died 1787; and Catherine, died

Boston, Licolnshire, 1814, all unmarried. Walter Long and his sisters Ellen, Anne, and Catherine were buried at Whad. If Shakespeare sinned in using this expression, don, and Mary Lodg at Wraxall. E. H. D. so too did his contemporary Bacon. There are at Teddington,

least two instances of its use in 'The Historie of

the Reigne of King Henry the Seventh.' The CELTIC (8th S. iii. 247).- I have a 'Pronouncing passages which contain them are hardly suitable Gaelic Dictionary,' by Neil M'Alpine, Edinburgh, for quotation here, but they may be found on 1833, a second-hand copy of which I believe MR. pp. 205-6 of the edition of 1629. C. M. P. WARD should be able to pick up in the Scottish capital. The work contains “a

concise but most entitled 'Idiom-haters' in the Saturday Review

MR. BIRKBECK TERRY should read an article comprehensive Gaelic grammar," from which it for Dec. 1, 1888 (vol. lxvi. p. 641), which contains appears that the thirteen Irish diphthongs are inter alia'a stout defence of the vicious locution equalled in number in Gaelic and are supplemented he denounces.

F. ADAMS. by five triphthongs ; this is confirmed by the 105, Albany Road, Camberwell, S.E. grammar prefixed to the 'Highland Society's Dictionary 'and by Stewart's 'Gaelic Grammar.' AC- Goethe's "Faust'(8th S. iii. 187).- According cording to this latter authority, the thirteen diph to Engel's Bibliotheca Faustiana,' the English thongs have thirty-four sounds divided amongst version of Goethe's 'Faust' which was printed by them, whilst ten sounds are allotted to the five A. Taylor, in 2 vols. 870., Lond., 1838, without triphthougs. In M'Alpine's 'Dictionary'the word the translator's name, had been already preceded by ceart, instanced by MR. WARD, is pronounced not fewer than seven versions, where the translators kyart (y in yard), whilst cearc, hen, differing are known, viz.: Gower (1823), Anster (1828), only in the final letter, is pronounced kerk. A Hayward (1833), Knox (1834), Blackie (1834),

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