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The extent to which girls between the ages of 14 and 18 years are employed in the industry as well as the range of the weekly earnings is considered in the following table:

Table 148.- Per cent of female employees 14 and under 18 years of age earning each specified amount per week, by general nativity and race.*

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.) (This table includes only races with 40 or more females reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.]

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This table shows wages or earnings for the period indicated, but no account is taken of voluntary lost time or lost time from shutdowns or other causes. In the various tables in this report showing annual earnings allowance is made for time lost during the year.

Less than 1 per cent of all persons in the foregoing table earn under $2.50 per week; 60.7 per cent earn $5 or over per week; and 18.7 per cent earn $7.50 or over per week. In each specified rate of earnings the foreign-born show a higher proportion than do the native-born of foreign father. None of the Russian Hebrews, North or South Italians, or Poles earn under $2.50 per week. Among the foreign-born the Russian Hebrews show the largest proportion earning $5 or over. The Poles show the smallest proportion earning that amount. Of the South Italians 34 per cent earn $7.50 or over. This is the largest proportion in that specified rate, the Poles showing the smallest proportion. None of the foreign-born races show a proportion as high as 10 per cent earning $10 or over, the Bohemians and Moravians, with 8.8 per cent, being the largest. RELATION BETWEEN PERIOD OF RESIDENCE AND EARNING ABILITY.

Advancement in industrial efficiency as reflected in increased earning ability according to designated periods of residence in this country is studied for both males and females in the series of tables following. The first table submitted, which immediately follows, shows by race of individual and length of residence in the United States, the percentage of weekly earnings of each specified amount of foreign-born male employees 18 years of age or over, and permits of a study of their progress by grouping the proportions in each period of residence under the several races.

Table 149.- Per cent of foreign-born male employees 18 years of age or over earning each specified amount per week, by race and length of residence in the United States.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.) (By years in United States is meant years since first arrival in the United States. This table includes only

races with 200 or more males reporting.)

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This table shows wages or earnings for the period indicated, but no account is taken of voluntary lost time or lost time from shutdowns or other causes. In the various tables in this report showing annual earnings allowance is made for time lost during the year.

Of the Bohemians and Moravians earning each specified amount from $12.50 or over per week the proportion increases with length of residence in the United States, while the proportion earning each specified amount below $12.50 is largest for those with a period of residence of from five to nine years and smallest for those

with a period of residence of less than five years. The proportion of Russian Hebrews earning each specified amount increases as between the different periods of residence in the United States. The proportion of Hebrews other than Russian earning each specified amount from $10 or over per week increases with length of residence in the United States, while the proportion earning each specified amount below $10 is largest of those with a period of residence from five to nine years. The proportion of Lithuanians earning $12.50 or over, $15 or over, or $20 or over per week is largest of those with a period of residence of ten years or over and smallest of those with a period of residence of less than five years, while the proportion earning each specified amount under $12.50 per week is largest of those with a period of residence of from five to nine years. The comparison made as regards the Lithuanians applies also to the Poles.

The following table is based upon the same data as the preceding, but presented in a different form. TABLE 150.--Comparative earnings per week of foreign-born male employees 18 years of age or over, by race and length of residence in the United States.*

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.) (By years in the United States is meant years since first arrival in the United States. This table includes

only races with 200 or more males reporting.)
IN UNITED STATES LESS THAN 5 YEARS.

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This table shows wages or earnings for the period indicated, but no account is taken of voluntary lost time or lost time from shutdowns or other causes. In the various tables in this report showing annual earnings allowance is made for time lost during the year.

Less than 1 per cent of the Lithuanians, Hebrews other than Russian, and Poles who have been in this country less than five years earn under $5 per week. Every race included in the above table shows that more than 98 per cent of those who have been here less than five years earn $5 or over per week. The Hebrews other than Russian show the largest proportion earning $12.50 or over, and the Lithuanians show the smallest proportion earning $12.50 or over. The Russian Hebrews are the only ones showing a proportion who earn as much as $25 per week, and in that case the proportion is very small.

All of the persons included in the table who have lived in this country from five to nine years earn $5 per week or over. The Russian Hebrew and Polish are the only races that show less than 100 per cent as earning $7.50 per week. The Bohemians and Moravians show the largest proportion who earn $10 or over. The Poles show the smallest proportion who earn $12.50 or over per week. Slightly more than 50 per cent of the Russian Hebrews earn $15 or over per week. None of the Russian Hebrews, Lithuanians, or Poles earn as much as $25 per week.

Among those who have resided in the United States for ten years or over the Russian Hebrews show the largest proportion earning $10 or over per week. The Poles show the smallest proportion earning $15 or over. The Lithuanians show none earning as much as $25. The proportion for the Russian Hebrews in the latter rate of earnings is 6 per cent and for the Poles it is 0.8 per cent.

The relative earnings of female employees are considered in the tables which follow. Table 151.-Per cent of foreign-born female employees 18 years of age or over earning each specified amount per week, by race and length of residence in the United States.*

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.) (By years in United States is meant years since first arrival in the United States. This table includes only

races with 200 or more females reporting.)

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*This table shows wages or earnings for the period indicated, but no account is taken of voluntary lost time or lost time from shutdowns or other causes. In the various tables in this report showing annual earnings allowance is made for time lost during the year.

Among the foreign-born females included in the above table who have been in the United States less than five years, the Russian Hebrews show the largest proportion who earn $5 or over per week and the Poles show the smallest proportion who earn $15 per week. The Bohemians and Moravians show the largest proportion of females earning $15 or over per week.

All of the Russian Hebrews who have been in the United States from five to nine years earn $5 or over per week, 75 per cent earn $7.50 or over, and none earn $15 or over. Not less than 95 per cent of the other two races earn $5 or over.

The greatest divergence in proportion is shown between the Russian Hebrews and Poles who have been in the United States for ten years or more and who earn $5 or over. The proportion for the Poles is 100 per cent and for the Russian Hebrews 86.7 per cent. Less than 7 per cent of the Russian Hebrews earn $12.50 or over, and only 4.5 per cent of the Poles earn $15 or over per week, as compared with 14.2 per cent of the Bohemians and Moravians who earn that amount.

Table 152.-Comparative earnings per week of foreign-born female employees 18 years of

age or over, by race and length of residence in the United States.*

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.) (By years in the United States is meant years since first arrival in the United States. This table includes

only races with 200 or more females reporting.) IN UNITED STATES LESS THAN 5 YEARS.

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* This table shows wages or earnings for the period indicated, but no account is taken of voluntary lost time or lost time from shutdowns or other causes. In the various tables in this report showing annual earnings allowance is made for time lost during the year.

48296°---VOL 11-11-29

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