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1831.) CLASSICAL LITERATURE.-Muller on the Doric Race. 423

When twice fifty or an hundred was were reduced to the condition of vasto be represented, the character was salage or slavery, according to their again doubled, but the duplicate was respective ranks in society. The Is. added in an inverse position on the raelites in Egypt were captives in a summit of the preceding, I

similar situation, and when, after the

conquests of Joshua, David, and SoWhen five hundred were to be set lomon, they became a military nation, down, the primary character was they followed the same plan. In the once more changed, by placing its 9th chapter of the first book of Kings, angular point upwards, with the ad

old (v. 20—22), that dition of a bar beneath, to prevent “ All the people that were left of the mistake, if the tablet should be re

Amorites, Hittites, Perizzites, Hivites, and versed, A

Jebusites, which were uot of the children And to record a thousand, or double

of Israel,

“ Their children that were left after them five hundred, a double character was

in the land, whom the children of Israel again used, but the addition was now

also were not able utterly to destroy, upon placed in a lateral situation, AA

those did Solomon levy a tribute of bondAll these numeral characters were

service to this day. simple, and easily formed on the rus

“ But of the children of Israel did Solotic ledgers of those to whom the in- mon make no boudmen ; but they were vention is attributed. They have all,

men of war, and his servants, and his princes, however, as well as the single mark and his captains, and rulers of his chariots,

and his horsemen." denoting a unit, at a period we cannot now trace, been assimilated to Roman

The Dorians were a hardy tribe of letters, some with but little or no va

fighting adventurers, who pursued the riation in form, whilst others have

same policy; and in the following exundergone a slight change. For in

tract we may read the counterpart of stance, the [has been gradually exhibited in Domesday Book :

the Norman classifications of society rounded into C, and in consequence • The Doric customs required exconsidered only as the initial of cen

emption from all agricultural or comtum. The A, as it resembled the mercial industry ; which is expressed Greek delta, has been tranformed into in a lively manner in the song of Hya Roman D; and finally the double brias the Cretan, 'that with lance and

sword and shield he reaped and dresstriangle converted without any consi

ed his vines, and hence was called derable alteration into M; from

Lord of the Mnoia. In this island which circumstance it is generally (Crete), however, different classes of conjectured to have originally been dependents must have existed. Sosithe representative of mille.

crates and Dosiadas, both credible The various combinations of the authors on the affairs of Crete, speak different numeral characters to ex- of three classes, the public bondsmen, press every intervening quantity, are (κοινη δουλεια,) called by the Cretans sufficiently familiar to every one. uvola, the slaves of individual citizens An East ANGLIAN. αφαμιωται, and the Perieci, υπηκοοι.

Now we know that the Aphamiotæ

received their name from the cultivaThe History and Antiquities of the Doric tion of the lands of private individuals

Race, by C. O. Muller, Professor in the (in Cretan apapiai), and accordingly University of Gottingen. Translated from they were agricultural bondsmen. the German by Henry Tuffnell, Esq. and These latter are identical with the Geo. Cornewall Lewis, Esq. Student of Clarotæ, who were not for this reason Christ Church. 2 vols. 8vo.

separately mentioned by the writers IT was the custom of the ancient just quoted; for although they are nations to effect a military conquest, generally supposed to have taken their to reserve to themselves alone the

name from the lot cast for prisoners profession of arms, and to consign all

of war, the more natural derivation the menage (if we may so use the term) and drudgery of providing ne- * They appear to have been similar to cessaries for the support of life, to the our Anglo-Saxon landed subinfeudists and aborigines or conquered persons, who burgesses after the conquest. See ii. 24.



424 CLASSICAL LITERATURE.—Muller on the Doric Race. (May, doubtless is from the lots or freehold the persons and property of the indi. estates of the citizens, called kanpoi, viduals contained in it. We shall apBut whichever explanation we adopt, proach nearer to the ancient notion, they were bondsmen belonging to the if we consider the essence of a state individual citizens, and both the Cla- to be, that by a recognition of the rotæ and Aphamiotæ have therefore same opinions and principles, and the been correctly compared with the He direction of actions to the same ends, lots [the aboriginal slaves or labour- the whole body became as it were one ers] ; and as the latter were entirely moral agent. Such an unity of opidistinct from the Laconian Periæci, so nions and actions can only be prowere the former from the Cretan, al- duced by the ties of some natural af. though Aristotle neglects the distinc- finity, such as a nation, a tribe, or a tion accurately observed by the Cre- part of one ; although in process of tan writers. In the second place, the time the meaning of the terms state uvola (or uvwa) was by more precise and nation became more distinct. The historians distinguished as well from more complete the unity of feelings the condition of Periæci, as from that and principles is, the more vigorous of private bondage, and it was will be the common exertions, and the plained to mean a state of public vas- more comprehensive the notion of the salage; whence we may infer that state. As this was in general carried every state in Crete was possessed of to a wider extent among the Greeks public lands, which the Mnotæ culti- than by modern nations, so it was vated in the same relative situation to perhaps nowhere so strongly marked the community, in which the Apha- as in the Dorian states, whose namiotæ, who cultivated the allotted es- tional views with regard to political tates, stood to the several proprietors. institutions were most strongly maniThis name, however, is sometimes fested in the government of Sparta. extended to all forced labourers, as in Here the plurality of the persons comthe song of Hybrias noticed above. posing the state was most completely Finally, the Periæci formed in Crete, reduced to unity ; and hence the life as in Laconia, dependent and tribu- of a Spartan citizen was chiefly contary communities; their tribute was cerned in public affairs. The greatest like the produce of the national lands, freedom of the Spartan, as well as of partly applied to the public banquets, the Greeks in general, was only to be to which also, according to Dosiades, a living member of the state ; whereas every slave in Lyctus contributed in that which in modern times commonly addition one Æginetan stater.”-ii. 51 receives the name of liberty, consists seq.

in having the fewest possible claims We

may therefore conceive that, from the community; or in other mutatis mutandis, the Mnotæ nearly words, in dissolving the social union answered to our Domesday farmers of to the greatest degree possible as far the Crown lands; the Aphamiotæ to as the individual is concerned.”ii. the subinfeudists under the Norman

1, 2. lords; the Periæci to the citizens and Our limits will not permit us to burgesses; and the Helots to the vil give a digest of this transcendent lains, labourers, &c.

work. For profound learning, philoInstitutions like those of the Dorians sophical reflection, original thinking, can only be permanent under unvary- novel illustration, and every property ing circumstances. Aristocracy can- that can confer the highest character not stand against wealth dispersed upon history, this book has a preby trade amongst the community, and eminent distinction; and we will do hence ensued democracy; from demo- the author the justice to say, that we cracy factions, from factions tyrants. do not believe any scholar but himself

“ Before we speak of the form of could have written it. The translagovernment which prevailed in the tion is most ably and satisfactorily Boric States, it will be necessary to executed ; and although it is but a set aside all ideas respecting the origin, reflected light, it preserves, as nearly essence, and object of a state, viz. as possible, the splendour of the ori. that it is an institution for protecting ginal.

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The Life of the Right Rev. Thomas Fanshaw in the place, and direct their atten.

Middleton, B.D. late Lord Bishop of Cal- tion to the English families. (i. 409.) crita. By the Rev. Charles Webb Le Bas, Thus the emigration of missionaM.A. Professor in the East India College, ries is often only a cover for obHertfordshire, &c. 2 vols. 8vo.

taining ordination in England, and a IT is really afflicting to hear of the passage to the country, where by setpremature deaths of such excellent ting up schools for the English chilmen as the one before us and his suc

dren, and doing duty on Sundays in cessors. And, although we do not be- their own houses in English (see p.409), lieve that persons unlike them would they turn the money advanced by the act with their reason and wisdom, we Church Missionary Society to inore think that a better plan would be 10 personal advantage, than by fulfilling send younger clergymen, and ordain

ihe specific object for which they were vatives, who might answer the pur- sent out. In consequence of these pose, though not perbaps quite so and other such measures, the good well. If ei en Englishmen who go to Bishop India when boys, and become babi.

“ Was extremely desirous of being intuated to the climate, are, with rare vested with the power to assign small salaexceptions, long livers after their re. ries of 2001. or 300l. a year to half-castes, turn, and are often harassed in the whom he would have ordained to preach to country with liver complaints which natives in their own language, and who never leave them, how is it to be ex- would have been bound to use a translation pected that persons in general so ad- of the English Liturgy; a plan from which vanced in life as Bishops, should not

he anticipated the most desirable and blessed fall speedily into the grave? We by effects.”—i. 417. no nieans think lighıly of the noble He says too (i. 502), that the object principle which induces good men to of the schools risk martyrdom. We only mean that "Is to make the boys too wise for the

never an affair of volition, so Brahmins, after which we trust, that with it is fairly avoidable, if the purpose God's blessing å purer and a more reasoncan be effected without it. If it be able faith will find its way." rebutted upon us, that if layınen do He further adds, that he wished not fear the risk of their lives in the only four persons capable of preaching East, why should the best of our ec- to ihe natives, Portuguese, half-castes, clesiastics? Our answer is, that the &c. in the langunge of the country, to deaths of the former, under the morals be stipended and ordained. For al. of India, is a smaller loss to the world, though and the clergy of our own country do " These would not have been precisely appear

the only efficient persons to missionaries; they would have brought into be employed. To this remark we an- the communion of our church a large class nex the following and other passages of stragglers at the several presidencies, in this work. The Church Missionary from whom the best missionaries might have

emanated.-i. 480. Society sends out nunierous ordained Clergymen, not known otherwise, says

In i. p. 89, we find that the Armi- * the Bishop,

nian Christians are eminenıly qualified “ Than as persons sent out to convert the for extending the knowledge of Chris: heathen ; and yet the conversion of the tianity throughout the East. heathen is with missionaries of almost all The idea of sending missionaries of classes but a secondary concern.”-i. all our sects at home, is in se an impe401.)

diment to the success; for, Under a clause of the charter, " they

“ It should never be forgotten, that should confine themselves to the in

(next to the suspiciou that the Europeang struction of natives, and nol preach in are generally destitute of all real religion) English."

the grand impediment the Gospel has Instead of so doing, they usurp the to contend with among idolaters, arises prerogatives of the Clergy established from the multiplicity of shapes under which Gent. Mag. May, 1831.




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Review.-Life of Bishop Middleton. (May our visible religion presents itself to their It is evident that people will judge potice. Their observation uniforınly is, of things which they do not know, by shat they should think much better of their own opinions concerning them, Christianity, if there were not quite so however absurd they may be, because many different kinds of it.”-i, 132.

they cannot possibly associate their In the present state of India, preach- ideas with matters of which they are ing to the natives is of little avail. It ignorant, no more than they can inis well known that in England the terpret words in an unknown lan. catechism is taught, because without

guage. A farmer's wife, says an old it cbildren could not understand what

song, heard of the lions in the tower : is said and done at church. As to

“I warrant, says Dame, they keep that game India, there is such a religious apathy, For the King of England's eating ;' such abject ignorance, imbecility of mind, and even childishness, in the

and Franklin tells us of an Indian natives, that if they attend to hear a

chief, who, when he was told by a sermon, they do not comprehend it. missionary of the effects of the apple The following anecdote is extracted eaten by Eve, gravely observed, that's it from one of the Bishop's letters (i. 74):

should not bave been eaten, but have

been used for cider." “ They have seen so little of our religion,

The Bishop therefore informs lis that they were puzzled to know in what it consisted. I heard the other day a curious justly, that it is utterly useless to disanecdute which goes to the point ; some of perse the Bible among the natives the lower Europeans here as elsewhere have without previous preparation by schools a trick of whistling, this is utterly un

and tracis.-i. 154, 348, 473. known to the Asiatics; and some of them These extracts will show that our not knowing more than ourselves what it enthusiastic religionists at home are can mean, have gravely asked whether it not competent to business. Moreover, was not some sort of invocation addressed it is utterly useless to transmit so many to the Deity.”

persons to risk the loss of life through Now where there are utterly dis- the climate, because the Bishop says, cordant associations of ideas between a preacher and his hearers, how is it

Though native teachers by themselves

will never effect much, our religion will possible to present a misconstruction

make little progress in this couutry without which frustrates the object? The Bi- their aid. "The native Christian is a necesshop, therefore, like a sound philoso

sary link between the European and the pher, says,

pagan : these two have little in common : The l'est employment of the missionary they want some point of contact. The Eurois in teaching children ; and we can hardly pean and native mind seem to be cast in teach them any thing which will not bring different moulds ; if the Hindoo finds it very them a step nearer to Christianity.”-i. difficult to argue as we argue, and to view 389.)

things as we view them, it is scarcely more And he lays a particular stress upon

easy for us to imagine ourselves in his conteaching English to the natives, be

dition, and to enter into the misconceptions and prejudices which obstruct his reception

of the truth. The task is much the same “ If this were generally understood through the country, it would, I doubt not,

as that of a man who in the full maturity of entirely alter the condition of the people ;

understanding and knowledge, should enit would give them access to our literature

deavour to divest himself of these, and to

think as a child."—ii. 19, 20. and habits of thinking, and the familiar use # of it would tend very much to dissipate the This work of Mr. Le Bas being a

prejudices and the indifference which now funeral eulogium of the late excellent stand in the way of conversion. Our lan

Prelate, and an exposè of his public guage is so unlike every thing oriental, not

acts, we have made a correspondent merely in its structure, but in the ideas to

use of it. Memoirs of the Bishop we which it is made subservient, in imagery, in metaphor, and in sentiment, that a compe

have before given in a preceding reteut acquaintance with it seems unavoidably

view of another work on the subject. to lead the mind of a native into a new Of profane matters (except vexatious train of thought, and a wider field of reflec

restrictions) we have liule. The Bi. tion. We, in learniug the languages of the shop saw many of Homer's orientalEast, acquire only a knowledge of words ; isms common in India, and he finds but the oriental , in learning our language,

in the Parsees assimilations to the anextends his knowledge of things."'-ii. 22. cient Persians, as described by Hero.


in this easy way,

Review.-Polynesian Researches.

427 dotus.* From the cromlechs, &c. at began to flounder and strike his tail with Malabar, we looked anxiously to the rage and violence. Mr. Tyerman and myparagraph in vol. i. p. 328, for some self were climbing up on the seats out of relics of Druidisın. 'In the moun- his way, but the natives giving him two or taineers of that district, we have some

three blows on the nose with a small wooden resemblances to our own aboriginal

mallet, quieted him, and then cut off his

head.”—p. 168. savages : They are a wild, inhospitable, and in

Now if a man can get rid of a shark accessible race, who decline all intercourse


soon rise from with Europeans, and to avoid the approach

a blockhead to a conjuror, in other of strangers, retreat to their own hiding difficulties alarming to Europeans; and places. Sone dealings, indeed, they have it is certain that savages do teach us with their civilized neighbours, but these manual skill, and most ingenious conare carried on wholly by barter ; and con- trivances. ducted in a manner which remarkably indi- This book is full of information cates their distrustful and unsocial habits; in this and all respects, both useful they deposit whatever they wish to dispose

and gratifying. We shall notice some of in some well-known spot, and then re- curious illustrations of ancient histire ; returning afterwards to take away what is left in exchange for it. The preju

tory, as more in our own way. It dice and bigotry of the Brahmins in this

appears, for instance, that the Misregion of Malabar, exceeded all that had

sionaries owe their personal safety, been heard of in other parts. They ap

and much also of their success, to the proach some of their temples by ways wholly

superstition of the natives, which we sacred to themselves, separate paths being presume the former find too convemade for the use of coolies and other pro- nient to remove, and therefore tempofane persons.”-i. 328.

rize accordingly, for which we by no Mr. Le Bas has edited this work in

means blame them. a manner which confers upon him “The sorcerers have always declared that high credit.

they could not prevail with the white men, because such were under the keeping of a

more powerful being than the spirits they Polynesian Researches, during a Residence

could engage against them, and therefore of nearly eight Years in the Society and

were secure.”-p. 368. Sandwich Islands. By William Ellis.

It is clear, therefore, that under a 2d Edit. Vol. I.

system of amity and discretion, Eu. WHEN Missionaries attend to other things than inaking comfortable situa- ropeans may, as Captain Kotzebue re

commends, easily establish mercantile tions for themselves (which Bishop

intercourse, and propagate the arts of Middleton charges them with), and do civilization. But we shall notice ano. - not propagate a system of Christianity, ther curious circumstance; a temple which, says Captain Kotzebue, is a

similar to those of Egypt; and we have libel on its founder,--when they are no doubt, as there are professional sorunder the controul of men of business

cerers here, that Moses found safely and common sense, their books may

under the anger of Pharaoh, from the convey very useful suggestions for

same superstition (a presumed sacredstalesmen, philosophers, and mercan

ness of person) as now protects the tile men. Nay, the work before us

Missionaries and Europeans. goes further. It shows how we may get rid of certain dangers, as easily as

" The national temples consisted of a Jack the Giant-killer.

number of distinct maracs, altars, and sacred

dormitories, appropriated to the chief pagan "I was once," says Mr. Ellis, “in a boat, divinities, and included in one large stone on a voyage to Borabora, when a ravenous enclosure of considerable extent. Several shark approaching us, seized the blade of of the distiuct temples contained smaller oue of the oars, and on being shaken from inner courts, within which the gods were it, darted at the keel of the boat, which he kept. The form of the interior or area of attempted to bite. While he was thus em- their temples was frequently that of a square ployed, the native whose oar he had seized,

or a parallelogram, the sides of which exleaning over the side of the boat, grasped him tended or fifty feet. The sides of this by the tail, succeeded in lifting him out of the space were enclosed by a high stove wall; water, and with the help of his companions the front was protected by a low fence; and dragged him alive into the boat, where he opposite, a solid pyramidal structure was

raised, in front of which the images were * Herod. ii. 189, 190.

kept, and the altars fixed."--p. 340.

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