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REVIEW.-Godwin's Thoughts on Man. [May, his own thoughts ; and the conduct he like man, that there should not be pursues has in general far less reference both impulses and motives, and neither io his real situation, than to some ima- Liberty or Necessity, properly speaking, ginary one in which he conceives him. apply to the case. Suppose, as in that self placed: in consequence of which, before us, a man inclined to commit a while he appears to himself to be acting robbery, but not doing it from fear, it with the most perfect wisdom and con- is plain that there exists a collision of sistency, he may frequently exhibit to molives; and that there must be a others all the appearances of folly.".. power of choosing between these mo

Thus Stuari, who here clearly illus- iives is also plain, from one man comtrates the moral causes of most of those mitting theft, and another avoiding it. particularities of character which Admitting then, that there must be a Theophrastus describes as obtaining in motive, it is not a necessary one, beGreece in his day, and which mutatis cause necessity admits of no choice mutandis may be substantially found whatever ; if it did, it is no longer nein our own. The valuable part of this cessity, and the dispute, in ourjudgment work is however the light which it is, as to man, a mere inapplicable lothrows upon Greek manners and cus- gomachy. Besides, we doubt, with toms, and modes of thinking. If the Dr. Wheeler,* wheiher a rational notes of Casaubon are much valued by being can be otherwise than so constius, who use his edition, those of the tuted as to have a will to choose right present translation are better suited to

or wrong; and if he does so by one an English public.

motive superseding another, that is a The book is embellished with cu- question merely implying a mode of rious caricatures; and all the matter is. agency. novel and curious.

Another passage (by the way


out acknowledgment from Voltaire) is Thoughts on Man, his Nature, Productions,

this: and Discoveries, interspersed with some “ Either God, according to our ideas of particulars respecting ihe Author. By

henevolence, would remove evil out of the William Godwin. 8vo, pp. 471.

world, and cannot ; or he can, and will not. MR. GODWIN is unquestionably If he has the will, and not the power, this a man of genius, and as such, an idio- argues weakness ; if he has the power and syncratic. In the works of such men,

not the will, this seems to be malevolence." we expect both real light and mere

p. 417. phosphorescence, both reason and pa- That God can, if he will, is a posturadox. There are all the characteristics late not to be disputed; but arguments of these in the work before us, but the drawn from power, can never be conmost sleepy reader cannot peruse it clusive, because there may be reasons without desiring at least to keep awake; why that power is not thought fit to for he will be sure in the end to see be exercised. Matter, as matter, can far better into the nature of man, than have only communicated properties. he did before. Upon certain subile According to Scripture, and analogous metaphysical points, we do not how- testimony, man'had originally the ever think that Mr. Godwin has been

utmost moral perfectibility of which successful. These points are Liberty and his conformation was susceptible, was Necessity, and the existence of Evil. a guileless adult infant, and'if there be

Mr. Godwin is a necessarian, be- particular conformations, the commucause he says (p. 226), that as every nicated properties must be adapted to event requires a cause, the human will them, a'rule which nature seems to is guided by motives, and therefore is have observed in regard to all beings not free. Now the question is not whatever. And can malevolence exist whether the acts are free, only whether in God? Certainly not, because there the motives are so; but it is certain

is no such thing as evil; and the blunthat one motive may be made to super- der of Voltaire originated in his igsede another, as e. g. a man does not norance that evil is merely a privative commit a robbery, because he is afraid of good, and that privatives have only of being hanged for it. Wherever

a nominal being. The inattention to there are passions, there must be im• a like distinction, that life may undergo pulses; wherever there is reason, there different material exhibitions, but canmust be choice. It is utterly inconsistent with the existence of an animal

Theologic. Lectures, i. 126,

1831.] Review.-Godwin's Thoughts on Man.

439 not be extinguished, and that death is stood in need of a protector and champion. only the privative, seems to have led The Knights, on the other hand, were Mr. Godwin into a manifest error in p. taught to derive their fame and their honour 419, viz that the immortality of the

from the suffrages of the ladies. Each sex soul, and the doctrine of future retribu

stood in need of the other, and the basis of

their union was mutual esteem. tion, is mere assumption.

“ The effect of this was to give a tone of To relieve these unpleasant differences of opinion, we extract the fol. imagination to all their intercourse. A man

was no longer merely a man, nor a woman lowing philosophical and beautiful il; merely a woman. They were taught mutual lustration of the effects of “ Chivalry;" deference. The woman regarded her proas the best known to us.

tector as something illustrious and admi“ Its principle was built upon a theory of rable; and the man considered the smiles the sexes giving to each à relative iin- and approbation of beauty as the adequate portance, and assigoing to both functions reward of his toils and his dangers. These full of honour and grace. The Knights modes of thinking iutroduced a pameless (and every gentleman during that period in grace into all the commerce of society. It due time became a Knight) were taught, as was the poetry of life. Hence originated the main features of their vocation, the the delightful narratives and fictions of ro• love of God and the ladies.' The ladies, mance; and human existence was no longer in return, were regarded as the genuine cen- the bare naked train of vulgar incidents, sors of the deeds of Knighthood. From which for so many ages of the world it had these principles arose a thousand lessons of been accustomed to be. It was clothed in humanity. The ladies regarded it as their resplendent hues, and wore all the tints of glory to assist their champions to arm and the rainbow. Equality fled and was no to disarm, to perform for them even menial more ; and love, almighty, and perdurable services, to attend them in sickness, and to Love, came to supply its place. dress their wounds. They bestowed on them By means of this state of things, the their colours, and sent them forth to the vulgar impulse of the sexes towards each field hallowed with their benedictions. The other, which alone was known to the former Knights, on the other hand, considered any ages of the world, was transformed into slight towards the fair sex as an indelible sonjewhat of a totally different nature. It stain to their order; they contemplated the became a kind of worship. The fair sex graceful patronesses of their valour with a looked upon their protectors, their fathers, feeling that partook of religious homage and their husbands, and the whole train of their veneration, and esteemed it as perhaps the chivalry, as something more than human. first duty of their profession, to relieve the There was a grace in their motions, a galwrongs and avenge the injuries of the less lantry in their bearing, and a generosity in powerful sex.

their spirit of enterprise, that the softness “ This simple outline, us to the relative of the female heart found irresistible. Nor position of the one sex and the other, gave a less, on the other hand, did the Knights renew face to the whole scheme and arrange- gard the sex, to whose service and defence ments of civil society. It is like those ada they were sworn as the objects of their permirable principles in the order of the nate- petual deference. They approached them rial universe, or those grand discoveries with a sort of gallant timidity, listened to brought to light from time to time by supe

their behests with submission, and thought rior genius, so obvious and simple, that we the longest courtship and devotion nobly wonder the most common understanding recompensed by the final acceptance of the could have missed them, yet so pregnant fair. with results, that they seem at once to put a “ The romance and exaggeration chanew life, and inspire a new character into racteristic of these modes of thinking, have every part of a mighty and all-comprehen- gradually worn away in modern times; but sive mass.

much of what was most valuable in them “ The passion between the sexes, in its

has remained. Love has in later ages never grosser sense, is a momentary impulse been divested of the tenderness and considemerely; and there was danger that, when ration which were thus rendered some of its the fit and violence of the passion was over,

most estimable features. A certain desire the whole would subside into inconstancy in each party to exalt the other, and regard and a roving disposition, or at least into in- it as worthy of admiration, became inexdifference aud almost brutal neglect. But tricably interwoven with the simple passion. the institutions of chivalry immediately gave A sense of the honour that was borne by a new face to this. Either sex conceived a the one to the other, had the happiest deep and permanent interest in the other. effect in qualifying the familiarity and unreIo the unsettled state of society, which cha- serve in the communion of feelings and senracterized the period when these institations timents, without which the attachment of arose, the defenceless were liable to assaults the sexes cannot subsist. It is something of multiplied kinds, and the fair perpetually like what the mystic divines describe of the


pp. 958.

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Review.-State Papers, Vol. I.

[May, beatific visions, where entire wonder and cretary are co-ordinate, and the division adoration are not judged to be incompatible of duty is merely matter of arrangewith the most ardent affection, and all ment, for the more convenient despatch meaner and selfish regards are annihilated.” of business.

“ It will be readily conceived how rapidly State Papers published under the authority of mulated in the office of the Secretary of

the mass of correspondence must have accuHis Majesty's Commission, Vol. I, King State, after the revival of letters in the sixHenry the Eighth, Parts I. and II.

teenth century; yet no provision was, for

some time, made, for its being received into THIS is the first publication of the any certain depository. Each succeeding Commissioners appointed in 1825 10 Secretary had it in his own custody; the edit such of the documents deposited apartments provided for him were extremely in the State Paper Office, as they confined; and the future destination of his should consider " may be fitly printed official papers depended, in great measure, and published, with advantage to the upon accident, upon the care or the negliPublic, and without prejudice to the gence of the individual, or his clerks, and, Royal service.” It is very evident that

above all, upon the good or evil fate which the latter condition can only apply to

awaited the Secretary when he resigned his papers of recent date; the sole requi- cil (the office, in which, in those days, and

seals. Even in the office of the Privy Counsites therefore with regard to early pe

until the Revolution, all the affairs of the riods of our history, are judgment in ihe

realm were debated and resolved on), no selection, accuracy in the travscription, written record of the proceedings was preand skill in the arrangement. The served until 1540, when it was ordered that professional merits of Mr. Lemon, the a regular register should be kept, and two Deputy Keeper of State Papers, and clerks (Paget and Petre) were appointed to editor of the present volume, are per keep it

. This register commences on the fecily well known; and we have only 18th of August in that year.

The necessity to regret that State-paper work, like of a repository for State Papers, began svon Church work, moves on so slowly.

afterwards to be felt; and, in 1579, an In the preface the history of the

office for keeping papers and records conState Paper Office is concisely detailed, cerning matters of state and council, was including that of the post of Secretary established, and Dr. Thoinas Wilson (who of State, 10 whose control it has natu

was then master of requests, and afterwards

became one of the Secretaries of State) rally devolved. The Secretaryship was was appointed the keeper and register of formerly not a paleni office, but con- those papers. Before this establishment ferred by the mere delivery of the was formed, it is not surprising that auKing's signet; the names of the per- merous papers of great importance should sons who filled it are therefore only to have been entirely lost, and others have be incidentally gleaned among our an

fallen into the possession of private persons. cient records. There was only one

Sir Robert Cotton, in the reign of James Secretary of State until the disgrace of the First, and Şir Joseph Williamson, in Thomas Cromwell, Earl of Essex;

that of Charles the Second, were most assiwhen Henry the Eighth, whose royal

duous and successful collectors of those power had been almost merged in ihe scattered papers. The collections of the influence of that minister and his great

former now form a portion of the library of

the British Museum. Sir Joseph Williampredecessor Wolsey, appears to have considered that he should ensure more

sop placed his collections in the State Paper

Office, where they still remain. Another independence for the future, by ap

mass of papers, consisting principally of letpointing two Secretaries. In 1708 a ters addressed to Cardinal Wolsey, and to third was established for the affairs of Cromwell Earl of Essex, remained in the Scotland; but was discontinued in 1746. custody of the Crown; but, instead of being In 1768 a third was again appointed deposited in the proper place, found its way as Secretary for the Colonies; but was into the Chapter House at Westminster, suppressed by Mr. Burke's Act in 1782.

and is there preserved. The three great reIn 1794 the Duke of Porıland became

ceptacles, therefore, of State Papers, antea third Secretary; and the arrangement

cedent to the year 1540, and partially down then established has since been undis

to the year 1578, are the State Paper Office, turbed. From an early period to 1782, brary. And so entirely accidental seems to

the Chapter House, and the Cottonian Lithe two departments were denominated the Northern and Southern ; and sub

have been the preservatiun of many of the

papers, that, of a series relative to the same sequently to that year the Home and subject, a part will frequently be found in Foreign; but the powers of each Se. each of these three libraries. Nay, of two


Review.--State Papers, Vol. 1.

441 letters, written by the same person, to the (assone as I had the sight therof) deviding same correspondeut, ou the same day, one my company on bothe handes, in most revewill be discovered in one of these receptacles, rent maner, sole and alone, I did accelerate the other in another, and the answer in the my repaire and accesse; and His Grace doing third ; and several instances will be seen, the sensblable for his parte, being dis-cowhere one portion of a letter is found in vered, with his bonnet iu his hande, encounone part, and the residue in another part of tred and with most hierty, kinde, loving the same collection. A few are to be met countenance and maner, embraced me." with in the Lambeth Library, the Harleian

After many compliments passed on Collection, the University Library of Cam- both sides, the Cardinal was conducted bridge, and in private hands.”

in triumph through the city, in the It appears that there are no docu

principal places whereof were pageants ments in the State Paper Office of an

expressing the great desire the people earlier


than those of the reign of had for peace; and was accompanied Henry the Eighth, with which this

to his lodging by the King. The Carpublication is commenced. These, in dinal of Lorraine conducted the Engorder that the continuity of series might lish Cardinal not be broken, have been arranged in

“ into my lodging, which I founde richely the following classes :

and pomposely apparelled with the Frenche 1. The correspondence between the King Kinges own stuff; as, the utter chamber and Cardinal Wolsey.

with riche clothe of tyssue and sylver, paned, II. That between the Kiug and his other embrodered with freres [friars'] koottes, Ministers at Hoine.

wherin was a grete and large clothe of III. That between the Governments of astate of the same stuff and sorte.

The reEngland and Ireland.

cord chamber was apparelled with cryinyson IV. That between the Government and the velvet, embroderd, and replenished with large

King's Representatives on the Scot- letters of gold, of F and A* crowned, with tish Border.

an other veray large clothe of astate, of fyne V. That between the Government and the And the third chamber, being my

King's Representatives at Calais and bedd chamber, was apparelled with riche its dependencies.

clothe of tyssue, raised, and a great sparver VI. That between the Court of England and counterpointe to the same. And the

and Foreigo Courts, each forming a 4th, being as a closet, was hanged with separate subdivision.

clothe of bawdikyn, wherunto was annexed a VII. Miscellaneous.

litle gallary, hanged with crymyson velvet. The present voluine embraces the “ And after a litle pawse, and shifting of two first of these classes. The first

my self, ther was sent into my lodging the consists of one hundred and two docu

Cardinall of Burbon, the Duke of Vandome,

with many other prelates and noble men, to ments, nearly one half of which are

conduc'e me to my Ladies presence, who was letters from Wolsey to his Royal mas

lodged in the Bishops palaies; in the hall ter; and the remainder either addressed

wherof, being large and spacious, richely by Wolsey to other persons, or ad. hanged and apparelled with aras, was placed dressed to him; among the latter are and set in right good order, on bothe sydes several of Sir Thomas More and of the Frenche Kinges garde, my Lady his Cromwell.

moder, the Quene of Navarre [his sister), The papers illustrative of the Cardi- Madam Reynet (Renata, daughter of Louis nal's splendid Embassy to France in XII.), the Duchess of Vandom, the King of 1527, are particularly complete. In

Navarre's sister, with a greate nomber of one of them Wolsey gives a long de

other ladies and gentlewomen, stonding in scription of his reception by the French

the myddes, to whose presence I sum what

approaching and drawing nigh, my said King at Amiens.

Lady (the Queen) also avauncing her self “ Within a myle and a half of the cite, forwardes, in most loving and pleasant the French King, riding upon a grey jenet, maner, encountred, welcomed, and embraced apparelled in a cote of blok velvet, cut in

me, and likewise saluted my Lord of London diverse places for shewing of the lynyng [Bishop Tunstall], my Lord Chamberlain thereof, which was white satyn, accompaayed (Lord Sandys], Master Comptroller (Sir with the King of Navarre, the Cardinal of Henry Guildford], the Chaunceler of the Burbon, the Duke of Vandome, the Counte Duchy [Sir Thomas More], and most parte Saintpole, Mons? de Gize, Monst Vandamont, the Grete Mastre, the Seneshall of * “ Probably for Francis, Angoulême” Normandy, with diverse Archbishops, -but qu. as the name of Francis's Queen Bishops, and other noble men, avaunced was Eleanor, might not that be spelt with him self towards më ; to whose person the initial A, Gent. Mag. May, 1831.



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p. 486.

Review.-State Papers, Vol. I.

[May, of suche gentlemen as came with me, and them the cawse I came thether for. And most specially thErle of Derbye, whom it then the sayd Robert Aske, with a crewell liked Her Grace to kisse, and right lovingly and a inestemable prowde countenance, to welcome.”

stretched hym self, and toke the herynge of After this lively description of the

my tale ; whiche I openyd to lym at large,

in ag moche honor in our Soverayne Lord royal salutations, the writer proceeds to

the Kyng as my reason wold serve me; describe the more weighly transactions

wiche che sayd capetayne Aske gave no reof the embassy, the whole dispatch ex

verence to, and superstyciusly* demandyd tending to nineteen quarto pages, being the seyght of my proclamacion. And then written in the name of Wolsey, but I toke y owt of my purse, and delyvered ye with all the verbose minuteness charac

to hym, and then he redd yt openly, with teristic of the chroniclers of that age. out reverence to anny person, and sayd ye

In p. 328 we have striking in- shold nott ned to calle no counsell for the stance of the unparalleled rapacity and answar of the


for he wold of his presumption of Wolsey. li is a letter howne whyt gave me thanswar, wiche was written the very hour he heard of the thys;-he, standynge in the heghest place death of Richard Fox, Bishop of Win

of the chamber, takeyug the hygh astatte chester; in which he not only asks

upon hym, sayd, Herald, as a messynger the King for that rich see, but requests intendynge as I doo. And as for this pro

you ar wellcome to me, and all my company, to be allowed to transfer Durham,

clamacion sent frome the Lordes, from whens which he then held in commendam

you com, shall nott be redde at the market with the Archbishopric of York, to

crosse, nor in no place annongest my peple, "my poore scoler the Deane of Welles,"

wiche be all onder my gydyny; nor for - who was Thomas Winter, his nalu. feare of losse of landes, lyffe, and goodes,

In the former part of his pe- not for the power wiche ys agenste uş, tition, after some monihs delay, he dothe not enter in to owr herttes with feare, prevailed ; but Durham was given 10

bott ar all of on accorde, with the poynttes Tunstall.

of our artecles, clerly intendyoge to se a reIn pp. 462 et seq. is comprised an

formacion, or ells to dye yn thoys cawses.' important series of papers relative to the rebellion in Lincolushire and After some further parley, the herald Yorkshire, called the Pilgrimage of had recourse 10 intreaty, and "fell Grace. It appears that the popular down on his knee" before the Captain, leader known as Captain Cobler, was beseeching him for permission to read not Dr. Makerel the Abbot of Barlings, the proclaination; and this appears 10 as it has been generally supposed, but have been Miller's great criine that he a distinct person named Melton. Re

knellid downe on his knees, beffore Robert garding the Yorkshire leader, Robert Aske and the other treators, with the Kynges Aske, there is a curious Report froin most honorable Cote of Armys on his bak; Thomas Miller, the herald who was whyche comforted, coraged, and made them dispatched to the rebels' head quarters in suche pryde and arragoncye, to see the at Pontefract, and who because he was

Kynges Cote of Armys so humble used considered to have encouraged them

beffore them, that they stode the more by his craven demeanour, subsequently styflyer and lengor in ther detestable and suffered the extreme penalty of a traitor.

cursed wyllies and pretenses." It is not surprising that the natural There are several letters on the exfirmness of character which enabled hilarating occasion of the birth of the rebel captain 10 assume the coin

Prince Edward, and the consequent mand over a band comprising many misfortune of the Queen's death. It is individuals of superior rank and wealih, proved, however, that there was an inshould have succeeded in intimidating terval of at least twelve days between the unfortunate herald.

those two events; and that the story

of the Cæsarian operation having been “ The sayd Haske sentt for me in to his chamber, and theyr kepynge his porte and performed is a mere invention. It was countenance, as thowgh he hade bene a first propagated by the Jesuit Nicolas greatt pryoce, with great regor and lyke a Sanders. In a despatch to the Ambas.

was accompanyd with the sadors in France, the calamity is ascribed Archebeshop of Yourke, the Lord Darcy, to the Queen baving been suffered to Sir Robert Counstable, Mr. Magnus, Sir take cold, and to eat improper food. Crystofer Danby, and dyvers other. And, It appears to have been by an accidental as my dewte was, I saluted the Archebyshop of Yorke and my Lord Darcy, showyoge to

* Qu. superciliously?

tyrant; who

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