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and the passion had less stirred up all must rather submit to as an awful Europe-how know you that the creed necessity. You say truly, Mr Squills. of the Arab (which was then, too, a :-war is an evil; and woe to those passion) might not have planted its who, on slight pretences, open the mosques in the forum of Rome, and gates of Janus, on the site of Notre Dame ? For in

-- The dire abode, the war between creeds--when the And the fierce issues of the furious god."" creeds are embraced by vast races- Mr Squills, after a long pause, think you that the reason of sages can (employed in some of the more handy cope with the passion of millions ? means for the reanimation of subEnthusiasm must oppose enthusiasm. merged bodies, supporting himself The crusader fought for the tomb of close to the fire in a semi-erect posChrist, but he saved the life of Chris- ture, with gentle friction, self-applied, tendom."

to each several limb, and copious reMy father paused. Squills was quite course to certain steaming stimulants passive; hestruggled no more-he was which my compassionate hands predrowned.

pared for him,) stretches himself, and “So," resumed Mr Caxton, more says feebly, “In short, then, not to quietly so, if later wars yet per- provoke further discussion, you would plex us as to the good that the All- go to war in defence of your country. wise One draws from their evils, our Stop, sir-stop, for God's sake! I posterity may read their uses as clear- agree with you-I agree with you! ly as we now read the finger of But, fortunately, there is little chance Providence resting on the barrows of now that any new Boney will build Marathon, or guiding Peter the Her- boats at Boulogne to invade us." mit to the battle-fields of Palestine. Mr CAXTON.-I am not so sure of Nor, while we admit the evil to the that, Mr Squills. (Squills falls back passing generation, can we deny that with a glassy stare of deprecating hormany of the virtues that make the ror.) I don't read the newspapers ornament and vitality of peace sprang very often, but the past helps me to up first in the convulsions of war!" judge of the present. llcre Squills began to cvince faint Therewith my father carnestly resigns of resuscitation, when my father commended to Mr Squills the careful let fly at him one of those numberless perusal of certain passages in Thucywaterworks which his prodigious dides, just previous to the outbreak inemory kept in constant supply. of the Peloponnesian War, (Squills“ Hence," said he, “hence not im- hastily nodded the most serrile acquies-justly has it been remarked by a philo- cence,) and drew an ingenious paralsoplier, shrewd at least in worldly lel between the signs and symptoms experience-(Squills again closed his foreboding that outbreak, and the very eyes, and became exanimate)— It is apprehension of coming war which strange to imagine that war, which of was evinced by the recent Io paans all things appears the most savage, to peace. And, after sundry notable should be the passion of the most and shrewd remarks, tending to show heroic spirits. But 'tis in war that where elements for war were already the knot of fellowship is closest drawn; ripening, amidst clashing opinions and 'tis in war that mutual succour is most disorganised states, he wound up with given-mutual danger run, and com- saying, “So that, all things conmon affection most exerted and em- sidered, I think we had better just ployed; for heroism and philanthropy keep up enough of the bellicose spirit, are almost one and the same !!** not to think it a sin if we are called

My father ceased, and mused a upon to fight for our pestles and morlittle. Squills, if still living, thought tars, our three per cents, goods, chatit prudent to feign continued extinc- tels, and liberties. Such a time must tion.

come, sooner or later, even though “Not,” said Mr Caxton, resuming the whole world were spinning cotton,

not but what I hold it our duty and printing sprigged calicoes. We never to foster into a passion what we may not see it, Squills, but that

* Shaftesbury.

young gentleman in the cradle, whom "Only on my father's proviso," said you have lately brought into light, I hesitatingly. “For hearth and altar may."

-nothing less !" "And if so," said my uncle abruptly, “And even in that case," said my speaking for the first time—“if indeed father, “add the shield to the sword !" it is for altar and hearth!”.

and on the other side of the infant he My father suddenly drew in and placed Roland's well-worn Bible, pished a little, for he saw that he was blistered in many a page with secret caught in the web of his own elo. tears. quence.

There we all stood, grouping round Then Roland took down from the the young centre of so many hopes wall his son's sword. Stealing to the and fears-in peace or in war, born cradle, he laid it in its sheath by the alike for the Battle of Life. And he, infant's side, and glanced from my unconscious of all that made our lips father to us with a beseeching eye. silent, and our eyes dim, had already Instinctively Blanche bent over the left that bright bauble of the sword, cradle, as if to protect the Neogilos; and thrown both arms round Roland's but the child, waking, turned from bended neck. her, and, attracted by the glitter of Herbert," murmured Roland; and the hilt, laid one hand lustily thereon, Blanche gently drew away the sword, and pointed with the other, laugh- and left the Bible. angly, to Roland.



NEARLY sixteen years ago, there porate into his own previous concepappeared in the pages of Maga, de tions whatever is before him ; and scriptions of the scenery of Lynmouth, thus, by preserving the great suggesNorth Devon. As Sketcher, I tben tive characteristics, represent nature proposed to myself to analyse the with a far greater truth, exhibiting impressions which landscape scenery her very life and feeling, than they makes upon the minds of artists and who aim at truth through exact and lovers of nature, and to show that minute imitation, there must be in the artist a higher Let this be exemplified in Salvator aim than imitation; and that the Rosa. Do bis wild scenes of rock, pleasure of the unpractising admirer and rugged rock-engendered trees, will be in proportion to his power of exist to the general eye, exactly in extracting from the insensitive matter their form, and colour, and composiof nature, the poetic life of thought; tion, as he has represented them ? to rescue both art and nature from The exact sketcher would have found the degradation they suffer when dis a less correspondence in branches and connected with the higher senses; to foliage-a less marked living feeling show that nature, to be the worthy ob between the rocks and trees; he ject of art, should be suggestive. Its would have found much in the colourcharm is to elicit, to draw out finely, ing, especially in the green leaves, and to embellish what is already, in a where they are so few and scattered, ruder state, in the mind. If there be of an inconsistent gaiety. These poverty within, there is no room for would have been distracting ; but his the reception of the riches so profusely educated eye, toned by a one bold surrounding us in the external world. feeling, rejected these, and seized the Neither artists nor amateurs are gene- wilder characteristic, to which he rally sufficiently aware, that a pre resolutely, under the impulse of his vious education is necessary to make genius, made all the rest subservient sketching effective and expressive. and suggestive. He embodied what We find ourselves everywhere. What he saw with what he felt, and marred ever be the scenery, the sketcher not the savage freedom by attractive brings little back that he does not littlenesses, but gave it full play ; take with him. Hence the diversity and with an execution as bold and in the character of sketches of differ free, which the minute critic would ent sketchers--and the one character pronounce not natural, though most that pervades the portfolio of each. natural, as most expressive of that I have heard of an artist who visited spontaneous out-flung unconstrainedour lakes, and brought back with him ness of nature's growth, which really only cottages! Morland would have pervades all, he harmoniously brought added, or rather made the principal, all the parts under the dominion of the stye and pigs; and even Gaios one poetic feeling. Take his foliage, borough's sketch-book may have even in form—to say nothing of its slown little more than ragged pol- actual unnaturalness of colour in the lards, and groups of rustic children. exact sense-there is a raggedness, as To know what is in nature, you must torn and storm-beaten, in the indiknow what is in yourself. If you are vidual leafage, which the untutored ignorant of art, your sketches can sketcher will in vain look for in his only be accidentally good. It is pos- beat; but all this stamps one great sible to be a very close observer, even truth, and that speaks more of nature of minute beauties, and yet be a very than many small ones. I do not bad sketcher. One of an original mean here to give the palm to Salvagenius will convert, and, by a bold tor Rosa, as if he were “Lord of dissimilitude in non-essentials, incor- Landscape;" I mention him as a

strong example, as the boldest devi. home-practice, and in following the ator from that which the unpoetic mind's bent on the canvass, the eye sees, and minds totally un- memory did not vividly present as not charmed by poetry can conceive. wanted. It is more difficult, thereI think it well here to lay some stress fore, at first to generalise, to escape upon these preliminary remarks, be- the fascinations of local form and cause much has been written, with a colour, which keep the eye from the great fascination of language, recom- instant acknowledgment of a whole. mending, as I believe too strongly, a We are thus at first apt to begin with close observation in detail of the phe. the detail, instead of leaving it to the nomena of nature; overlooking the last, by which means we have more great phenomenon-the accordance of than we want, or less accurately and external nature with the heart, feel. accommodatingly what is wanted. ings, and very life and soul of man. When we have learned again to One writer in particular, with great reject, and to see, we are surprised ability, and audacious confidence, be- with a facility we at first despaired of. cause in his blindness he, uneducated We do, then, because we know what to it, sees not in nature what such to do. great men as Salvator Rosa and I would recommend, therefore, beGaspar Poussin have extracted from fore setting out on such expeditions, it, and yet made it nature's and their where it be practicable, to visit daily, own, Alings upon their established and all day, during a week or fortnight, fame the brutum fulmen of his con- the best galleries of pictures, such as tempt and abuse. Damnat quod non contain all schools, that as much as intelligit. He knows not the true possible there may be no bias, but principles of art which exist to per- such as every one must find in himfection in their works, nor knows how self before he reaches the gallery. I strictly these principles belong to art would do this to confirm, and fasten and nature only through and by their upon the memory, the principles of connexion with the mind of man. art,- breadth, greatness, truth, exYou may study meteorology in the pression, colouring, sentiment, and Penny Magazine, or geology and how obtained. Here will be a grambotany, most scientifically ; but it will mar without its drudgery ; for every further you a very little way, while lesson will be a delight, if we go to it your portfolio is under your arm, and with no conceited opinions of our own, your eye in search of a picturesque and no cavilling spirit bringing ourwhich you have not learned to find. selves down to an admission that these Nay, it may happen, for it often does great men of former days had some happen, that the more you sketch foundation upon which they built their the farther you are from art. It is fame, their acknowledged fame - so possible, also, for the most accom- searching, we shall see the reasons of plished artist to sketch too much; their doings—why they, each for their and to stay the power of his invention, own purpose, adopted this or that by referring too constantly to the pre- style of colour, or of composition, or ciseness and individuality of scenery. chiaro-scuro. Going then immeHe dares not so much trust his palette diately to nature from art, we shall as his portfolio, as it were his register see how very true art is-a secret that, of nature, to which he has bound him- without this immediate comparison, self beyond the usual apprenticeship. would be very apt to be hidden from

It has been remarked by sketchers, us. No man in his senses would beamateurs, and artists by profession, gin a science from his own observation that, upon a sketching expedition, alone. It was not the first shepherd " their hands are not in" for some who, studying the stars, laid open the days. I doubt if the fault be so much study of astronomy. We shall learn in the hand as in the eye; for in most nothing by despising all that has been cases the hand had come from the learnt before we were born. So it is immediate practice of the studio: in art; some principles have been but the eye is distracted by the many established, which it is well to know beauties which now force themselves thoroughly; and, the more we know into observation, and which in the them, the more enthusiastic will be

our admiration, the love of art through presented to them. And they will nature, and of nature through art. thus learn to remedy deficiencies,

During my former visits to the and acquire a better power of selecting beautiful scenery of Lynmonth, I had scenes, by knowing where the defiseldom taken any whole view, but ciencies lie ; tbe mind's eye will not chiefly studied parts for use in the dwell upon them, or will fill them up, detail of compositions ; and this I and the composition show itself to think to be a good practice for the them in a manner quite otherwise than landscape painter, which term I use it would have appeared, had no such here in contradistinction to the pain- previous observations been made. ter of views. There is so great a There are sometimes good lines marred pleasure in as it were creating-in by bad effects, and bad lines remedied being the mountns, the maker-that, to by skilful management of effects of one accustomed to and at all skilled light and shadow. It must be a in composing, it becomes an irksome practised eye that can properly abtask to make a “ view." The con- stract and separate lines from effects, tinued habit of view-painting must and effects from lines. We play with necessarily check invention, and colour, but our serious business is limit unworthily the painter's aim. with light and shade; the real picture In revisiting Lynmouth, I changed is more frequently in black and white, my purpose ; and this, not under the than those who addict themselves to idea of making pictures of any of the colour will credit. I will here but sketches, but for the practice of not- refer to some passages in the early ing how a picture, framed in from numbers of The Sketcher, on the comnature, as if it were a work of art, position of lines, wherein I showed, would be brought to its completion; and I believe truly explained, the for sketching with such an object, I principle of composition upon which cannot but think of as great impor- many of the old masters worked. And tance as the other method. We must I particularly exemplified the princilearn from nature to make a whole, ple in the pictures of Gaspar Poussin, as well as the use of the parts sepa- whom Thompson calls learned Pousrately. With this purpose the sin, (unless he meant Nicolo, who, sketcher will look out for subjects, though in other respects he may with not detail; he will be curious to see equal justice be called learned, is, in how nature composes now, and when this art of the composition of lines, in it is that scenes are most agreeable- no way to be compared with his made so by what combination of lines, brother-in-law.) I showed that there by what agreement of colours, by was one simple rule which he invari. what proportions of light, and grada- ably adopted. We may likewise go tions of shadow : for he will often find, to nature, and find the rule there, when nature looks her best, that light when nature, as a composition, looks and shade are employed as substitutes her best. for lines which, in the actual and true I think it will be found that any drawing of them, would be unfortu- scene is most pleasing when its vanate. How often is it that a scene riety is in the smallest portion—that strikes the eye at once for its great is, when the greatest part of the pic. beauty, that, when we come to it again, ture is made up of the most simple seems entirely to have lost its charm! and pervading lines, and the intriNow these spots should be visited cacies, all variety, and alternations, again and again, till the causes be and interchanges of lines and parts, ascertained of the charm and of the shall be confined to a very small pordeterioration : for here must lie the tion; for thus a greatness, a largeprinciples of art, nature assuming and ness, an importance, is preserved and putting off that which is most agree. heightened, and at the same time able to us, that in which our human monotony is avoided—though there sympathies are engaged. Sketchers be much in it, the piece is not often pass hastily these spots that are crowded. There is a print from a no longer beautiful; but they are picture by Smith of Chichester, who, wrong, for they can learn best, by by the bye, obtained the prize against accurate observation of the changes Richard Wilson, which attracted my

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