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Roman dollars per annum, though offer- as it is in England, with that of ings from the faithful in various coun- Bishop. It is an honorary title contries have (especially in the case of his ferred by the Pope, and the bearer of present Holiness) brought occasional it may be a priest or layman. He augmentation to these narrow means. Among the thousand chambers of the and wears violet stockings. If he

has the tonsure, is called Monsignor, Vatican, few, and those not the largest has any chance of exchanging his are reserved for his residence. In the Quirinal palace he has a more magnifi- violet for the scarlet stockings of a cent suite; but his villa on the lake of cardinal, or any hope of valuable Albano, and that lately purchased at preferment, he probably, in course Porto d'Anzio, are surpassed in scale and of his career, becomes full priest; if grandeur by many country seats of the prospect of promotion no longer gentlemen and noblemen in England. tempts him along the ecclesiastical Though always appearing abroad with a

career, he retires and becomes decided cortège of chariots and mounted guards, layman. “He marries,” so M. About in private his habits are simple, his dress entirely white, with a gold embroidered

says, “ for one takes a wife here on cross on the slipper, which is kissed in

the day of one's despair. An ambithe act of that homage he usually dis

tious man who is disappointed kills penses with from non-Catholics at pre

himself at Paris — at Rome he sentation, and of which he himself sets marries.” the example, so far as Christian humility

Much has been said and written is implied, by kissing the feet of priests about the admission of laics into the (who are generally poor and strangers) civil government of Rome, and Mr during the solemnity of Holy Thursday. Hemaus gives us a long list to show He holds no levees, but access to him is

how large a proportion of offices are easy, through application to proper offici- held by laymen; but he has the canals, for persons of almost every rank, dour to acknowledge that these with no other requirement as to eti statistics, on which Mr Maguire and quette of costume than black evening dress without gloves, and the veil for others have laid so much stress, females.

I may add, as to the convey no proof that the directing private life of Pius IX., that he daily principle—the animus of this syscelebrates mass in his private chapel, tem-is not exclusively ecclesiasti. and attends another mass said by a chap- cal.” They certainly prove no such lain : dedicates the entire morning, till thing. If the higher offices and all the an early dinner, to his duties; then patronage are in the hands of the drives out, and (when beyond the city Church, the lay official is sure to be walls) usually walks; returns again to

the mere tool and instrument of the occupy his hours, till a rather late supper, in that routine of endless and ever.

Church. These prelates of whom we prescribed engagements that render the

have been speaking, are not, in life of a Pope little else than a magnifi- general, priests, but they cannot fail cent slavery. Among these engage

to be priestly in their ideas and ments, audiences, official and private, policy ; they expect everything from are not the least prominent or weari. the Pope. One wonders that certain some; and I have heard of his present reasoners have not discovered that Holiness having literally to spend the the present government is decidedly day till 7 P.M., in one series of recep- laic, since the prime minister is a tions.

cardinal - deacon. Why, even the "Most of the ecclesiastics enrolled in

lowest functionaries that serve this the Papal Court rank as prelates; and this household is at present composed of

clerical monarchy must be imbued the Cardinal, Secretary of State, ‘Pre

with the clerical spirit! We see here fect of the Apostolical Palaces,' a major in England that the parish beadle, domo, a næstro di camera, an auditor, though unquestionably a layman, has the maestro of the sacred palaces (whó the ecclesiastical spirit in him as is always a Dominican and head of the strong as the rector-probably much censorsbip over the press), 10 private stronger. chamberlains, 102 private supernumer. An amusing use is made of this ary chamberlains, all, like the former, of circumstance that some of the prelatic rank," &c. &c.

highest ministers of the Pope are The title of Prelate, it is hardly not, strictly speaking, priests. Of necessary to say, is not synonymous, the cardinals. some are cardinal

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bishops, some cardinal-priests, some fluity; and I am assured, on creditable cardinal-deacons. Cardinal Antonelli authority, that about 500 scudi a-year is is of the last order, and if he serves

all that remains in the private purse even the Church in a somewhat worldly of the most exalted among these ecclefashion, and more after the manner

siastical princes ! Nor need we be surof the serpent than the dove, the prised at such exemplification of the Church itself can receive no taint,

principle of Catholicism, whose aim is to

surround with lustre the spiritual idea and he himself is not so very blam

attached to the office-not to aggrandise able, since he is not a priest ! “Les the individual, or administer to the pride bonnes âmes,” says M. About, “ qui of family." veulent absolument que tout soit bien à Rome, font sonner bien haut Mr Hemans delights in tracing a l'avantage qu'il a de n'être pas prêtre. symbolic meaning in everything Si on l'accuse d'être trop riche : d'ac- about him. The princes of the Church cord, répondent ces Chrétiens indul- shall enjoy, if he pleases, merely a gents, mais souvenez-vous qu'il n'est symbolic wealth. We know there is pas prêtre ! Si l'on trouve qu'il a lu one instance in which they display Machiavel avec profit, il n'est pas very ingeniously a symbolic poverty. prêtre ! Si le public cite un peu If a cardinal, as member of some relisouvent ses bonnes fortunes, il n'est gious fraternity, has taken the vow pas prêtre ! Je ne savais pas que les of poverty, he records or fulfils the diacres eussent le privilège de tout vow-by driving in a brown chariot faire impunément. A ce prix, que ne instead of a scarlet one! nous permettra-t-on point, à nous We are quite ready to believe that que ne sommes pas même tonsurés ?” both Pope and cardinals in this pre

Mr Hemans is desirous of convey- sent century lead most respectable ing to the English mind a just idea lives, and are, in general, admirof the private life of cardinals, as able specimens of the ecclesiastical well as of the Pope. He has, no character. We have our own archdoubt, obtained accurate information, bishops and bishops, who, probably, and we are quite prepared to believe in mere domestic or personal luxury, that, as a class, notwithstanding are far in advance of these princes of their greater pomp, they are much the Church ; we have no difficulty, the same description of people as therefore, in picturing to ourselves a may be found amongst the clergy in number of quiet, respectable, intelliany cathedral town of England. He gent, and learned men, wearing red tell us

stockings and

driving about in gild“ It would be erroneous to infer from ed coaches. But if we were to take the outward splendour and cumbrous our excellent Archbishop of Canterceremonial attached to this rank, that bury and put a crown upon his head, the private existence of the cardinals is and give him for secretaries of state all gilded with pomp, and steeped in the able Bishops of London, Ox luxury. Much is required for the exter- ford, and Exeter-should we, out of nal_little left to private purposes. The these worthy prelates, form a very income of a cardinal, simply as such, who resides in the Papal States, is 4000 scudi admirable civil government for Enga-year; though, if he hold a bishopric, ab- land? We should probably say that, bacy, or other benefice, or office of gov. just in proportion as they were zealous ernment, the revenue attached to such, churchmen would they prove defecof course, brings augmentation to his tive as king and ministers. The Pope

With the state they must keep and cardinals may be very excellent up (as two carriages, livery servants, ecclesiastics—they have proved themchaplain, secretary, &c.), many of the selves bad governors, bad legislators, Sacred College have little at their dis- bad administrators of justice. Muniposal : some have died so poor that it cipal government is for earthly obit has been found necessary to defray their funeral expenses out of the treajects, the administration of justice, sury, or the privy purse of the sovereign. the promotion of industry, and the Even the seven cardinals of the order of like, and these require the undivided bishops, suffragans of Rome, have not care of the eminent men to whom they (abatement being made of obligatory are committed. A good priest suborand official expense) any great super- dinates every earthly interest to the



piety of his flock, or the prosperity suspicion, indefinite delay of trials, proof his church. To him a great cri- longed imprisonments before sentence minal, who is a sound Catholic, is or even investigation has ensued." not half so detestable as a good citizen who is a bad believer. What is

And, finally, after reviewing some earthly prosperity itself? Adversity from a government which punishes

of the judicial anomalies that spring and Christian resignation are much better. We rise easily above the

sin more than crine, and disbelief as

the pleasures of others ; and can willingly cludes by giving in his adhesion to

greatest of sins, our author constand sponsors for any poor child that the opinion that the Catholic religion it sball renounce the pomps and vanities of this wicked world. And if ali would be greatly strengthened if the ties of this wicked world. And if all Papacy could limit itself to a spiriecclesiastics are not pietists, they tual dominion. rarely fail of being good churchmen ; so that no object of civil government “In many minds,” he says, “and al. will be carried forward beyond the most universally in this country, the point where it is quite compatible idea now obtains that the highest credit with the wealth and dignity of the of the Papacy can only be restored by Church, and the mental submission separation from the temporal sovereignty, of the laity.

or at least such modification of that soThe Papal Government is a des. vereignty as to reduce it simply to a

guarantee for independence, political and potism—the short-lived constitution

financial.” given by Pius IX. may be regarded as a nullity-and it must share in all In other European Governments the evils of that unchecked form of the ecclesiastical and civil powers government. The despotism, it is criticise and check each other. Both true, is in the hands of a man not need this sort of criticism. A religilikely to use his power in wanton ous corporation is of admirable seracts of cruelty, but it is also in the vice as a censor to the state and the hands of one who, in the great in- people; but if there is no power in terests of his hierarchy, would feel the nation to overlook and pass judghimself justified in any arbitrary act. ment on the religious corporation, Moreover, there are certain defects it will run riot or become corrupted. which follow directly on the spiritual A religious corporation made desnature of the government, as that potic becomes the most despotic of indiscriminate charity which pro- all governments, for it is despotic duces the very poverty it vainly at- over mind, body, and estate. tempts to overtake, and that mis- Again, there are needful and im. chievous lenity towards criminals, perative functions of the state which which it balances by a severity are altogether inappropriate in the equally mischievous against all who hands of the clergy. How can a venture to think for themselves. genuine Christian priest keep alive “ That discontent prevails at Rome,”

the military spirit of his subjects ? writes Mr Hemans, " against all authori. hands. Even the sword of justice

The sword should be placed in other ties, political, municipal, and religious, is apparent to the most superficial ob

he cannot wield with the necessary server ; and, allowing for exaggera- energy and promptitude. The judge tions or causeless ill humours, the con- here in England sentences a criminal stant expression of that feeling must be to be executed, and forthwith pious admitted to represent a moral fact, clergymen come round him and do though few may be qualified fully to their utmost, in the interval between account for its origin or intensity. Those

the sentence and the execution, to who live under a government, must, prepare the murderer for his advent generally speaking, be better able to ap.

into another world. This is as it preciate it than theorisers at a distance.

should be. The objection that some Most severely has the judicial system of this country been criticised, both at

have made, that this dismissal to home and abroad ; and one of its aspects happier regions of the pepitent crimtoo prominent at Rome cannot be de- inal detracts from the terror of the fended, in the arbitrary principle mani- punishment, and, therefore, from its fest in such abuses as arrests on mere salutary effect upon society, is one of those objections which seem to out which a human society must have validity till we look closer into become stagnant and corrupt - is the matter; for, in fact, this con- made a mischief and a calamity by cern manifested for the safety of the being converted into an arbitrary soul makes death itself more terrible, rule of this fictitious piety. It is and, upon the whole, augments the enough that the man gives—as if all horror that hangsover capital punish- charity consisted in giving—as if it ment. But what if we allowed the were not incumbent to help also by visiting clergy, or the pious home prompting to self-help-as if it were missionary, to delay the execution not a matter of duty to reflect on the till he was satisfied that the soul of ultimate result of our giving. Is the criminal was saved ? The cer- the mere self-sacrifice on the part of tainty and promptitude of the punish- the giver of so much coin, to satisfy ment, on which all its efficacy de- the duty of Christian and rational pends, would be at an end. Yet this charity ? Yet the Papal Government is what is done in Rome. A Catholic itself, and every monastic institution, priest does not think the soul saved and every individual whose conunless the criminal has received science is under the tutelage of the absolution, and he cannot receive priest, merely gives, and gives-and a absolution until he has confessed his frightful amount of poverty is the sins. If a crime has really been inevitable result. committed, there is a confession of it In thought as well as in action to be made, and till this confession there can be no advancement under has been extracted the priest is re- this government. The church of the luctant to sign the warrant for his middle ages is to assert its authority execution. Thus assassins and ban- over the minds of a more enlightened ditti—men who have made robbery and civilised era. It is bad enough and murder their trade—have been when this end is to be accomplished kept in prison till it has been felt through the assistance of a monthat it was too late to punish them! archical power, with whom the the populace had forgotten their hierarchy has made alliance--what crimes, and would look only with must it be when the hierarchy can compassion on their death. The act for itself, without the intervenright of asylum is still retained in tion of an ally who has his own the Roman States. It keeps up the objects and his own interests to consacredness of churches and church- sust? The press is put under a rigid men. Even murderers must acknow- censorship : the education of the ledge there is some good in religion, people is put under the supervision if it shelters them from the pursuit of the priesthood. All philosophy, of justice.

all history, all science, is limited or All temporal interests are subor. falsified to just that teaching which dinated or postponed to a fictitious will accord with its religious dogmas. piety - a piety divorced from its A grown-up man cannot read a rational connection with human well. heretical book, even for the sake of being. Much of the land is held in controverting it, without the written mortmain - what can it better do licence of a priest; and this written than support pious souls who pray for licence will contain express excepothers? You talk in vain of improve- tions. Mr Hemans gives us one in ments, of long leases, of better modes which the whole works of Bentham of communication, roads and rail- are excepted. The dry laborious ways—these pious souls must not be works of our reforming jurist were disturbed; and what else can be de- not to be read, even for the sake of manded of them than to transmit to controverting them. Some may think others the same immunity from all less of this intellectual slavery than mundane cares which, for the profit of civil or municipal abuses; but of mankind in general, they bave they think very erroneously: it lies submitted to enjoy ? Even the most at the root of the matter. How can beautiful and beneficent of human any practices of such a government feelings—that charity which interests be reformed, if the doctrines from us in the welfare of others, and with which they flow, or the spiritual authority by which they are main. closing for any festival. Poor families tained, may not be questioned ? in this city lay by their little earnings

We avoid mentioning many of the weekly, to the privation of parents and harsh and spiteful acts with which children, for buying numbers to play; the present government is charged, and when one observes the degrading because we desire to keep distinct superstition among other results, astonthose evils which may be traced to the ishment is increased at the support, by individual pope or minister, from odious. Divining, drcam-interpretations,

ecclesiastical government, of a system so those which are inherent in the sys- charms, are among the train of attendtem itself—a system which unites in ant evils, despite their being condemned the same person a spiritual and tem- dogmatically by the Church. I vero poral despotism. There is no care libro dei Sogni is a vile publication, sold in this government-there is no faith at almost every stall in Rome (without in human progress. It has only to impediment from the rigorous censorpreserve, to enjoy, to give its sub- ship that has not spared Gioberti or jects paradise and purgatory. There Rosmini), a snare for ignorance, that is no earthly progress for the people professes to give the corresponding worth a thought. The old and de- lucky number for every object that

can be thought or dreamt of !-- even testable plan of monopolies holds its

the name * Papa' admitted, with its applace in Rome-monopolies of tobac- propriate divination in three numbers ; co, salt, sugar-we know not what- and prete, cardinale, cardinalato, each are given or sold by the government. with its number for gambling on-beWhat motive has it for securing to hu- sides other terms grossly indecent ! man industry greater scope and more More deplorable is it that such supersti. equitable treatment? You would tion should be supported by any minister say that so vicious and demoralis- of religion; but the belief widely preing a method of raising money as the vails, and is to a degree encouraged by lottery, would at least be abandoned those who should labour to uproot it,

that certain of the mendicant friars have by a government so moral in its pre- gists of divination for the lottery. I was tensions that it prudishly interferes visited once by a friar, an entire stranger, with the anatomical studies of the who mysteriously intimated that if I schools of surgery ; but no, it holds were a lottery-gambler he could tell me its place.

something worth knowing—for which I

thanked him." “ Though not to the same degree a furore here as at Naples, and though the public extraction at Rome is only

For all apology you are told that bimestral, not weekly, as at the former the people of Rome would gamble in city, the effects are scarcely less ruinous the lotteries of other States, if they in one than the other State. On Satur. had not one of their own. One would day, twice in the month, it is that a think that here, if anywhere, the large and excited multitude assemble in Papal Government would set a good the piazza in one of Rome's older quar; example to its neighbours; but it ters, before the stately lace called Madama' from its foundress Catherine

seems to argue as Cowper's schoolde Medici, now appropriated to offices boy, “If the orchard must be robbed, of government. At a balcony bigh on

I may as well go shares.” M. About the front appears a group of authorities, suggests that the Court of Rome may with a chaplain and a theatrically-dressed not altogether disapprove of the sort little boy standing before a cylindrical of education a lottery assists in givvessel in a frame. When all is ready, ing. It is true that there may be after this receptacle has been made to some advantage, he says, in teaching turn rapidly on a pivot, the little chief people to depend on their industry actor (whose innocence is used to impose rather than on their luck. But then, upon the crowd in the equivocal trans, in the Roman States, where industry action) draws slowly out from the vessel leads to little, the lottery is a consothe winning numbers, each of which is lation for the poor. One can always loudly proclaimed to the people. If the glittering ‘gin-palaces in London hope, and the Church teaches us to streets be a reproach, not less so is the live on hope ; and it is a bad habit nightly illuminated 'lottery - office in of the mind to rely upon ourselves. Rome-open later than all other estab- Better rely on providence, on miracle, lishments, and under no obligation of and pray to the saints for a good

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