« AnteriorContinuar »
(For the Country Gentleman and Cultivator.) amounts to about the same thing without the drawbacks of Hints on the Care of Bees in Autumn and Winter. inverting the hive- hence that custom. As the past senson has been an unpropitious one for gather
If I were to answer the special inquiry of Apis, of Sept. ing honey, it behooves the bee-kooper to look well to his stock 20th, I would advise hiin to place his fine swarm in a dark of bees, and make a special examination of each swarm to as
but not wet cellar, secure from frost, and remove one or more certain definitely if any of the lives contain less than twenty thus situated, will come out in the spring in the best possible
of the glasses from over the holes in the honey-board. Bees pounds of honey; and should any sucha be found, the will need to be fed either with honey alone or mixed with condition that they can be expected to under any circumsugar diluted to the consistence of boney, poured on to pieces stances whatever. Small feeble swarms, that would not enof empty comb, and placed in the live in such a manner that dure one-half of the winter if left on the stand, will, if placed Bees from other hives will not find it. Perhaps the best in such a cellar, go safely through, and make fine swarms the method is to introduce the feed into the boxes directly over
ensuing summer. the bees; but should it be a common box hive, it may be
In conclusion, I beg leave to request those who have the placed on the top of the hive where there is a communication care of bees in a cold climate, to render them proper ventilathrşugh the top, and placing a cap over the whole ; and then tion and protection also. C. J. Robinson. Richford, N. Y. gently rapping on the top of the hive, the bees will press up
Tie St. LAWRENCE COUNTY FAIR.—We are glad to through and find the feed. The feeding should be done during warm weather.
learn from the official report published in the Canton Another precaution to be observed is to guard against rob-Courier and Journal, that, in spite of quite unfavorable bing, which can be accomplished effectually by contracting or weather, this exhibition proved successful, pecuniarily as limiting ingress to so small an entrance that bees within will well as otherwise. We quote: be able to hinder intruders from entering, and should any The exhibition as a whole was a decided success, notwithstranger bees find their way into the hive, the occupants standing the extremo cold and unpleasantness of the weather, thereof will have them where they will deal summarily with and the receipts were greater than at any previous Fair of the them before the strangers can made their escape. Many sons remaining steadily upon the grounds through the storm,
Society. It was exceedingly gratifying to see so many pergood colonies are lost in this warfare, after the termination showing that they were no fair weather friends, but thoroughof the season for gathering honey.
ly interested in the Society. The officers desire to acknowlVentilation should also be attended to. Much has been edge their obligations to Mr. Lindsay, President of the Frank
lin County Agricultural Society, to Mr. Sigourney, Secretary written and many inquiries made on this subject, and Mr. of the Jefferson County Agricultural Society, and to officers Quinby, Oct. 4th, says that he regards proper ventilation as of other Societies and Exhibitions for attendance, counsel and very important, and get proper ventilation is very imperfect- services during the Fair. The address was delivered by ly understood. He also says: Any way to get rid of the Luther II. Tucker, Esq., and was a plain, concise, and thor moisture.” The presumption is that he would not freeze the listeners to the end, despite the rain and even snow that came
oughly practical production that held the whole audience close bees at the outset as one of the ways, for that would surely pelting down during its delivery. The show of cattle was beprevent moisture, and if the modus operandi of some who yond precedent, both in numbers and quality, being largely give directions how to ventilate should be put in practice in contributed to by exhibitors from other counties. very cold situations, the bees are just as surely frozen. Now THE RENSSELAER COUNTY EXHIBITION-MR. ALLEN'S what is the cause of this moisture, which proves so direful, | ADDRESS.-The Agricultural and Mechanical Exhibition when nothing except air enters the hive? The secret or which took place under the auspices of the Rensselaer theory is explained thus: When cool air comes in contact County Society this year, was kept open for ten days, and with warm surfaces, condensation takes place; hence the we much regretted that other and previous engagements dews, and vice versa, when warın or rarified air comes in con- prevented our visiting the grounds. The following extact with cold bodies condensation takes place also, hence the tract is from a private letter, which although dated Oct. muisture which appears upon the windows (in cases where did not have the pleasure of seeing one of your firm at
11, only reached us the 27th :-“ Gentlemen : I regret I they are not double) of a room, while the air within is rarified our Industrial Exliibition. The extent of our arrangeor warmed and the atınosphere cold without. The cold con- ments in buildings, roadways, &c., has not been equaled centrates and dissolves the internal vapor and air, and the in this State, and the exhibition in manufactured articles watery portions accumulate on the inner wall of the windows, has not been excelled in any fair or exhibition I have atand when the cold is very severe the water becomes frozen tended, unless it may have been that of the Crystal Palace. hence the opaque windows during the extreme cold of winter. Our exliibition of stock was a fair one, and we had many In this manner sometimes large quantitios of icy water is visitors from abroad, who expressed their admiration of formed. The same occurs in bee-hives. The air which is the internal arrangements of our three large permanent respired by the bees, and that which comes in contact with to best advantage. At the request of the manufacturers
show buildings, which furnished space for showing articles thein while clustered, is thus rarified and ascends like vapor no premiums were awarded to them, their object being to through the openings in the top of the hive, unless the hive is let the public examine for themselves.” provided with safety valves, in which case the moisture, as The Address was delivered the last day, Sept. 28th, by in the case of the window, accumulates on the internal walls Hon. Lewis F. ALLEN of Buffalo, and was devoted to the of the hive, which has caused the destruction of more strong general subject of “Agriculture and its kindred interests." culonies of bees than any one other casualty, except the fatal It forms an interesting and suggestive paper, alluding in way of some bee-keepers to get rid of the moisturc by open conclusion to the improvements now within the reach of ing wide the apertures in the top and also in the bottom of our farmers, and justly remarking " that to attain each for the hive, and thus causing a currant of external air to pass attainment, the best faculties of the mind must be devoted
himself the highest degree of excellence in agricultural up through the interior, precisely the method to cool a hire to its study, while the labor of the hand must be equally in hot weather, and also thus rendering the bees more ex. devoted to its practice." posed and liable to be frozen than they would situated on the exterior of the hive.
ASHES FOR “CLUB-FEET" IN CABBAGER.--A correspondPerba ps the inquirer will now now ask, what is proper ven. fine cabbages, on old garden soil, where for some time
ent of the New-England Farmer has succeeded in raising tilation ? Simply to give free vent for the air at the top of they have failed from * olub-feet,” by the use of wood. the bive, and not admitting any or but very little air through ashes. When setting the plants, half a pint of wood-ashes the bottom. Under all circumstances it is requisite to regu- was placed in each hill, and immediately in contact with late the openings in the bottom with those in the top, which I the roots of the plants. Every one succeeded.
SOME ITEMS IN MARYLAND FARMING. Since Mr. Dennis has occupied this farm, he has applied
large quantities of yard manure, as well as lime, of which * FREDERICK COUNTY, Md., extends across the State toward its West part. Area 560 sq. ms. The Potomac r. runs on its 8. W. border: latter we shall speak hereafter. He spreads the manure Surface is gently undulating; Soli fertile. Capital, Frederick. There upon corn land in spring, but in fact is drawing it out luced ; ryc, 49,878;
Ind. corn, 782.613; oats, 180,922, potatoes, 53,004: more or less all the year round, according to season, apobacco, 175,394 pounds; wool, 32,232;—72 Aouring mills, &c."-GAZET.
plying upon the surface or plowing it in, as may suit each In the last number of the COUNTRY GENTLEMAN some particular case. Plowing is sometimes done in fall or winfacts and figures were promised with regard to the farms ter upon corn land, but he prefers the spring-plows deep, and farming of Frederick. The limestone lands of that say from 12 to 14 inches; the land is then twice barrowCounty, particularly, may be classed, in the language of the rowed and chequered off with a single shovel plow, or Gazetteer, as "fertile.". With a soil tolerably stiff, they with a kind of gang-plow coming into nse, which marks pay for the extensive application of fertilizers, and, on the for three rows at one operation. The corn is planted by best farms, are sure to receive it. Differing from our Far- hand where the chequers cross—careful boys being emmers in the system of labor employed, much larger capi- ployed to drop the seed, three or four grains to the hill, tal is required at the outset, while at the same time one which they do with great exactness. Covering is done may be permitted to doubt if the current expenses of either with the hoe, or in large fields with a sort of fork. farming operations are really diminished in proportion. pointed plow made for the purpose, which draws the earth Consequently farming-to be successfully carried on-re- over the seed. A harrow is run over the field as soon as quires larger risks and even more constant and careful su- the corn is fairly up, with the middle teeth taken out so pervision than with us; and the fact that it is thus carried as to straddle the rows. The customary distance apart is on with good success—and this in some departments, like four feet each way. The field receives such subscquent dairying, that are particularly thought to require personal cultivation as may be requisite to keep it in good order. attention--is one to which we may therefore look with es- Care is often taken at first to thin the corn to three stalks pecial interest, both as affording encouragement to others in the bill, but it is planted so carefully as not to render similarly situated, and as perhaps not without its lessons of this imperatively necessary. utility for ourselves.
Barn-yard manure may be better applied to corn ground, One evening at the late Baltimore Show, as the proceed- Mr. D. remarked, than to any other; the cultivation of ings at the Society's Meeting were mostly to be confined the field incorporates it so completely with the soil. The to the business transactions of the occasion, two or three of next crop to corn is winter wheat-uniformly drilled in, us held a private Discussion at Barnum's, in the course of a practice which has become as completely established in which—being all chairmen and no audience-the system favor with the Frederick farmers, as the use of the reaping of direct interrogation was ruled in order, and the various machine at harvest. The land is seeded down with the details were elicited on which the above statements are wheat, and remains under grass from one to three years, founded. Avoiding the interruptions of the dialogue, we according to the circumstances of the case. In this rotaobtain from the conversation that ensued, something like tion the advantages are three-fold: the quality of the wheat the following outline of the farming of George R. DEN- is much better than when it follows the grass, and heavier Nis, who resides within a mile or two of Frederick City. in grain ; the grass land instead of being plowed in early
The Experience of Mr. Dennis. autumn for the wheat crop, is reserved for late pasturage, Has a farm of about 300 acres, which has been in his and also furr ishes early spring feed before the corn-plowpossession and management for five years past. Costing ing, and, lastly, a better crop of corn is thus obtained than $100 per acre, the total capital now invested in and upon can be got in any other way. The only exception to the it
, is more than twice this amount, or in the neighborhood rule of deep plowing, occurs in the preparation of the corn of $70,000-including the value of servants, live stock, stubble for the wheat; the land is already in good order, implements, expenditures on fencing, &c. Is fond of en- and only requires to be turned over for about four inches closures of small or moderate extent, and has seventeen to make an excellent seed bed, and the manures that have fields, surrounded by post and rail chestnut fence, costing been applied, instead of being “ buried out of the sight' $1.25 per panel of ten feet. Could not afford the land of the young wheat, are just where it can make use of for the ordinary worm or Virginia fence, which not only them in getting an early start. It is to obtain this good occupies so much space, but furnishes a harbor for weeds start to begin upon, which is thought all-important, either and shrubs of all kinds to mature their seeds and thus run with wheat or corn, in enabling the crop to withstand an a foray over all the adjacent territory. His land-taking unfavorable season or elude its insect enemies at a later 1859 for instance, was 95 acres of it under Indian corn, period. 85 in wheat and 10 in oats, with the remainder under His preference for small enclosures, arises from the adgrass. Together with this large production of grain, he vantage he derives in frequently shifting his stock from combines dairy operations, also upon a scale of considera- one field to another-often keeping them upon the same ble extent. The total sales off from the farm for the year pasture no longer than a week at once. He is also a strong referred to, were between $8,300 and $8,400. The land advocate of putting the stock a.pasture as early in the seaunder wheat averaged throughout 21 bushels, 3 pecks, son as possible, as soon as two or three inches of grass are per acre-that in Indian corn, owing to a dry and unfa- in an eatable condition, instead of allowing the grass to vorable season, was below the average, which is rated at grow higher--and reckoned that the economy of feed was 50 bushels (10 bbls.) per acre, while the actual product enough to enable him to keep a fourth or a third more was but about 7 bbls, or 35 bushels. Has raised 15 bbls. stock upon similar areas by these means, than he could (75 bushels) corn per acre through a field of 12 to 15 otherwise. acres, and bas had a field of 18 acres in bearded Mediter- One method of growing corn and potatoes together is ranean wheat, whiclı barvested 35 bushels per acre through- worthy of particular description, as by it Mr. Dennis obout.
tains nearly as much of either as he would, if it had the
sole possession of the land. He had 12 acres thus eni- spectively at morning and night-together with what hay ployed this year; it is laid off in chequers 34 by 41 feet, or corn fodder they will congume. The ordinary method instead of 4 by 4, as for corn alone, and the corn put in of giving the corn fodder, which is perhaps his great dehills where the lines crose. The single shovel plow is pendence in getting through the winter, and an acre of then put through between the rows, the widest way, and which he considers at least as of equal value to the same the potatoes planted so as to be in line with the hills of surface under either clover or timothy, -is to spread the corn, and allow the use of a shovel plow or cultivator in stalks loosely over the ground, the cattle picking off such the 31 feet between the rows the other way. The 12 acres of the leaves as they can, and the stalks being trodden in referred to gave this year, which was unfavorable, a yield of with the manure. If short of fodder, he cuts off the butt 60 bushele per acre of potatoes, which is considered a of the stalk and puts the remainder through a claff-cutter, very fair crop, and probably 84 bbls. (42 bushels) of corn but the other is the most general way. He considers the per acre, as nearly as can be estimated before the crop is manure of which the cornstalks form the vegetable porfivally measured. Mr. D. inclines to the opinion that tion, more valuable even than that made with straw--the there may be an absolute advantage to the potatoes, in the stalk absorbing the liquid part inore completely; he act that their tops are thus shaded by the corn from the spreads over from 65 to 80 acres of land annually, and very hot suns of summer.
mostly with this sort of manure which soon becomes in. The Dairy and other stock on Mr. Dennis' corporated with the soil, and disappears from siglit. The
cows are always turned out at night during summer, in Mr. Dennis has been in the habit of keeping from fifty pastures adjacent to the stables, to which they are brought to sixty milch cows, which he ordinarily buys with the at evening to be milked, whiile during the day they probayoung calf by their side-purchasing the ordinary stock bly occupy fields at a greater distance. He farther added of the neighborhood, such as cost him an average of $30 with regard to the corn fodder, that his sheep seem to per head, which he keeps in good order and sells during thrive on it better than upon hay, and that both the catthe season after they are dry to the butcher--taking ad- tle and sheep will desert the latter in racks for the former vantage of the markets if favorable, or reserving for a scattered over the surface of the yard. second season's milking if in any case it appears expedient. In the labor of the farm five men and four boys are emThe calf is worth perhaps $4 to him, in effect reducing ployed, and it is a part of the duty of the latter to curry the cost of the cow by just so much. The cows sold last the cows thoroughly all the winter-an operation in which year happened to be marketed unusually well--at least it is represented that “the party of the second part ” takes they brought 4fc. per lb. live weight at Baltimore, which great delight, receiving the intimation of the approaching netted a considerable advance upon their first cost. He curry-comb with as great pleasure as that of the coming had also during last winter a stock of about 280 sheep, of breakfast. The growing of mangolds had been attempted which 170 wethers, bought at $2.90 per head, were sold for the cattle and sheep, but the grasshoppers were said . at 6fc. per pound, and as they averaged about 75 lbs., to have eaten and the hot sun to have burnt them up, brought a fraction over $5 each.
and Mr. D. finds that with bran, of which owing to the The object of his dairy operations is not the sale of amount of wheat there grown and ground, any desirable milk, but the manufacture of Butter, with regard to the quantity can generally be had, he can make variety enough processes employed in which our time was too short to for the cows to keep them doing well more cheaply than gather the particulars which would have been of most in- if he should undertake to raise, dig and house the stock of terest in connection with these details. From personal roots necessary to last him long into cold weather. inspection we shall sometime hope to obtain any informa
Hints for other Latitudes. tion here lacking; but the facts stated, together with one In the first paragraph of these notes the assertion was or two now to follow, will perhaps be considered sufficient hazarded that they might perhaps be found to contain a to prove satisfactorily the possibility of profitable dairy bint or two of some practical weight with us, and we cerfarming in the latitude of Mr. D.'s residence, when the tainly wish that our farmers might be brought to estimate character of the land is such as to produce good corn and as Mr. D. estimates it, the importance of liberal and jugrass. He insisted upon this point, with the more urgency, dicious manuring. His soil is naturally good, but he is because t has been claimed that butter-making cannot be by no means content with what Nature alone has given him. successfully delegated to farm assistants or servants- Not only does he apply farm-yard manure upon an extent arguing that with proper management on the part of the only limited by his capacity for its manufacture, but he farmer himself, it can be undertaken as successfully as al- frequently makes use of guano with his corn and wheat, most any other branch of agricultural production. As to for the sake of "giving them a start," and plaster also is the cliaracter of the butter he makes, those who have a constant and habitual application. Since he has had the visited Barnum's admirable hotel at Baltimore will only farm, moreover, full 15,000 bushels of lime have been put need to know that its supplies are obtained from Mr. Den- upon it, being a dressing of fifty bushels per acre, a quannis, while we understood from his statements that the gross tity sufficient, he thinks, to last for ten years, and proving return for each milch cor during the last year, amounts as efficient, for that period at least, as a still larger dressto about $67 per head-a return which will be exceeded ing would do. we fancy by very few of our more northerly dairymen. Another point with him is to keep the farm during the
In feeding the cows, the ordinary mixture in use is one- winter, stocked as heavily, and during the summer as lightball corn-and-oat meal-the corn and oats being ground ly as he can, compatibly with the result of the crops. This together in equal proportions and one-half wheat bran, is essential there, it is true, as a means of providing win. which last is procured at a cost ranging from 10 to 18 ter employinent for lands which he is obliged to maintain cents a bushel. They receive from a gallon to a gallon the year round, whether they are at work or idle; but it and a half each per day of this mixture, graduated accor- adds to the force of that argument which we have advanding to the condition of the cow-given in two feeds, re-Iced as the result of observation with regard to the success of English farmers—the necessity of keeping more stock Experience of Mr. Walker upon a Smaller for the sake of the manure they produce—that in this way
Farm. our northern farmers may equalize in some measure the
Mr. S. D. Walker who also resides near Frederick, oc·labors of the year-employing their own time and that of cupies 40 acres which he cultivates upon a little different their assistants to good advantage in the winter, instead of His rotation allows the land to lie four years in grass; he
system, and on which he has obtained very good results. allowing it to remain almost totally unproductive. The prefers to turn the sod under in late autumn or early winnecessary consequence of having winter work which re- ter, as it then ferments and decays, and he thinks that the quires attention, is that it tends to facilitate the adoption worms which might thrive upon its foliage if only tumed of that system of hired labor, to which we have always under in spring, until the young com would be ready for looked as a source of relief to our farmers' wives from them to attack and feed upon, are deprived of this refuge the too oppressive burden of their household cares, viz., and provision by the action of winter on the already in. the employment of married men by the year, to reside inverted sod. Two corn crops are then taken in snccession tenant or farm cottages of their own—it being a well es- —the first receiving no manure, as the decayed sod is a tablished fact that this system obviates much of the difficulty sufficient source of fertility, and the second only requiring so often experienced by frequent change of hands at a time a light dressing, much of the benefit of which latter is when field work is most pressing, while if by wintering thought to accrue to the wheat crop which is sown the more stock, more labor can then be advantageously en autumn after the second crop of corn is out of the way. gaged, both employer and employed lave a renewed bond of mutual interest, inasmuch as the former can afford to
The fourth crop of the series is again wheat, preceded hire for the twelve-month together, and the latter, sure of by a deep plowing-say 10 inches or a foot-and a his winter's work, will be less likely to be tempted away thorough manuring of probably ten or fifteen good wagon by the offer of a dollar or two higher wages during seed- loads per acre.
As soon as the wheat is sown, or rather time or harvest. We advert to this subject, however, drilled, and this is generally about 1st of October, timomerely in passing—it is one which might indeed be more
thy is sown, and clover seed follows the next February or frequently canvassed, but on which we only intended at March. The land then lies four years more in grass, present to venture this hurried allusion.
making altogether an eight-year rotation and giving each The Method of Burning and Applying Lime. Lear ten acres of wheat and ten of corn out of the whole
forty. Having of late had several inquiries as to the way of lime-burning practiced by Maryland farmers, we were glad tine of grain crops, Mr. WALKER had kept five cattle and
Upon four acres of grass following the foregoing rouof the opportunity of turning our “ Discussion” to the three borses from the 15th April, the season through, cheapest way of constructing a kiln for the purpose. The last year even up to the day before Christmas. It should simplest and most common method is the following:Upon a surface of ground say 16 feet wide and twice this this farm. Mr. W. is an advocate like Mr. Dennis of
not be omitted that lime and plaster are also in use on length, trenches are dug lengthwise about three feet apart turuing stock to grass as early in spring as possible. His and from 12 to 18 inches in depth and width. These corn crop this year was about 10 bbls. (50 bushels) per trenches are covered with large flat stones, and between the trenches and over the stones there is first put a layer acre in a season which as before doted was quite unfa
. of kindling wood, such as old rails that will easily ignite, mixed with straw, &c., ond a little Cumberland coal, which
We close this report for the present with the narrative is chiefly used for fuel. A thin layer of the limestone of a particular acre of land, the results upon which, while follows, broken to a size of perhaps five or six inches they partake rather of the nature of gardening than that diameter—then more coal and so on alternately, the lime- of farming, are worthy of being placed on record, althongh stone, as put in toward the top, being of any size it chances this deponent is by no means sure that he is not violating, to come, until the very outside, which is pounded quite in so doing, the confidence reposed in him by the narrator. small and laid on very smoothly. The height of the pile The statements received were attested by witnesses, and may be five or six feet, the sides sloping at about an angle and potatoes were planted in a little different method from
are worthy of all credence:-Upon an acre of land, corn of 45° or perhaps a little less—the size is seldom if ever wider than 16 feet, but the length varies precisely accord that mentioned by Mr. Dennis. It had been under corn and ing to the wants of the burner. When wood is the fuel potatoes also in 1859, following a sod turned under the employed, the main difference would probably be in the previous autumn. It was laid off in cliequers 21 feet each erection of a front to the kiln of permanent stone, and way, and the corn and potatoes put in alternately in each the enlargement of the trenches which here only serve for hill, with the sole exception that the outside row all around draft, to admit of feeding the fire from time to time.
the field was in potatoes, because in cultivating with a After the pile is completed as above, the sides and top horse, the bills would not obstruct lis turning at the headbeing composed as stated of the small limestone laid on
lands, as corn would have done in the same place. compactly, the kiln may be covered with earth—but pus- Green corn was sold from this acre of land, during the sibly not until after the fire has been started-to prevent season of roasting ears, to the amount of $48, and at least too rapid combustion. A common way of doing this is to $10 worth more still remains in the owner's hands-makdrive down stakes three feet or thereabouts from the pile, ing the total result of the corn crop $58. Two hundred within wbich the earth is put, retained by boards against bushels of potatoes have also been sold at 60 cents per the stakes and surrounding the kiln on the sides as well bushel, making $120. After a part of the corn was pullas covering the top. The process of burning is completed ed and the earliest of the potatoes were gone, there was in about four days and nights. A ton of coal, say 2200 quite a strip-say a sixteenth of the field put into tuirlbs., will burn a hundred bushels of lime and costs $3.25. nips, of which considerable sales have already been made An ordinary kiln contains from one to two thousand bush- at 50 cts. per bushel, and the total return from this source els of lime, but they are sometimes much larger, occa- will be about $15—making an aggregate of $193 for the sionally reaching 6,000 bushels.
Nine bushels of potatoes were planted which cost The kilns are often made directly in the field where the $4.50, and the cost of the seed-corn was also a trifle. lime is to be used, and the whole cost, including quarry. The total expense of plowing, planting, cultivating, dig. ing, fuel, attendance, &c., may be reckoned at about 74 ging and harvesting, including an allowance for handling cts. per bushel. In spreading the lime, the field is che- the manure applied, is set down at $27—while as to the quered off in 21 foot squares; a half-bushel put upon each | value of the manure itself, the corn fodder is received as of these squares is equivalent to fifty bushels per acre, a full equivalent—the crop of corn being considered as and is put in a little pile where it stands until slacked and good as it would have been without any potatoes in the is then scattered evenly over the ground. It may be put field. A few figures will show that this was a tolerably on corn land after plowing when its effects can generally profitable acre, and with these details our Evening was be traced in the succeeding crop.
I brought to its conclusion,
L, H, T.
951 Young cattle...
10 25 13
15 | Hogs.
les “A Westchester Farmer" has favored us with na account of the Market Fair at Katonah, Oct. 17, which we
do not publish at length only because our last number THE CULTIVATOR. contained a letter upon the same subject from another
correspondent. The establishment of these " institutions," however, is a matter of growing interest with our farmers,
and they will watch the results of the experiment, wherALBANY, N. Y., DECEMBER, 1860.
ever it may be tried, with considerable attention. We
may therefore avail ourselves of the communication re13" As the labors of the Season are diminished by the ferred to, to present some farther facts with regard to approach of Winter, we desire to suggest to all, the pro- this first gathering of the farmers of Westchester, for the priety of deroting an occasional hour to a Review of the purposes of sale and purchase,-premising that our present
correspondent has been a leader in the undertaking and results accomplished during the busier Months of the considers himself authorized to pronounce it satisfactorily growing and maturing of the Crops. Many who have kept successful. The entries on the clerk’s book were as fol. no accurate accounts of the transactions of seed time and low:harvest, have still in their possession odd memoranda of Horses, matched and single.... 53 | Bulls,..
Working oxen and fat steers
Sheep,.. many sorts, in note books, op scraps of paper, or perhaps
yokes.. merely on the tablets of the mind, -by reference to which, The fee for these entries to provide for incidental exbefore they are lost or fade away, quite a History of the penses—was:Year could still be made out; and it would be one, with CATTLE-10 cts, each for 10 or less in one lot, and 5 cts. for each aniout doubt, which would be both instructive now and valu- Horses,20 cts, each for 10 or less—10 cts. for each, over ten.
SHEEP AND SWIXE-5 ets, each. able for record and comparison hereafter. Those who
Auction Sales-one per cent. on gross price. leave complete accounts of all the details of the farm ope- The large number of cows present in proportion to othrations, will find still more in them to reconsider-mis- er stock will be understood when it is remembered that
the farmers of the locality are very largely engaged in takes, perhaps, to guard against in future—successes or the production of milk for the New-York market. Grain failures, the causes and consequences of which are well was also offered by sample in considerable
lots-also apworthy of further study and examination—at least it will ples, roots—including potatoes, carrots and mangolds-and be singular if there is nothing in the time thus expended, a quite extended assortment of other agricultural or misthat sliall prove either provocative of thought or sugges. set and during the morning, but it is stated that in the end,
cellaneous articles. The sales were rather slow at the out. tive of improvement.
about three-fourths of the stock offered had changed This wint we throw out, however, not entirely with the hands by private purchase. About 1 P. M., “tlie auction disinterested aim that our readers may turn it to good ac- commenced," writes our correspondent, “ with the sale of count for themselves alone. Each, in that genuine and two bulls, an Ayrshire and a thorough-bred Short-Horn, catholic spirit of good will which should be felt by every which were put up with the announcement that the sale
would be without reserve-an announcement that was one who is engaged or interested in the cultivation of the hardly credited, until the bulls were in succession knocked soil,—may share much of the benefit thus derived with down at very low prices. In the subsequent sales bids thousands of others in all parts of the country, to the mu- came more freely, confidence being restored, and after the tual advantage of all; for there is no fact or lesson thus sale of a number of milch cows, borses and sheep, inclu
of the broad-tailed vacontributed to the common stock, which does not tend to ding some imported African encourage more general inquiry and discussion, and ad- riety, offered by the Rev. Henry Highland Garnett, which
were bought by Mr. Jay, the auction wound up with sales vance by just so much the information and the intelligence of evergreen, flower and fruit trees.” of those whose attention or imitation may be thus aroused. “The fact,” he continues, “that the arrangements for
A correspondent in the Canadian Agriculturist writes to the Fair involved very trifling expense, that their cost was that Journal :—“Now that the long evenings have ar- assumed by the parties at Katonah chiefly interested in rived, I trust that many of your readers may be induced the assemblage of so large a number of people, and that
the fair occupied but a single day-enabling the farmer to to use their pens, and communicate the experience and combine business and profit withi the enjoyment of a holiobservations of another year. For the past two years I day—seemed to render it satisfactory to all,-a home ma have been a subscriber to the Albany COUNTRY GENTLE- ket at their very doors for the sale, purchase and exchange man, and no department of that paper was so much rel- of stock and products, being a thing never known to them ished by the writer as that portion containing the corres- convenience. Farmers are slow to believe that such a
before, and so immensely desirable as regards time and pondence. Nor do I believe that in any other way the market can be established in a moment, without expense, same amount of valuable information could be brought and with very trifling trouble, simply by common consent together ; for the simple reason that these facts and ob- that at a certain time and place such a market shall be servations come from practical farmers, not theorists."
beld." Our correspondents bave the opportunity of knowing tries be made a day or two beforehand, to allow time for
Vur correspondent concludes by recommending that enwhat others think of their productions, and we have fre- the preparation of a printed catalogue embracing all that euently had occasion to congratulate ourselves and the is to be offered for sale. readers of our papers, that their number has been so constantly on the increase, while at the same time the charac- an opportunity of examining these horse shoes, and we
RICHARDSON'S IMPROVED HORSE SHor.-We have had ter of their communications has done so much to manifestare informed by those who have used them, that they have the growth our agriculture is making every day, and to answered an excellent purpose. They are so constructed spread still wider and farther the spirit of advancement that the under side of the bar forming the shoe is convex We bespeak their renewed contributions as Autumn wanes adhesive to a stiff soil when the roads are muddy, as any
instead of flat. This form renders the lower surface less and the sun lingers longer in other skies, with the confi- one may discover who observes the difference in the force dent assurance that the exertion thus put forth can scarcely required to withdraw a round rod and a flat bar from stiff fail to re-act for their own good as well as render useful mud. We are informed that the use of a spring balance service on its mission aniong their bretliren.
has shown that the convex shoe when bedded in clay, is