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the muficke, whewe at the children's action, whistle at the fongs; and above all, curse the sharers, that whereas the fame day you had bestowed forty fhillings on an embroidered felt and feather (Scotch fafhion) for your miftres in the court, or your punck in the cittie, within two houres after, you encounter with the very fame block on the stage, when the haberdasher swore to you the impreffion was extant but that morning.

"To conclude, hoord up the finest play-scraps you can get, upon which your leane wit may moft favourly feede, for want of other ftuffe, when the Arcadian and Euphuis'd gentlewomen have their tongues sharpened to fet upon you: that qualitie (next to your fhittlecocke) is the only furniture to a courtier that's but a new beginner, and is but in his A B C of complement. The next places that are fil'd after the play-houses bee emptied, are (or ought to be) tavernes into a taverne then let us next march, where the braines of one hogfhead must be beaten out to make up another."+

The following pretty picture of THE STAGE is given in Gayton's Notes on Don Quixote, 1654, p. 271:

"Men come not to ftudy at a play-house, but love fuch expreffions and paffages, which with ease infinuate themselves into their capacities. Lingua, that learned comedy of the contention betwixt the five fenfes for fuperiority, is not to be proftituted to the common ftage, but is only proper for an Academy; . to them bring Jack Drum's Entertainment, Green's Tu Quoque, the Devil of Edmonton, and the like; or, if it be on holy dayes, when faylers, water-men, fhoo-makers, butchers, and apprentices, are at leisure, then it is good policy to amaze thofe violent fpirits with fome tearing Tragedy full of fights and fkirmishes > as the Guelphs and Guiblins, Greeks and Trojans, or the three London Apprentices; which commonly ends in fix acts, the spectators frequently mounting the ftage, and making a more bloody cataf trophe amongst themselves, than the players did. I have known upon one of these feftivals, but especially at Shrove-tide, where

I should have attempted on the present occafiori to enumerate all other pamphlets, &c. from whence particulars relative to the conduct of our early theatres might be collected, but that Dr. Percy, in his firft volume of the Reliques of Ancient English Poetry, (third edit. p. 128, &c.) has extracted fuch paffages from them as tend to the illuftration of this fubject; to which he has added more accurate remarks than my experience in these matters would have enabled me to supply. STEEVENS.

the players have been appointed, notwithstanding their bils to the contrary, to act what the major part of the company had a mind to; fometimes Tamerlane, fometimes Jugurth, fometimes The Jew of Malta; and fometimes parts of all these, and at laft none of the three taking, they were forc'd to undresse and put off their tragick habits, and conclude the day with the Merry Milk-maides. And unleffe this were done, and the popular humour satisfied, as fometimes it fo fortun'd, that the players were refractory; the benches, the tiles, the laths, the ftones, oranges, apples, nuts, flew about moft liberally; and, as there were mechanicks of all profeffions, who fell every one to his owne trade, and diffolved a house in an inftant, and made a ruine of a stately fabrick. It was not then the most mimicall nor fighting man, Fowler, nor Andrew Cane, could pacifie: Prologues nor Epilogues would prevaile; the devill and the fool were quite out of favour. Nothing but noife and tumult fils the house, untill a cogg take 'um, and then to the bawdy houses and reforme them; and inftantly to the Bank's Side, where the poor bears must conclude the riot, and fight twenty dogs at a time befide the butchers, which fometimes fell into the service; this perform'd, and the horse and jack-un-apes for a jigge, they had fport enough that day for nothing." TODD.





NOT thoroughly fatisfied with any of the for

mer editions of Shakspeare, even that of Johnfon, I had refolved to venture upon one of my own, and had actually collected materials for the purpose, when that, which is the fubject of the following Obfervations, made its appearance; in which I found that a confiderable part of the amendments and explanations I had intended to propose were anticipated by the labours and eccentrick reading of Steevens, the ingenious researches of Malone, and the fagacity of Tyrwhitt.—I will fairly confefs that I was fomewhat mortified at this discovery, which compell'd me to relinquish a favourite pursuit, from whence I had vainly expected to derive fome degree of credit in the literary world. This, however, was a fecondary confideration; and my principal purpose will be answered to my wifh, if the Comments, which I now submit to the publick fhall, in any other hands, contribute materially to a more complete edition of our inimitable poet.

If we may judge from the advertisement prefixed

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to his Supplement, Malone feems to think that no other edition can hereafter be wanted; as in fpeaking of the laft, he fays, "The text of the author seems now to be finally fettled, the great abilities and unwearied researches of the editor having left little obfcure or unexplained."

Though I cannot fubfcribe to this opinion of Malone, with respect to the final adjustment of the text, I fhall willingly join in his encomium on the editor, who deferves the applause and gratitude of the publick, not only for his induftry and abilities, but also for the zeal with which he has profecuted the object he had in view, which prompted him, not only to the wearifome tafk of collation, but also to engage in a peculiar courfe of reading, neither pleafing nor profitable for any other purpofe.

But I will venture to affert, that his merit is more confpicuous in the comments than the text; in the regulation of which he feems to have acted rather from caprice, than any fettled principle; admitting alterations, in fome paffages, on very infufficient authority, indeed, whilft in others he has retained the antient readings, though evidently corrupt, in preference to amendments as evidently juft; and it frequently happens, that after pointing out to us the true reading, he adheres to that which he himself has proved to be falfe. Had he regulated the text in every place according to his own judgment, Malone's obfervation would have been nearer to the truth; but as it now ftands, the

"As I was never vain enough to fuppofe the edit. 1778 was entitled to this encomium, I can find no difficulty in allowing that it has been properly recalled by the gentleman who beftowed it. See his Preface; and his Letter to the Reverend Dr. Farmer, p. 7 and 8. STEEVENS.

laft edition has no fignal advantage, that I can perceive, over that of Johnson, in point of cor rectness.

But the object that Steevens had moft at heart, was the illuftration of Shakspeare, in which it muft be owned he has clearly furpaffed all the former editors. If without his abilities, application, or reading, I have happened to fucceed in explaining fome paffages, which he misapprehended, or in fug gefting amendments that efcaped his fagacity, it is owing merely to the minute attention with which I have studied every line of these plays, whilst the other commentators, I will not except even Steevens himself, have too generally confined their obfervation and ingenuity to thofe litigated paffages, which have been handed down to them by former editors, as requiring either amendment or explanation, and have fuffered many others to pass unheeded, that in truth, were equally erroneous or obfcure. may poffibly be thought that I have gone too far in the other extreme, in pointing out trifling mistakes in the printing, which every reader perceives to be fuch, and amends as he reads; but where correctnefs is the object, no inaccuracy, however imma terial, fhould efcape unnoticed.


There is perhaps no fpecies of publication whatever, more likely to produce diversity of opinion than verbal criticifms; for as there is no certain criterion of truth, no established principle by which we can decide whether they be juftly founded or not, every reader is left to his own imagination, on which will depend his cenfure or applaufe. I have not therefore the vanity to hope that all thefe obfervations will be generally approved of; fome of them, I confefs, are not thoroughly fatisfactory even to myself, and are ha

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