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And hateful; nothing wants, but that thy shape,

Like his, and colour serpentine, may show Thy inward fraud; to warn all creatures from thee [tended #.'; lest that too heavenly form, preo hellish falsehood, snare them | But for thee I had persisted happy; had not thy pride And wandering vanity, when least was safe, Rejected my forewarning, and disdain'd Not to be trusted; longing to be seen, Though by the Devil himself; him overweening To over-reach; but, with the serpent meeting, Fool'd and beguild; by him thou, I by thee, To trust thee from my side; imagin'd wise, Constant, mature, proof against all assaults; And understood not all was but a show, Rather than solid virtue; all but a rib Crooked by nature, bent, as now appears, More to the part sinister, from me drawn; Well if thrown out, as supernumerary To my just number found. O ! why did God, Creator wise, that peopled highest Heaven With spirits masculine, create at last This novelty on Earth, this fair defect Of Nature, and not fill the world at once With men, as angels, without feminine; Or find some other way to generate Mankind 2 This mischief had not then befall'n, And more that shall befall; innumerable Disturbances on Earth through female snares, And straight conjunction with this sex; for either He never shall find outfit mate, but such As some misfortune brings him, or mistake; Or whom he wishes most shall seldom gain Through her perverseness, but shall see her gain'd Toy a far worse; or, if she love, withheld By parents; or his happiest choice too late Shall meet, already link'd and wedlock-bound To a fell adversary, his hate or shame : Which infinite calamity shall cause To human life, and household peace confound.” He added not, and from her turn'd; but Eve, Not so repuls'd, with tears that ceas'd not flowAnd tresses all disorder'd, at his feet [ing Fell humble; and, embracing them, besought His peace, and thus proceeded in her plaint. “Forsake me not thus, Adam! witness Heaven What love sincere, and reverence in my heart I bear thee, and unweeting have offended, Unhappily deceiv'd Thy suppliant I beg, and clasp thy knees; bereave me not, Whereon I live, thy gentle looks, thy aid, Thy counsel, in this uttermost distress, My only strength and stay: forlorn of thee, Whither shall I betake me, where subsist 2 While yet we live, scarce one short hour perhaps, Between us two let there be peace; both joining, As join'd in injuries, one enmity Against a foe by doom express assign'd us, That cruel serpent: on me exercise not Thy hatred for this misery befall'n; On me already lost, me than thyself More miserable! Both have sinn'd ; but thou Against God only; I against God and thee; And to the place of judgment will return,

There with my crimes impôrtune Heaven; that

all

The sentence, from thy head remov’d, may light
On me, sole cause to thee of all this woe;
Me, me only, just object of his ire!”

She ended weeping; and her lowly plight,
Immoveable, till peace obtain'd from fault
Acknowledg’d and deplor'd, in Adam wrought
Commiseration: soon his heart relented
Towards her, his life so late, and sole delight,
Now at his feet submissive in distress;
Creature so fair his reconcilement seeking,
His counsel, whom she had displeas'd, his aid:
As one disarm’d, his anger all he lost,
And thus with peaceful words uprais'd her

SOOn.

“ Unwary, and too desirous, as before, So now of what thou know'st not, who desir'st The punishment all on thyself; alas! Bear thine own first, ill able to sustain His full wrath, whose thou feel'stas yet leastpart, And my displeasure bear'st so ill. If prayers Could alter high decrees, I to that place Would speed before thée, and be louderheard, That on my head all might be visited; Thy frailty and infirmer sex forgiven, To me committed, and by me expos'd. But rise;—let us no more contend, nor blame Each other, blam'd enough elsewhere; but In offices of love, how we may lighten (strive Each other's burthen, in our share of woe ; Since this day's death denounc'd, if aught I see, Will prove no sudden, but a slow pac'd, evil; A long day's dying to augment our pain And to our seed (O hapless seed ) deriv'd.”.

To whom thus Eve, recovering heart, replied. “Adam, by sad experiment I know How little weight my words with thee can find, Found so erroneous; thence by just event Found so unfortunate: nevertheless, Restor'd by thee, vile as I am, to place Of new acceptance, hopeful to regain Thy love, the sole contentment of my heart Living or dying, from thee I will not hide What thoughts in my unquiet breast are risen, Tending to some relief of our extremes, Or end ; though sharp and sad, yet tolerable, As in our evils, and of easier choice. If care of our descent perplex us most, Which must be born to certain woe, devour'd By Death at last; and miserable it is, To be toothers cause of misery, Our own begotten, and ofour loins to bring Into this cursed world a woeful race, That after wretched life must be at last Food for so foul a monster; in thy power It lies, yet ere conception to prevent The race unblest, to being yet unbegot. Childless thou art, childless remain: so Death Shall be deceiv'd his glut, and with us two Beforc'd to satisfy his ravenous maw. But if thoujudge it hard and difficult, Conversing, looking, loving, to abstain From love's due rites, nuptial embraces sweet; And with desire to languish without hope, Before the present object languishing With like desire; which would be misery And torment less than none of what we dread; Then, both ourselves and seed at once to free

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Of these fair spreading toees; which bids us seek

Rrom what we fear for both, let us make short,
Some better shroud, some better warmth to

Let us seek Death;—or, he not found, supply
With our own hands his office on ourselves:
Why stand we longer shivering under fears,
That show no end but death, and have the power,
Of many ways to die the shortest choosing,

cherish

Our limbs benumm’d, ere this diurnal star
Leave cold the night, how we his gather'd beams
Reflected may with matter sere founent;
Or, by collision of two bodies, grind

idestruction with destruction to destroy 2”—
She ended here, or vehement despair The air attrite to fire; as late the clouds [shock,
Justling, or push'd with winds, rude in their

Broke off the rest; somuch of death her thoughts
Had entertain'd, as dy'd her cheeks with pale.
But Adam, with such counsel nothing sway’d,

Tine the slant lightning; whose thwart flame,

driven down,

Kindles the gummy bark of fir or pine; ,

To better hopes his more attentive mind
And sends a comfortable heat from far

Labouring had rais'd; and thus to Eve replied.
“Eve, thy contempt of life and pleasure seems

Which might supply the Sun: such fire to use,
And what may else be remedy or cure

To argue in thee something more sublime
To evils which our own misdeeds have wrought,

And excellent, than what thy mind contemns;
But self-destruction therefore sought, refutes
That excellence thought in thee; and implies,
Not thy contempt, but anguish and regret

He will instructus praying, and of grace
Beseeching him; so as we need not fear
To pass commodiously this life, sustain'd
By him with many comforts, till we end

For loss of life and pleasure overlov’d. -
In dust, our final rest and native home.

Or if thou covet death, as utmost end
Of misery, so thinking to evade
The penalty pronounc'd; doubt not but God
Hath wiselier arm'd his vengeful ire, than so

What better can we do, than, to the place
Repairing where he judg'd us, prostratefall
Before him reverent; and there confess
Humbly our faults, and pardon beg; with tears

To beforestall'd; much more I fear lest death,
Watering the ground, and with our sighs the

Sosnatch'd, will not exempt us from the paiu

We are by doom to pay; rather, such acts air
Of contumacy will provoke the Highest Frequenting, sent from hearts contrite, in sign
To make death in us live: then let us seek Of sorrow unfeign'd, and humiliation meek 2
Some safer resolution, which methinks Undoubtedly he will relent, and turn
From his displeasure; in whose look serene,

I have in view, calling to mind with heed
Part of our sentence, that thy seed shall bruise

When angry most he seem'd and most severe,
What else but favour, grace, and mercy, shone?”

The serpent's head; piteous amends ! unless
Betmeant, whom I conjecture, our grand foe, So spake our father penitent; nor Eve
Satan; who, in the serpent, hath contriv'd Felt less remorse: they, forthwith to the place
Against us this deceit: to crush his head Repairing where he judg'd them, prostrate fell
Would be revenge indeed which will be lost Before him reverent; and both confess'd
By death brought on ourselves, or childless days Humbly their faults, and pardon begg'd ; with
Resolv'd, as thou proposest; so our foe tears -
Shall'scape his punishment ordain'd, and we Watering the ground, and with their sighs the air
Instead shall double ours upon our heads. Frequenting, sent from hearts contrite, in sign
Of sorrow unfeign'd, and humiliation meek. "

No more be mention'd then of violence
Against ourselves; and wilful barrenness,
That cuts us off from hope; and savours only
Rancour and pride, impatience and despite,
Reluctance against God and his just yoke
Laid on our necks. Remember with what mild
And gracious temper he both heard, and judg’d,
Without wrath or reviling; we expected
Immediate dissolution, which we thought
Was meant by death that day; when lo! to
thee

PARADISE LOST.

BOOK XI.

The ARGUMENT.

Pains only in child-bearing were foretold, -
The Son of God presents to his Father the prayers

And bringing forth; soon recompens'd with joy,
Fruit of thy womb : on me the curse aslope
Glanc'd on the ground; with labour I must earn
My bread; what harm Idleness had been
worse;

My labour will sustain me; and, lest cold
Or heat should injure us, his timely care
Hath, unbesought, provided ; and his hands
Cloth’d us unworthy, pitying while he judg’d;
How much more if we pray him, will his ear
Be onen, and his heart to pity incline,
And teach us further by what means to shun
The inclement seasons, rain, ice, hail, and snow
Which now the sky, with various face, begins

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To show us in this mountain; while the winds - - -
3Low moist and keen, shattering the graceful Thusthey, in lowliest plight, repentant stood
- - - Praying; for from the mercy-seat above

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From thy implanted grace in Man; these sighs
And prayers, which in this golden censer, mix'd
With incense, I thy priest before thee bring;
Fruits of more pleasing savour, from thy seed
Sown with contrition in his heart, than those
Which, his own hand manuring, all the trees
Of Paradise could have produc’d ere fall'n
From innocence.
To supplication; hear his sighs, though mute;
Unskilful with what words to pray, let me
Interpret for him; me, his advocate
And propitiation; all his works on me,
Good, or not good, ingraft; my merit those
Shall perfect, and forthese my death shall pay.
Accept me; and, in me, from these receive

The smell of peace toward mankind: let him live

Before thee reconcil'd, at least his days

Number'd though sad ; till death, his doom,

(which I

To mitigate thus plead, not to reverse,)
To better life shall yield him: where with me
All my redeem'd may dwell in joy and bliss;
Made one with me, as I with thee am one.”

To whom the Father, without cloud, serene.
“All thy request for Man, accepted Son,
Obtain; all thy request was my decree:
But, longer in that Paradise to dwell,
The law I gave to Nature him forbids:
Those pure immortal elements, that know
No gross, no unharmonious mixture foul,
Eject him, tainted now; and purge him off,
As a distemper, gross, to air as gross,
And mortal food; as may dispose him best
For dissolution wrought by sin, that first
Distemper'd all things, and of incorrupt
Corrupted. I, at first, with two fair gifts
Created him endow’d; with happiness,
And immortality: that fondly lost,
This other serv'd but to etermize woe ;
Till 1 provided death: so death becomes
His final remedy; and, after life,
Tried in sharp tribulation, and refin'd
By faith and faithful works, to second life,
Wak'd in the renovation of the just,
Resigns him up with Heaven and Earth renew'd.
But let us call to synod all the blest,

My judgments; how with mankind I proceed,

[sprung “ See, Father, what first-fruits on Earth are

Now therefore, bend thine ear

[not hide Through Heaven's wide bounds: from them I will

Ashow with peccant angels late they saw,
And in their state, though firm, stood more con.
firm’d.”
He ended, and the Son gave signal high
To the bright minister that watch'd; he blew
His trumpet, heard in Oreb since perhaps
When God descended, and perhaps once more
To sound at general doom. The angelic blast
Fill'd all the regions: from their blissful bowers
Of amarantine shade, fountain or spring,
By the waters of life, where'er they sat
In fellowships of joy, the sons of light
Hasted, resorting to the summons high;
And took their seats: till from his throne supreme
The Almighty thus pronounc'd his sovran will.
“O sons, like one of us Man is become
To know both good and evil, since his taste
Of that defended fruit; but let him boast
His knowledge of good lost, and evil got;
Happier had it suffic'd him to have known
Good by itself, and evil not at all.
He sorrows now, repents, and prays contrite,
My motions in him; longer than they move,
His heart I know, how variable and vain,
Self-left. Lest therefore his now bolder hand
Reach also of the tree of life, and eat,
And live for ever, dream at least to live
For ever, to remove him 1 decree,
And send him from the garden forth to till
The ground whence he was taken, fitter soil.
“Michael, this my behest have thou incharge;
Take to thee from among the cherubim
Thy choice of flaming warriours, lest the fiend,
Orin behalf of Man, or to invade
vacant possession, some new trouble raise:
Haste thee, and from the Paradise of God
Without remorse drive out the sinful pair;
From hallow'd ground the unholy; and denounct
To them, and to their progeny, from thence
Perpetual banishment. Yet, lest they faint
At the sad sentence rigorously urg'd,
(For I behold them soften'd, and with tears
Bewailing their excess,) all terrour hide,
If patiently thy bidding they obey,
Dismiss them not disconsolate ; reveal
To Adam what shall come in future days,
As I shall thee enlighten ; intermix
My covenant in the woman's seed renew'd;
Sosend them forth,though sorrowing, yet in peace:
And on the east side of the garden place,
Where entrance up from Eden easiest climbs,
Cherubic watch; and of a sword the flame
Wide-waving; all approach far off tofright,
And guard all passage to the tree of life :
Lest Paradise a receptacle prove
To spirits foul, and all my trees their prey;
With whose stol’n fruitman once more to delude."
He ceas'd, and the arch-angelic power prepard
For swift descent; with him the cohort bright
Of watchful cherubim : four faces each
Had, like a double Janus; all their shape
Spangled with eyes more numerous than those
Of Argus, and more wakeful than to drouse,
Charm'd with Arcadian pipe, the pastoral reed
Of Hermes, or his opiate rod. Meanwhile,
To re-salute the world with sacred light,
Leucothea wak'd; and with fresh dews embalmö
The Earth ; when Adam and first matron Eve
Had ended now their orisons, and found

Strength added from above; new hope to spring Out of despair; joy, but with fear yet link'd; Which thus to Eve his welcome words renew'd. “Eve, easily may faith admit, that all The good which we enjoy, from Heaven descends; But, that from us aught should ascend to Heaven So prevalent as to concern the mind Of God high-blest, or to incline his will, Hard to belief may seem ; yet this will prayer Or one short sigh of human breath, upborne Even to the seat of God. For since I sought By prayer the offended Deity to appease; Kneel'd, and before him humbled all my heart; Methought I saw him placable and mild, Bending his ear; persuasion in me grew That I was heard with favour; peace return'd Home to my breast, and to my memory His promise, that thy seed shall bruise our foe; Which, then not minded in dismay, yet now Assures me that the bitterness of death Is past, and we shall live. Whence hail to thee, Eve rightly call’d, mother of all mankind, Mother of all things living, since by thee Man is to live; and all things live for Man.” To whom thus Eve with sad demeanour meek, “Ill-worthy I such title should belong To me transgressor; who, for thee ordain'd A help, became thy snare; to me reproach Rather belongs, distrust, and all dispraise: But infinite in pardon was my judge, That I, who first brought death on all, am grac'd The source of life; next favourable thou, Who highly thus to entitle me vouchsaf'st, Farother name deserving. But the field To labour calls us, now with sweat impos'd, Though after sleepless night; for see! the Morn, All unconcern'd with our unrest, begins Her rosy progress smiling : let us forth; I never from thy side henceforth to stray, Where'er ourday's worklies, though now enjoin'd Laborious till day droop; while here we dwell, What can be toilsome in these pleasant walks 2 Here let us live, though in fall'n state, content.” So spake, so wish'd much-humbled Eve; but Fate Subscrib'd not: Nature first gave signs, impress'd On bird, beast, air; air suddenly eclips'd, After short blush of morn: nigh in her sight The bird of Jove, stoop'd from his aery tour, Two birds of gayest plume before him drove; Down from a hill the beast that reigns in woods, First hunter then, pursu'd a gentle brace, Goodliest of all the forest, hart and hind; Direct to the eastern gate was bent their flight. Adam observ'd, and with his eye the chase Pursuing, not unmov’d, to Eve thus spake. ** O Eve, some further change awaits us nigh, Which Heaven, by these mute signs in Nature, Forerunners of his purpose; or to warm [shows Us, haply too secure, of our discharge From penalty, because from death releas'd Some days; how long, and what till then our life, Who knows? or more than this, that we are dust, And thither must return, and be no more ? Why else this double object in our sight Of flight pursued in the air, and o'er the ground, One way the self-same hour? why in the east Darkness ere day's mid-course, and morning-light More orient in yon western cloud, that draws

O'er the blue firmament a radiant white, And slow descends with something heavenly fraught?” Heerr'd not; for by this the heavenly bands Down from a sky of jasper lighted now In Paradise, and on a hill made halt; A glorious apparition, had not doubt And carnal fear that day dimm'd Adam's eye. Not that more glorious, when the angels met Jacob in Mahanaim, where he saw The field pavilion'd with his guardians bright; Nor that, which on the flaming mount appear'd In Dothan, cover'd with a camp of fire, Against the Syrianking, who to surprise One man, assassin-like, had levied war, War unproclaim’d. The princely hierarch In their bright stand there left his powers, to seize Possession of the garden; he alone, To find where Adam shelter'd, took his way, Not unperceiv'd of Adam: who to Eve, While the great visitant approach'd, thus spake. “Eve, now expect great tidings, which perhaps Of us will soon determine, or impose New laws to be observ'd; for I descry, From yonder blazing cloud that veils the hill, One of the heavenly host ; and, by his gait, None of the meanest; some great potentate Or of the thrones above; such majesty Invests him coming ! yet not terrible, That I should fear; nor sociably mild, As Raphaël, that 1 should much confide; But solemn and sublime ; whom not to offend, With reverence I must meet, and thou retire.” He ended; and the arch-angel soon drew nigh, Not in his shape celestial, but as man Clad to meet man; over his lucid arms A military vest of purple flow'd, Livelier than Meliboean, or the grain Of Sarra, worn by kings and heroes old In time of truce; Iris had dipt the woof; His starry helm unbuckled show'd him prime In manhood where youth ended; by his side, As in a glistering zodiac, hung the sword, Satan's dire dread; and in his hand the spear. Adam bow'd low; he, kingly, from his state Inclin’d not, but his coming thus declar'd. “Adam, Heaven's high behest no preface needs: Sufficient that thy prayers are heard; and Death, Then due by sentence when thou didst transgress, Defeated of his seizure many days Given thee of grace; wherein thou may'st repent, And one bad act with many deeds well done May'st cover: well may then thy Lord, appeas'd, [claim; Redeem thee quite from Death's rapacious But longer in this Paradise to dwell Permits not: to remove thee I am come, And send thee from the garden forth to till The ground whence thou wast taken, fitter soil.” He added not; for Adam at the news Heart-struck with chilling gripe of sorrow stood, . That all his senses bound ; Eve, who unseen Yet all had heard, with audible lament Discover'd soon the place of her retire. “O unexpected stroke, worse than of Death! Must Ithus leave thee, Paradise? thus leave Thee, native soil! these happy walks and shades, Fit haunt of gods? where I had hope to spends Quiet though sad, the respite of that day

That must be mortal to us both. O flowers,
That never will in other climate grow,
My early visitation, and my last
At even, which I bred up with tender hand
From the first opening bud, and gave ye names!
Who now shall rear ye to the Sun, or rank
Your tribes, and water Wom the ambrosial fount?
Thee lastly, nuptial bower by me adorn'd [thce
With what to sight or smell was sweet! from
How shall I part, and whither wander down
Into a lower world; to this obscure
And wild 2 how shall we breathe in other air
Less pure, accustom'd to immortal fruits?”
Whom thus the angel interrupted mild,
“Lament not, Eve, but patiently resign
What justly thou hast lost, nor set thy heart,
Thus over-fond, on that which is not thine:
Thy going is not lonely; with thee goes
Thy husband; him to follow thou art bound ;
Where he abides, think there thy native soil.”
Adam, by this from the cold sudden damp
Recovering, and his scatter'd spirits return'd,
To Michael thus his humble words address'd.
“Celestial, whether among the thrones, or nam'd
Of them the highest; for such of shape may seem
Prince above princes ! gently hast thou told
Thy message, which might else in telling wound,
And in performing end us; what besides
Of sorrow, and dejection, and despair,
Our frailty can sustain, thy tidings bring,
Departure from this happy place, our sweet
Recess, and only consolation left
Familiar to our eyes! all places else
Inhospitable appear, and desolate;
Nor knowing us, nor known; and, if by prayer
Incessant I could hope to change the will
Of him who all things can, I would not cease
To weary him with my assiduous crics:
But prayer against his absolute decree
No more avails than breath against the wind,
Blown stifling back on him that breathes it
Therefore to his great bidding I submit. [forth:
This most afflicts me, that, departing hence,
As from his face I shall behid, depriv'd
His blessed countenance: here I could frequent
With worship place by place where he vouchsafd
Presence Divine; and to my sons relate,
* On this mount he appear'd ; under this tree
Stood visible ; among these pines his voice
I heard; here with him at this fountain talk'd?
So many grateful altars I would rear *
fgrassy turf, and pile up every stone
Of lustre from the brook, in memory
Or monument to ages; and thereon [ers:
Offer sweet-smelling gums, and fruits, and flow-
In yonder nether world where shall I seek
His bright appearances, or foot-step trace?
For though 1 fled him angry, yet, recall’d
To life prolong’d and promis'd race, I now
Gladly behold though but his utmost skirts
Of glory; and far off his steps adore.”
To whom thus Michael with regard benign.
“Adam, thou know'st Heaven his, and all the

» Not this rock only; his Omnipresence fills Land, sea, and air, and every kind that lives, Fomented by his virtual power and warm'd : All the Farth he gave thee to possess and rule, Ns despicable gist; surmise not then

His presence to these narrow bounds confin'd
Of Paradise, or Eden: this had been
Perhaps thy capital seat, from whence had spread
All generations; and had hither come -
From all the ends of the Earth, to celebrate
And reverence thee, their great progenitor.
But this pre-eminence thou hast lost, brought
down -
To dwell on even ground now with thy sons:
Yet doubt not but in valley, and in plain,
God is, as here; and will be found alike
Present; and of his presence many a sign
Still following thee, still compassing thee round
With goodness and paternal love, his face
Express, and of his steps the track divine.
Which that thou may’st believe, and be confirm'd
Ere thou from hence depart; know, I am sent
To show thee what shall come in future days
To thee, and to thy offspring: good with bad
Expect to hear; supernal grace contending
With sinfulness of men; thereby to learn
True patience, and to temperjoy with fear
And pious sorrow; equally inur'd
By moderation either state to bear,
Prosperous or adverse: so shalt thou lead
Safest thy life, and best prepar'd endure
Thy mortal passage when it comes.—Ascend
This hill; let Eve (for I have drench'd her eyes)
Here sleep below; while thou to foresight wak'st;
As once thou slept'st, while she to life was form'd.”
To whom thus Adam gratefully replied.
“Ascend, I follow thee, safe guide, the path
Thou lead'st me; and to the hand of Heaven
However chastening; to the evil turn [submit,
My obvious breast; arming to overcome
By suffering, and earm rest from labour won,
If so I may attain.”—So both ascend
In the visions of God. It was a hill,
Of Paradise the highest; from whose top
The hemisphere of Earth, in clearest ken,
Stretch'd out to the amplest reach of prospectlay,
Not higher that hill, nor wider looking round,
Whereon, for different cause, the tempter set
Our second Adam, in the wilderness; [glory,
To show him all Earth's kingdoms, and their
His eye might there command wherever stood
City of old or modern fame, the seat
Of mightiest empire, from the destin'd walls
Of Cambalu, seat of Cathaian Can,
And Samarchand by Oxus, Temir's throne,
To Paquin of Sinaean kings; and thence
To Agra and Lahor of great Mogul,
Down to the golden Chersonese; or where
The Persian in Ecbatan sat, or since
In Hispahan; or where the Russian ksar
In Mosco; or the sultan in Bizance,
Turchestan-born; nor could his eye not ken
The empire of Negus to his utmost port
Ercoco, and the less maritim kings
Mombaza, and Quiloa, and Melind,
And Sofala, thought Ophir, to the realm
Of Congo, and Angola farthest south;
Or thence from Niger flood to Atlas mount
The kingdoms of Almansor, Fez and Sus,
Morocco, and Algiers, and Tremisen;
On Europe thence, and where Rome was to sway
The world: in spirit perhaps he also saw
Rich Mexico, the seat of Montezume,
And Cusco in Peru, the richer seat

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