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CHAPTER V.

SALIENT CHARACTERISTICS.

Literacy-Conjugal condition-Visits abroad--Age classification of employees –[Text

Tables 153 to 159 and General Tables 94 to 98].

LITERACY.

The degree of general literacy which prevails among the employees in Chicago is set forth in the following table, which shows, by sex and general nativity and race, the per cent of employees who read and per cent who read and write:

Table 153.—Per cent of employees who read and per cent who read and write, by sex and

general nativity and race.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.) (This table includes only races with 80 or more persons reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.]

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Male. Female., Total. Male. Female. Total. Male. Female. Total.

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From the foregoing table it will be observed that of 8,398 individuals reporting complete data, 4,424 were females and 3,974 were males. Of the grand total 95.7 per cent can read and 94.8 per cent can read and write, while 97 per cent of males read, 96 per cent both read and write, 94.5 per cent of the females can read, and 93.7 per cent

can both read and write. All those native-born of native father or of father born in Austria-Hungary can read and write. In both sexes and in both literacy groups the native-born of foreign father show a higher degree of efficiency than the foreign-born. A comparatively large proportion of each race except the North and South Italian are able to both read and write. A greater proportion of males than of females in each race are shown to be able to read and to read and write, excepting the German, Polish, and Magyar, the last-named race showing 100 per cent of females who can both read and write.

CONJUGAL CONDITION.

In the following table the per cent of employees 20 years of age or over in each conjugal condition is shown according to sex and general nativity and race: Table 154.Per cent of employees 20 years of age or over in each conjugal condition, by

sex and general nativity and race.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.) [This table includes only races with 80 or more persons reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.)

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Total native-born of foreign father..
Total native-born.
Total foreign-born..

463

510 2,804

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Table 154.—Per cent of employees 20 years of age or over in each conjugal condition, by

ser and general nativity and race—Continued.

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Of 5,409 persons, 53.1 per cent are single, 42.9 per cent married, and 4 per cent widowed. The foreign-born show 49.1 per cent married as compared with 31.2 per cent of the native-born of native father, white, and 22 per cent of the native-born of foreign father. Consequently the native-born show the greatest proportion of single persons. All groups show a small proportion who are widowed.

Discussing this table by sexes, there are 3,344 males and 2,065 females. The males show 55.9 per cent married as compared with 21.9 per cent of the females. A considerably greater proportion of females than males are widowed, the former showing 8.2 per cent and the latter 1.4 per cent. Practically the same observations as were made regarding the grand total can be applied to the two sexes. The next table submitted shows, by sex, age groups, and by general nativity and race, the per cent of employees in each conjugal condition: Table 155.-Per cent of employees in each conjugal condition, by sex, age groups, and

general nativity and race.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.) (This table includes only races with 200 or more persons reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.)

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Total native-born of for

eign lather.. Total native-born. Total foreign-born..

62292.1! 5.9 1.9

66.91.6 6.2 2.3 1,024 74.721.7 3.6

52 48. 125.0 26.9 (3 16.0 28.6 25.4 231 14. 158. 127.8

5 (a) (a) (a) 679 88.1 7.8 4.1 13 .0 46.2 53.8 741 86. 1 8.8 5.1 66 12.1 43.9 13.9 1,324.60.9 29.2 9.9

a Not computed, owing to small number involved.

TABLE 155.- Per cent of employees in each conjugal condition, by sex, age groups, and

general nativity and race-Continued.

TOTAL.

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a Not computed, owing to small number involved. Data as to the conjugal condition of 5,409 employees who are 20 years of age or over are included in the above table. Of that total number 42.9 per cent are married, 4 per cent are widowed, and 53.1 per cent are single. The foreign-born show a much larger proportion of married persons than do the native-born of foreign father. Nearly 50 per cent of the foreign-born are married, while only 22 per cent of the native-born of foreign father are in that conjugal condition. Among the foreign-born races the South Italians show the largest proportion of married employees, with the Bohemians and Moravians, Germans, and Hebrews other than Russian following in the order named. The Germans show the largest proportion of widowed employees and the Lithuanians show the smallest proportion.

Among the foreign-born persons between the ages of 20 and 29 the South Italians show the largest proportion married. The Lithuanians show the smallest proportion of married persons in this age group. Where the ages are from 30 to 44 years the Russian Hebrews show the largest proportion of married persons. It is 91.8 per cent, and of that race only 2.6 per cent are widowed. Among the persons who are 45 years of age or over none of the Bohemians and Moravians, South Italians, or Poles are single. None of the other foreign-born races shows a proportion as high as 6 per cent, single. In this age group the Germans show the largest proportion of widowed persons, with the Bohemians and Moravians and the Hebrews other than Russian following in the order named.

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