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tinely shaped mould-boards, rather short broad shares, are stimulated to vegetate, and grubs, worms, and the straight coulters, and with the two wheels on level land, larvæ of insects are destroyed;" and he adds the bycan almost move unattended. It is difficult to lay off land pothesis that “by promoting the attraction and deposit of into ridges with them, and drilling cannot be done, neither vegetable effluvia, extensively given off by decayed rege. do they answer for the mode of plowing which is called tation at this season the productive powers of the soil are gathering in Scotland [described in Letter xv, Co. Gent. much increased.” Sept. 16, 1859,) as the space which is left when the last Another favorite plow is that of the Howards at Bedfurrows are taken out is very broad; and they don't make ford, shown in fig. 5. They seem to have secured easier the neat close finish, that the swing-plow, when well draught than most of their competitors, and have received bandled, does. It may almost be said, that, with the many important prizes, including ten first prizes from the wheel-plow, it is the plow that does the work; with the Royal Ag. Society of England, and the Gold Medal of Swing, it is the man.”
Honor at the Paris Universal Exhibition. In fig. 6 is For this “Y. L.” plow there are upwards of twenty va shown their double furrow plow, wbich is intended for rieties of mould boards made, "adapted," say the manu- light land where two surrows can be turned at once with. facturers," for every description of soil; and by changing out over-burdening the team. They make also, among the mould board only—as was the case in the great trial at other varieties, a double-breast or ridging plow, which is Southampton in 1844-—it will answer equally well for represented in fig. 7, accompanied, as will be observed, by heavy as for light land, and upon the occasion referred | a marker to determine the distance of the next drill. In to, it obtained the double prize of the Royal Agricultural this plow the breasts are made of steel, and can be readily Society as the best plow both for heavy and light land.'” expanded or contracted to any desired width, either to
Another kind of plow is made by the same firm for gether or independently of each other. Ridge culture, to which, as above remarked, the “Y. L." So much for some of the manufactures of two of the is not well adapted. This is shown in fig. 3, fitted with largest implement making firms in Great Britain. Revert
ing now to the comparative demand existing for English and American plows in other countries, we shall find, I think, that even on the continent of Europe, where it has hitherto been supposed that any agricultural implement to be really firstrate, must be of English manufacture, our plows are just beginning to
attract attention; there have been Fig. 3. Ransome & Sims' Universal Ridge Plow.
statements published of considerable a share of 12 or 16 inches' width, in which form it “will | exportations ofthem from this country to Syria and Russia, open and close the land in ridge-work, at any distance, while in England's own colonies-new countries, where the where the manure is deposited; it also serves the purpose cost of labor would naturally lead to the selection of the of setting out lands for common plowing, or opening sur-most “labor-saving ” kind of implement—it is well known face drains."
that our manufacturers are securing a large share of the trade. In the Co. Gent. for Nov. 24, 1859, we quoted a statement from the Mark Lane Express that of forty-two kinds of plow shown at the Ag. Exhibition at Cape Town, in Africa, “ for English colonists to purchase," the whole
were of American make-not an English manufacturer being represented. At that time we suggested that some of
our correspondents interested in the matter, should furnish Fig. 4.
for publication the details of this same trade as carried on By sbifting the fittings accompanying this plow, it is with Australia, but unsuccessfully-many of our larger made to assume several different forms—serving as aj manufacturers being apparently so engrossed with these “moulding plow” in moulding up root crops, peas or shipping operations, and with their few scattered business beans, as a horse hoe or scarifier, or, as shown in fig. 4, I correspondents at one point and another, as to quite overas a skeleton or broad share plow. The use of this last mentioned kind of plow was referred to at some length in my letters from Kent, where it is in high esteem for the purpose of breaking up the soil, leaving it in the best state of pulverization, or merely for cutting up weeds, in which case the prongs are no put on. I found the practice there
Fig. 5. Howards' Improved "Champion" Plow. in consonance with the observation annexed in Ransome's | look the existence of the several hundred thousand farmers Catalogue, viz., that “ by broad-sharing or skeleton plow- who read our agricultural papers and depend upon them, ing in the autumn, not only is the soil brought into a pul- with all the principal establishments, horticultural or ag.
rather than upon agencies, as the media of intercourse erized state, but the seeds of annuals, roots, weeds, etc., ' ricultural, in our chief cities.
The Official Tables of our Exports published at Washington, throw no light upon the value of agricultural implements sold to othe countries; for, strange as it may seem, while they descend to such items as printing presses,' 'candles,' and 'combs' - plows, horse-powers and hoes are left in the heterogeneous mass of 'manu. factures of iron,' or ' manufactures of wood.'
Fig. 6. Howards' Double Furrow Plow. In conclusion I make an extract from a private letter from John Johnston with regard to the inquiry with which I began. He says ; “ For more than thirty years I have known the long heavy plows used in Canada to be a very unprofitable plow to work with, having tried one here myself about or over thirty years ago. They ought all to be beaten into plowshares [of another pattern) orpruning hooks. But the Scotch and English Canadians were so prejudiced against the Yankee plows, that I was afraid to come
Fig. 7. Howards' Ridging Plow. out in print against theirs, although I told them often that their plows were not only horse killers, but | less than fifteen or twenty cows, and would pay much betmen killers also. On a two weeks' tour in Canada, from ter with twice that number. which I have just returned, I find, however, that many far
We are inclined to think that every farmer who keeps mers have laid aside their long 250 lb. plows, and are using plows made of the pattern of ours. At Oshawa they make cows on a grain farm, should not stock his pastures encast-iron plows similar to those in use here; they also tirely with them, but keep besides sheep, in favorable make plows with steel mould boards, similar to those made localities, also a few steers or beef cattle. And this for by Messrs. Remington, Markham & Co. of Ilion, in our two reasons; first, that they require far less labor in their State, but not equal to them, I think. Indeed it won't be many years until these long plows will be only things that care, and the same feed will keep them in good growing were once in use at least, this is my opinion."
order, and constantly increasing in value. In the second As coming from a man of so long practical experience, place, our pastures depend largely upon the season—if fathis opinion is entitled to weight, but lest our friends across vorable for grass, we have a large supply—if unfavorable the line should suppose that the admirable character of from drouth or frost, we find cows getting very poor, the their plowing is not appreciated by Mr. Johnston, we may product of milk small, and the number of animals entirerefer them to his letters published in the Co. Gent. after a Canadian tour last autumn, in which he speaks most ly disproportioned to the food we can furnish. We have eulogistically of its excellence.
a remedy for this, to some extent in growing green crops
for soiling, or in selling off a portion of the herd, but at Stock and Dairying on Grain Farms. such times the green crop does not grow very luxuriantly,
and cows are very dull of sale; every one has more than “A mixed husbandry” has always been found most suc. he knows well what to do with. But young stock could cessful and profitable, because it is in some sense self- be sold more readily-very readily if first fattened on sustaining, and also that all branches seldom fail alike or
grain—and we could thus without loss reduce the stock to at the same time, always leaving the farmer one or more
accord with the product of the pastures. good crops or products to depend upon. Grass-growing
Some years ago, and in a very different grass season and stock feeding, to some extent, must be combined with from the present, this subject was brought to our attention, grain-raising in order to keep up the fertility of the soil by the suggestion that “more stock” was the great want for the latter purpose—the production of grain being an of the wheat-growing region of the State. We remarked exhausting process, while stock-growing and dairying fur
that more stock required more pasture, as well as more nish means for constantly improving the soil. Wool
| hay and grain. It needs nice calculation to balance the growing has paid well on grain farms, especially under an attentive management, and it will be found that careful one to the other three, especially when a dry summer foland thorough farmers receive by far the greatest profit from would carry six cows and fifty sheep, will barely yield half
lows a wet one, and farm pastures which the first year their stock—cows, sheep, beef cattle, swine, and horses. the number a scanty living the succeeding year, and mea.
Our present purpose, however, is to offer a few hints on dows produce in like proportion. There is an essential dairying on grain farms as a business, and as compared difference in the profit of feeding swine when grain is with other forms of stock-growing, and also to offer a word of caution. It must mainly be confined to the production making beef or mutton. It may be better to sell grain
scarce and high, andewhen it is plenty and low, and so of of butter, because few farms are large enough to allow than to feed it out, or at least may figure up so. A difthe keeping of a sufficient number of cows, (and at the ference of ten cents in the pound on wool, is often a difsame time keep more or less sheep, horses and swine, and ference of profit or loss in sheep, especially when one raise grain,) to produce cheese very profitably. We see
finds his farm overstocked with them, as seems very likely that this is the case in Western New-York, from the com. to be the case with many farmers next season. A month's parative prices of the two products, cheese being much extension of winter weather and the season of foddering, more profitable than butter, though the latter is now in turns the scales heavily against "more stock," when one improved demand. Butter can be made from any num- has bay to buy, while the cereals may not be injured in ber of cows, but a cheese dairy would be a small affair with productiveness by the lateness of the season.
L. H. T.
Perhaps this word of caution is now needed. We have had a remarkably productive season-graiv, grass, roots, fruit—the earth fairly groans with its burden. We could feed a large increase of stock, and grow more grain than ever, if sure of such seasons regularly hereafter. But we are not, so let us be moderate in our anticipations and preparations for rapid money-making, and take care of the present and the gifts a bounteous Providence has already bestowed upon us.
It will not do to over-stock our farms, neither will it answer to over-crop them-one course is as ruinous as the other to the farmer's advancement. If the stock now owned by every farmer is thoroughly well-wintered, its value next spring will be nearly double what it would be under the usual management, take the country together. Here is a great chance for profit, and a good use of our plentiful products, and this seems to be the point or moral of our article: Make the best of what you have, and eschew speculation and covetousness.
(For the Country Gentleman and Cultivator.) "BALLOON FRAMES”.-7th Article.
need fear any lack of perfect security, as it surpasses in
strength any hold that a tenon could have. To convey an idea in the most effective manner, it must There are many ways other than those shown, of conbe delineated; pages of priut will fail, while a charcoal structing a “Balloon Frame" for a building like this, and sketch succeeds, and written and verbal descriptions, al- many original plans will suggest themselves to a thinking though good in their place, must yield to a drawing that mind that undertakes their construction, and is familiar expresses plainly its intention. We have sometimes with their principles. Light sticks, uninjured by cutting thought, after we had labored hard to make an article in. mortices or tenons, a close basket-like manner of contelligible, whether all understood it alike, or understood struction, short bearings, a continuous support for each it at all.' We strive to condense, to say as much as possi. piece of timber from foundation to rafter, and embracing ble with the least number of words; and in architectural, and taking advantage of the practical fact, that the tunmechanical and engineering details, a drawing is the “mul- sile and compressible strength of pine lumber is equal to tum in parvo ” that expresses our intentions. To one not one-fifth of that of wrought iron. accustomed to use, or unfamiliar with the object of work- The Balloon frame bas for more than twenty years, ing drawings, it requires some argunent to convince them been before the building public. Its success, adaptability, of their utility; but the world of talk and time that is capability, and practicability, have been fully demonstricted. sived, in telling another how long, how wide, how high, Its simple, effective and economical manver of construcand in what manner, &c., you want your woodshed con- tion has very materially aided the rapid settlement of the structed, suffices to doubly pay the cost or trouble of pre: West, and placed the art of building, to a great extent, paring such drawings as express exactly your wishes. It within the control of the pioneer. That necessity, that is only within a week that our attention was called to an must do without the aid of the mechanic or the knowledge out-house that was built without a plan, and as the me- of his skill, has developed a principle in construction that chanic said, as well built and in as good proportion as if has sufficient merit to warrant its use by all who wish to he had had a dozen architects. The defect was, that it erect in a cheap and substantial manner any class of was one-sixth longer than was necessary, and had cost wooden buildings. $100 more than if ten dollars had been expended for a We call attention to this manner of framing corn cribs, well studied plan. We have even arranged furniture in a
as we believe money enough can be saved, which, if juroom, by first drawing the floor plan to a scale, and then diciously invested, will supply any one with the “Counwith pieces of paper, the size of the ground play or hori. TRY GENTLEMAN” for the rest of his natural life. zontal projection of each piece of furniture, have arranged
GEO. E. WOODWARD, them to suit us—instead of wheeling a piano or sofa into
Architect and Civil Engineer, 29 Broadway, N.Y. erery recess to see whether it would fit and harmonize with the rest of the furniture. A certain knowledge of Gas Tar Injurious to Fruit Trees. mechanical drawing would be of service to everybody, and particularly to the agricultural community, who are March I notice a communication from 11. H. Eumors, rę.
EditorS COUNTRY GENTLEMAN-In your issue of sth more in the way of developing principles that are new and valuable, and which ought to be communicated for lative to the application of gas tar to finit trees, and althe good of each other,
though rather late to offer any suggestions on the subject, We were led to these remarks, as we propose to illus. I am induced to give you the result of my own experitrate the balance of our articles on this subject, showing ence, trusting that it may prevent others from attempting the application of the Balloon Frame to all classes of so injurious an application. wooden buildings, commencing with a Corn Crib.
Some years since I read in an agricultural paper, that We show in the engraving a half section of two modes an application of gas tar to fruit trees would prevent the of framing. The lumber or timber may range in size from depredations of mice, and our section of Canada being 2 by 4 up, nccording to the capacity required.—2 by 4, ex: the consequence of wlich was, that I was near losing all
that year overrun with those pests, I was induced to try it, cept for floor timbers and sills, is sufficiently large for the ordinary size of these buildings.
or most of my trees. It certainly succeeded in keeping Where the building is supported on posts, heavy sills so hard that the bark could not swell
, and I was obliged
away the mice, but the succeeding summer the tar became are necessary, and the frame should be securely nailed or to make a perpendicular slit in the bark as far as the tar epiked together
. The bents may be 16, 24 or 30 inches extended, to save my trees. It is in my opinion a most apart, and covered in the usual manner. both the rafters and contents of the building are outward; their orchards clean, and leave no harbor for vermin, there
The thrust of dangerous experiment, and if your readers would keep the tie, 1 by 4, is abundantly strong, as each one will would be no necessity for using gas tar or other applicapractically sustain in the direction of its fibre, three tons. tion. The floor joists are nailed to studs at cach end. No one
JAMES TAYLOR, Prest. St. Catharines Hort. Society.
again, the corn they bad eaten having been weighed also, and calling 70 lbs. a bushel of corn, and pork as before, 4c. (gross,) it was equal to 80c. per bushel for corn. The weather was quite warm here for the season of the year. The first week in November I tried the same experiment on the same lot of hogs, and the corn only brought 62 cts. per bushel, the weather being colder. The third week, same month, with same lot of hogs, corn brought 40 cts., and the weather still getting colder. The fourth week sanie as above, corn brouglit 26 cts. ; weather still colder.”
This lot of hogs were sold off the last of November and another lot of hogs put up, which had been fed in the field on corn in the cob.
“This lot was weighed and fed as above, the five weeks of December, and the corn fed averaged 26 cts. a bushel, the weather being about the same as the last. This lot was tried again in the middle of January, the corn fed for that week averaging only 5 cts, per bushel ; at that time the thermometer stood at zero. This same lot was tried again and just held their own, the thermometer being below below zero, sometimes as low as 10 degrees."
From these facts the writer comes to the sound conclusion that it will not pay as a general thing to feed corn to hogs after the middle of November," unless the price is very low. It will not pay to find fuel in the shape of corn, to keep hogs or other stock warm in winter. We should either fatten early, or provide comfortable shelter and accommodations for our swine, &c.”
(For the Country Gentleman and Cultivator.) SOUR FOOD FOR FATTENING ANIMALS.
R. L. Pell, before the American Institute, said that THE OX-EYE OR WHITE DAISY.
sour feed fattens animals more rapidly than sweet "-
that “green berbage of all kinds, collected and allowed LEUCANTUEMUM VULGARE.
to get sour in water, will fatten pigs that would not thrive A perennial-rooted weed, and one of the worst the far- on it before"—that “ brewer's grains, when sour, will fatmer has to contend with, on account of its extensive ten cows and other animals more rapidly than when sweet." spreading, and the great difficulty of its extirpation. The If this theory is true, the great grain distillers of the cities, seed are very tenacious of life, and will vegetate after instead of throwing away so much of their slops, might passing through the stomach of an animal. The wide foot- condense them by boiling until the excess of water had bold it has obtained, is of course the result of slovenly steamed away and the slop was made profitably portable, farming, and is most conspicuous in pasture fields, whi- so that it could be fed to cattle and hogs in the country. tening the whole surface when in flower. Various means We should then hear no more complaint of diseased cows have been devised for destroying it. Attempts have been and poisonous swill milk at the city distilleries. Milk made to turn it to account by compelling animals to eat it. made from such slop with rations of hay, straw, or roots to Sheep may be made to feed on it by depriving them or the cow, (to compensate for the loss of starch in the slop all other food, especially early in the season, while the from distillation,) would be much richer than farm milk young plants are tender and less bitter than afterwards ; generally. but it is bad economy, and they cannot thrive when driven
Mr. Pell tells us of a man who boasted that he never by starvation to eat unpalatable food. A correspondent watered his milk to sell in the city, but he took care to of The Cultivator says that a large farmer succeeded in feed his cows on succulent food that contained more than killing most of the daisies on a sixteen acre lot, by turn. 80 per cent. water; the result was, his milk had no better ing in five hundred sheep a week at a time—bu: it was a reputation than watered milk. very expensive experiment, for the sheep became extremely poor, and he regarded bis loss at one thousand dollars.
[For the Country Gentleman and Cultivator). Thorough cultivation is the best remedy, and may be given
Chester County Hogs. as follows: Plow the sod thoroughly, plant corn, hoe and cultivate well once a week. Next year sow and plow in Friend TUCKER & Son-Seeing in your Co. GENTLEtwo crops of buckwheat, and the third year manure and MAN an account of Chester County hogs, permit me to add plant corn again ; then again two crops of buckwheat for my experience. I received last fall from Chester county, two years more, when the daisies will have vanished, and Pa., a pair of the above-September pigs. In July last the land be left rich. — Tucker's Illustrated Annual Reg. I had a litter of three pairs, and a fair prospect of anoth
er in January next, which to me shows they will be proliFattening Hogs in Warm and Cold Weather. fic. They are white, short legs, with thick, heavy bodies, and
seem peculiarly calculated to fatten at an early age. UnA correspondent of the Ohio Farmer, writing from Dun- like the Suffolks, they have sufficient covering to shield can's Falls, gives an account of an experiment made with them from cold or heat. And with their little heads and one hundred hogs, averaging two hundred lbs. each, and short noses, I say to fariners try them, and see if we canplaced in nine large covered pens, with plank floors and not make them weigh 500 lbs. at 18 months old.
West Winsted, Conn., Oct. 16.
JUDSON WADSWORTH. troughs. They were fed as follows:
“The corn was ground up, cob and all, in one of the Hemlock ror GRAIN-BINS.-H. Poor of Brooklyn, L. “Little Giant” steam mills; steamed and fed at 6 and 9 I.
, says in the Nero-England Farmer, that grain-bins built A. M., 12 M., 3 and 6 P. M., or five times a day, all they of hemlock, are positive proof against the depredations of could eat, and in exactly one week they were weighed rats and mice, as they will not gnaw it.
PREPARING FOR WINTER.
ret floor it should be daily raked over, and in fair weather
the windows should be kept open for the purpose of keep“Chill November's surly blast makes fields and forests ing up a free circulation of air, which will much hasten bare, and old Winter with his frosty beard,” will soon be the process of drying, and prevent mouldiness. upon us; and in the northern and western states, winter
A few days since we saw some newly harvested com, is not a myth, but a substantial reality that can neither be which had been thinly spread upon a garret floor. The hushed up, coughed down, or thrust aside. There is no
owner thought when harvested, that it was well ripened shirking its cold and driving storms. It is a palpable and dry, but upon examination a few days afterwards, the hing-one that can be felt by both man and animals; underside of a large portion of the ears was moulds. and it is the part of wisdom, in the farmer and all others, such corn will not make good sweet bread, nor do well to be prepared to meet it, and as far as possible to guard for seed. The raising of the windows, and daily use of against its severity upon the inmates of the barn as well the rake in moving it about, arrested all farther mouldias of those of the house.
This is a matter worth attending to, as is also that The dwelling-house should be well banked up if neces of picking over and assorting the potatoes stored in the sary, so as to prevent the cold from entering the cellar and cellar, if there is much appearance of rot. frosting the potatoes and other vegetables stored therein.
The good economy of carting out manure, and depositing From neglect in making their cellars frost-proof, we have it in conical or ridge like heaps, in the antumn, near where known many farmers to lose large quantities of potatoes wanted for next season's crops, is well understood by all in their cellars, by freezing, and in the following spring who have practiced it. If there is danger of the beaps freezthey were obliged to purchase, (and sometimes at a high ing badly, and not thawing in the spring as soon as wantprice too,) potatoes for planting and for table yse. A few ed, a good covering of brakes, leaves, or something of the hours of well directed labor early in November, in fixing kind, and this covered with large bows of evergreens, will úp their cellars, would have saved their potatoes, money, prevent freezing, and the process of decomposition will in and whining
a greater or less degree be carried on during the winter Broken windows should be attended to; glass and putty months. Where the manure is coarse, or not well rotted are cheap, to what they were half a centnry ago, and there | down, when carted out, a farther rotting process is desirais no longer any excuse for filling the broken windows ble. with old bats, cast off undergarments and unmentionables, It is also good economy to plow during this month, As was so frequently the case in the “good old times” we clayey and other stiff soils. The furrow slices as left by occasionally hear of. Everything connected with the house the plow, are generally in a much better condition to be should be made snug and comfortable, both inside and operated upon by the winter's frost, and atmospherical out. The principal living-room should be upon the sunny agencies, than if they were barrowed fine and then rolled. side of the house, and be furnished with good sized win- Corn and other stubble ground, intended for wheat, bardows. The burrowing of families in ill-lighted rooms, in ley, or oats, the coming spring, according to the experience the cold, dark, north side of the house, where the sun of some good farmers, should be well and deeply plowed scarcely peers in upon the inmates from November to in the fall. Such land needs only the cultivator and har. April, is poor economy indeed, and still poorer, to stint row to prepare it for sowing the grain, and the presumpthe children, who wish to read or study, to the feeble light tion is, a better crop of grain will be harvested than if of a small sized, greasy, tallow candle. Good oils of va- the land was spring-plowed. Everything should be done rious kinds, for illuminating purposes, with lamps to match, in autumn that can be, towards spring's work. A scarcity are now everywhere obtainable, and at prices within the of hay, and wet backward springs, sometimes puts the farreach of all. But abjure camphene and other burning mer so far in the back ground that he can searcely “catch fluids, as you would the fangs of the deadly serpent. up” through the whole season--much of which might have Furnish the song and daughters of the farmers with suita- been avoided by having a portion of bis spring's work ble books, agricultural and other papers and periodicals, done in the previous autumn. and good lights and pleasant rooms, and we should hear If not already attended to, the dark drizzly days of less of their fleeing from the paternal roof, and the leav- November afford the farmer a favorable time to repair ing of “the old folks at home,” in their downhill of life. and put in order his sleds, chains, axes, and landspikes,
Over large sections of the country, the frosts of a few for getting up the year's supply of fire-wood, timber, millof the last nights of September found much corn unripe.logs, &c. Where the wood and timber lot is not too It has dried somewhat, and much of it appears tolerably rough and broken, it is much the better way to bave the sound, but yet the coh contains a large amount of water. sledding done in early winter. Eight to twelve inches of Where the corn is stored in cribs, or in latticed corn houses, snow frequently affords good sledding to the wood lot, and there is danger of its becoming mouldy, and sometimes if the sled-shoe does occasionally get a severe grazing on the corn is very much injured by baving the cob frozen. the uncovered rocks, it is no killing affair--it is better to This was the case with tens of thousands of bushels of corn shoe sleds than to break paths through three feet snows, in the western states, in the autumn of 1857. The corn and crowd the team over or through five feet snowdrifts. was harvested and cribbed as usual, and near the close of Most farmers are now aware of the important fact, that November of that year, a few days of extreme cold occur-warmth and shelter for farm stock, to a certain extent, is red which froze the juicy cobs, and when the weather be equivalent to an extra amount of food, or in other words, came mild enough to thaw, most of the com was found to cattle, &c., kept in good, warm, well ventilated hovels, be nearly worthless, becoming slimy and useless except stables, sheds, &c., require a much less amount of food to for the compost heap. In the latticed corn-house close keep up or increase their growth, than the same stock box stove can be profitably used for kiln drying the corn, would if exposed to the out-door cold and storms of our an experiment we have known to be successfully tried on northern and western winters for months together, as is several occasions. Where the corn is spread upon the gar- I too often the improrident and cruel practice of farmers in