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Literary and Scientific Intelligence. : 451 volume will be inserted the triumphal song the tact and talent by which the chair was of the battle of Brunanburh, and the other filled, there existed a very grateful feeling metrical pieces in the Saxon Chronicle; and of respect for the noble Lord, who, himself also the funeral dirge over Brithooth, who a literary man of the first eminence, and fell gloriously at the battle of Meldun.- ex officio the guardian of literary rights, The fifth, sixth, and seventh volumes will had made time amidst the almost endless contain the Rhythmical Chronicle of Bri- engagements of his high station to preside tain, supposed to have been written by a at the festival of a society the most congenial priest named Layamon, at the close of the perhaps with his present tastes and early asi3th century. - The eighth, ninth, and sociation, of any charitable institution that tenth volumes are intended to make up an could be proposed to him. Nor should the Anglo-Saxon Homilarium, or mirror of the kindness of His Grace the Duke of Somerdivinity of our Anglo-Saxon preachers, who set, the President of the Institution, be forwere the great instructors of the new Chris- gotten on this occasiun—with a feeling that tian world. The work is to be printed by does honour to his rank and character, he subscription, in 8vo volumes of about 30 not only readily forewent his claim to the sheets, and a volume to be published about chair, but assisted in supporting the Lord every six months.
Chancellor in it; thus evincing, that the
first object of his regard was the welfare of LITERARY FUND Society.
the Society over which he has so long preMay 11. The forty-second anniversary of sided. this Institution was celebrated at Freemason's It is almost needless to recommend this Hall, where upwards of 200 gentlemen of Society to the notice of every man who the first respectability sat down to dinner. values the importance of Literature, and The Lord Chancellor was in the chair, and can appreciate its moral, civil, and religious was supported amongst others by the fol- effect upon the national character. Its lowing noble and distinguished persons. His purpose is simply to afford pecuniary asGrace the Duke of Somerset; Lords Mahon, sistance to authors of merit in times of unSelkirk, and Portmore; the Attorney Gene- foreseen distress ; " to stand," as one of its ral, Right Hon. Robert Grant, Judge Hali- Registrars emphatically asserted in the lanburton Nova Scotia); Sirs John Malcolm, guage of Holy Writ, « between the living J. E. Swinburne, and W. Clayton ; the and the dead, that the plague may be President of the Royal Academy; Sir Jef- stayed;" to speak the language of hope fry Wyatville, Sir William Beechey, Henry and consolation, at the same moment that it Ellis, Esq. M.P., H. L. Bulwer, Esq. M.P.; administers substantial relief; and to do this Mr. Gurney the King's Counsel ; Drs. without offending the delicacy, or wounding Conolly, Arnot, Ainslie, and A. T. Thomp- the instinctive jealousy of the person reson; Professors Milman, M'Culloch, and lievedObjects thus benevolently intended Nott; Puets Croly, Sotheby, Montgomery, have been amply realized; and although &c. &c. The body of the hall, we observed, more than forty years' experience of the vawas graced by the presence of almost every lue of this Society could attest its usefulness, literary man in London. The spectacle was the pathetic statement made by the Rev. most gratifying, and it would be difficult to Mr. Croly, on this last apniversary meeting, assemble a more enlightened and intellectual would alone vindicate the claims of the Li. meeting than that which did honour to this terary Fuod upon public patronage, and festival. Here was the neutral ground on place it in the very highest rank of national which men of all parties had gathered in institutions. amicable parley-every distinction which separates men of talent into sects and little
Royal Society. communities was unknown-every feeling of April 28. The Duke of Sussex, President. selfish exclusiveness was banished the voice A paper was read, On the Anatomy and of faction or of political enmity was hushed. Physiology of the minute and capillary vesOne sentiment animated the whole, and it sels, by Marshal Hall, M.D. F.R.S.E. The was a sentiment than which nothing tends list of the Council was filled up with the to elevate, to ennoble, and dignify our na. names of George Dollond, esq., John Fred. ture more--for it was connected with the Daniell, esq., and Charles König, esq. amenities of literature, the exercise of cha- May 5. H.R. H. the President in the rity, and the gratification of taste.
chair.—Three papers were read : “On the In proposing the toast of “ Prosperity to effects of Hot Water on the Batrachia," by the Literary Fund," the Lord Chancellor Dr. M. Hall; an account of a new method very eloquently advocated the objects of the of propelling Vessels, by Mr. W. Hale; and Society, and whilst he vindicated the inde- « Additional thoughts on the use of the pendence of the literary character, he did Ganglions in furnishing Electricity for the not conceal the vicissitudes of the literary production of animal secretions," by Sir career. His speech was listened to through Everard Home, Bart. F.R.S. out with deep attention, interrupted only by May 12. H.R.H. the President in the vehement applause ; for independently of chair.-Capt. Geo. Wm. Manby of Yar
Literary Intelligence.- Antiquarian Researches. [May, mouth, was elected Fellow.-A paper was the British government, took place in Jan. read, “On a peculiar class of Acoustic Fin 1830. gures, and on certain forms assumed by The Landers, after having reached Youri, groups of particles upon vibrating elastic embarked in a cance on the Niger, or, as it substances, "by alichael Faraday, Esq.F.R.S. is called there, the Quarrn, and came down
May 19. J. W. Lubbock, Esq. VP. the stream until they reached the sea, in the and Treasurer in the Chair.-The following Bight of Biafra. The branch by which they papers were read: An Experimental Exami came to the coast is called the Nun, or nation of the Blood found in the Veoi Por- Brasse River, being the first river to the tæ, by - Thackeray, esq., communicated eastward of Cape Formosa. On their way by Sir A. Cooper, Bart. V.P.R.S. ; a Table, down the river, they were attacked by the facilitating the Computations relative to Hibboos, (a fierce nation that inhabit its Suspension Bridges, by Davies Gilbert, esq. banks), and made prisoners, or rather capV.P.R.S.; Researches on Physical Astrono tives ; but the King of Brasse happening my, relating to the Theory of the Moon, by to be in that country buying slaves, gut J. W. Lubbock, esq. V. P. and Treas. R.S.; them released, hy giving the price of six au Account of the Construction and Verifi slaves for each of them. In the scuffle that cation of the hoperial Standard Yard, for ensued at the time they were taken, one of the Royal Society, by Capt. Kater, F.R.S. them lost his journal.
Whilst at Youri they got the Prayer-book AFRICAN EXPEDITION, AND Discovery
that belonged to Mr. Anderson, the brotherOF THE NIGER.
in-law and fellow-traveller of the celebrated The important geographical problem re- Mungo Park. They were upwards of a specting the termination of the Niger is at month at Fernando Po, whence they emlength solved by the discoveries of the barked, about ten days ago, in an English Messrs. Lander, — whose departure fruin merchant vessel bound to Rio Janeiro, on England to Africa, under the auspices of their way to Englaod.- Literary Gazelle.
slung at his back. His head is covered with April 28. H. Gurney, esq. V.P.
a Phrygian bonoet, and his buskins remarkSume observations on the definite article ably pointed. At his side sits a greyhound, The, by Richard Duppa, Esq. F.S.A. were turning round his head to look in his mas. read. He remarked that the Latin language ter's face. At the back, is slightly carved has no article ; the hic, hæc, hoc of the in outline what is supposed to be a harp, grammar being clearly a pronominal adjec- and the two sides are ornamented with long tive, signifying this. « The,” whenever slips of laurel. See p. 390. fully uttered, has a similar import. Dr. Henry Ellis, Esy. Sec. communicated a Johnson has censured the practice of sink- Declaration of all such fees and allowances ing the final e in poetical versification ; but, as were lawfully allowed in the Court of Exas maintained by Mr. Duppa, it is only chequer in the time of Elizabeth. when that letter is so dropped in pronuncia A further portion was also read of the tion, that th' is really an article,.-in which Rev. John Skinner's letters on Camelorespect the modern English agrees with its dunum. Saxon original. It was added, that it is May 12. Mr. Gurney, V. P. in the chair. evident, from a comparison of several lan Audrew Fountaine, Esq. exhibited a feguages, that genders have been generally male bust in bronze, from the collection of adopted from euphony; and that it is not a his ancestor Sir A. Fountaine. philosophical opinion to suppose them con Mr. Ellis, by permission of the Bishop of nected with any presumed natural analogy. Llandaff, laid before the Society three let.
Mr. Grover's dissertation on Classical ters, addressed to Sir William Morice, SeChronology was afterwards continued. cretary of State to King Charles the Second,
May 5. H. Hallam, Esq. V.P.-John and M.P. for Cornwall.-1. From Mr. Quin, Amery, of Birmingham, esq.; and Williain Knight of the Shire for Devon, in CromWatkin Edward Wynne, Esq. of Peniorth, well's Parliament of 1654 ; relative to an co. Meriopeth, and of Old Cavendish-street, interview with the Protector. Mr. Quin, were elected Fellows.
after having consulted with a learned and Mr. Hardwick, the architect, exhibited a copscientious divine, had come to the deterRoman altar, found about fifteen feet below mination that to take an unlawful oath was the surface, in digging the foundations of dot sinful, inasipuch as the sin must lie at the new Goldsmiths' Hall, in Foster-lane. the door of the imposer-the miserable cant It is about 2 feet high; on its front is epitomised in those lines of Butler, carved a very graceful figure of a huntsman, or 'Tis he that gives an oath that breaks it, standing erect, holding in his left hand a bow, and his right hand raised over his right
Not he who by compulsion takes it.” shoulder to draw an arrow from the guiver Mr. Quin concludes by persuading his friend
Antiquarian Researches. to take the said oath, having scriptural au
OFFERTORY Dishes. thority for enfurcing his exainple, in the At the meeting of the Hull Literary and text - When thou art converted thyself, Philosophical Society, April 22, Mr. Wm. strengthen thy brother!' 2. From Dr. Du Bell read a paper on “ Offertory Dishes," Moulin, after the restoration, laying on the illustrative of three in Hull, one presented Jesuits the blame of Charles the First’s de- to the society by Mr. Joseph Eglin, ancapitation, and tracing it to secret machina- other belonging to Mr. Cobb, curator of the dations for the restoration of Popery. The Exchange, and a third from the museum of doctor, it was observed, was forbidden by Mr. Wallis -- which, in deference to Dr. Charles II. to write more, on the under- Nash and other Euglish antiquaries, who standing that as English was not his native have accidentally met with them, be called language, he might mar the cause he meant Offertory Dishes, though amongst the conto aid “ by writing what he would not.” tinental literati they are more generally The doctor had already written a book de- named Taufbecken, or Baptismal Dishes. fending Protestantisın from a charge of dis- Mr. B. then read the opinions of Dr. Nash affection to monarchy. 3. From James, in his History of Worcestershire, of Thos. Duke of Courland, in Livonin, offering Sir Hearne in his preface to Leland's CollectaWilliam Morice ten thousand florins, by nea, and of sundry anonymous contributors way of a bribe for his services in the Privy to the Gentleman's Magazine, respecting Council, in the management of a West India the ineaning of the inscriptions which surmatter affecting the interest of the Duke. round the dishes, as well as the conjectures
May 19. H. Gurney, esq. V. P. in the of various German literati concerning them : chair.
of the latter, Von Hammer, the famed OrienA curious paper, on the ancient history talist of Vienna, and formerly secretary to of Hats, communicated by J. A. Repton, the Austrian Internuncio at Constantinople, esq. was read. It was accompanied by eight was the most important, both from the sheets of drawings of hats and caps, in an weight due to his opinion and the peculiarity infinity of shapes and fashions, from the of his views; having considered them as time of Richard II. up to 1784. He ob- deeply connected with the gnosticism and served, the name hat was derived from a ophitism which he fancied to have discoverSaxon word meaning a covering for the head, ed in the tenets and doctrines of the Knights in which general sense it had been used by Templars before the forced subversion of early authors, and applied to helmets of their order. Mr. Bell, too, was enabled, steel. Hats and caps were anciently made by his researches abroad, to exhibit drawings of felt, woollen, silk, straw, and various of similar dishes found in Iceland, in various other materials, and were as diversified in parts of Germany, France, and Italy. He their colours. In the time of Elizabeth also read a letter from Mr. Holmes, F.S.A. the common people generally wore woollen of Retford, describing one exactly similar to caps; and some acts were passed in her that in possession of Mr. Wallis, and which reign to encourage the manufacture of them again was identical with one fixed to the The broad brims were introduced by the door-post of a very old church at Valle or cardinals to their scarlet hats, and followed Valte in Iceland. Mr. Bell differed in his by the clergy. The inconvenience of the reading of the various inscriptions from all broad brim all round caused the turning of the authorities adduced, and found in them one side up; then two sides were turned either simple invocations to Christ and Maria, up; and at last turning up three sides intro as the immaculate virgin, either in old Gerduced the cocked hat. The high-crowned man or Latin of a very early age-or in hat was first worn in the time of Elizabeth, other instances short pithy sentences of moand declined in the reign of Charles II. rality. The age of them could not be traced Mr. Repton then noticed the ordaments of by any appearance of a date, but the style of hats, such as feathers, broaches, and bands. letters (which were evidently sunk by a die), Henry VIII, is described on his entry into on a comparison with the great seal of the Calais as wearing feathers from India, four
Realm, seemed to be fixed at, or some time feet lung; and men wore feathers in their succeeding, the accession of Edw. IJI. 1327, bats as late as the reign of Queen Anne. to which they most approximate. One was Yew is mentioned as placed in the hat to noticed as existing at Aldborough near Bodenote mourning for a deceased relative or roughbridge, differing in the inscription from friend. The paper contained numerous any other, of which a copy exists in Gough's curious and amusiog quotations on the sub- Camden's Britannia, vol. iii. but too imperject from a great variety of authors.
fect to ascertain its meaning. On account of Whitsun week, the meet
WILLIAM CANYNGES. ings were adjourned to the 2d of June.
April 28. A very interesting paper was
read at the Bristol Iustitution, on the 28th * la the West of England, in dressing April, on “ the Life and Times of William the houses with holly and other evergreens Canynges, founder of St. Mary Redcliff at Christmas, we have observed the picture church.” It was written by the Rev. James of a deceased relative adorned with the yew Dallaway, F.S.A., and very amply illusalone.
[ 454 ] HISTORICAL CHRONICLE.
FOREIGN NEW S.
and imprisonment for alleged political ofThe King of France has undertaken a
fences; the destitution of the judges who tour through the Provinces, and appears to
condemned them; and damages of 500,000 be every where enthusiastically received.
francs to be paid to the two prisoners ; the At St. Germain, Poissy, Nantes, Dieppe,
satisfaction to be inserted in the Lisbon &c., his Majesty reviewed different bodies
Gazelle. of the National Guards, amid the acclama RUSSIA AND POLAND. tious of the populace, who, it is added,
In our last we detailed the successes of from St. Cloud to the limits of the depart
the Poles over the corps of Generals Geisment of the Seine and Oize, formed a line
mar and Rosen, and the consequent retreat on each side of the high road, with banners,
of the Russian forces. On the 10th of tri-coloured flags, and branches of trees.
April General Diebitsch transferred bis • A medal was lately decreed to be struck
head-quarters to Siedlec, fifty-five miles and given to those who most distinguished
east of Warsaw, where he was some time themselves in July last. In carrying this
held in check by the Polish troops. The decree into execution, the present Ministry
Russian commander at length determined designated it as “given by the King,” in
on coming to an engagement; but Skrzystead of the “ Nation," and required an
uecki thought it most prudent to decline oath to King Philip and the Charter. Out
it. As soon as the first movement from of 1528 persons to whom the medal was
Siedlec denoted an intention on the part of assigned, upwards of 1000 refused to accept
the Russiaus to advance, he dispatched it on these terms.
couriers to Warsaw, to prepare them for a PORTUGAL
retreat of the army, and to desire that the A British squadron, consisting of a 74-gun place might be put in a condition to susship, two frigates, four corvettes, and three tain a siege, in case the fortune of war brigs, lately arrived in the Tagus, and, on should be against the cause in a general epthe 25th of April, demanded a categorical gagement. The retreat, in the mean time, answer to the demands of the British Govern continued, the Poles every where carrying ment, all negociations on the subject being with them the inhabitants of the country, expressly prohibited. The demands were and every description of provision which compensation for English vessels captured could serve as subsistence for the enemy, at Terceira, with demurrage and all expences Upon the 27th, Skrzynecki had reached the up to the date of such compensation ; the capital, and fixed his head-quarters there ; dismissal of the captain of the Portuguese the bulk of his army was at Milosna, a frigate Diana, by whom these captures were dozen miles distant. In their retreat they made ; the dismissal of three judges who appear to have been greatly harassed by had sentenced to imprisonment the clerks the Russians, and at Minsk an action took of English merchants; and compensation to place. Arrived at Dembe-Wielki, the Russuch clerks for the injuries by them sus sians found that they could not procure tained, and an ample apology for the insult “even a little straw for their horses," and offered their employers. These demands to the Fieid-Marshal had, therefore, no alterbe published in the Lisbon Gazelle; and if native but again to sound a retreat, in which po redress were given within three days, the he has been pursued by the Poles beyond English consul to go on board the squadron, Siedlec. On the 29th of April, the whole and the capture of all Portuguese vessels Polish army had again advanced, and reimmediately to take place. The Portuguese sumed its former positions at Kostrzyn, and Goveroment, terrified by the appearance of beyond Siennica. On the 30th, the Polish the squadron, promptly acceeded to every army advanced, and the vanguard was in demand. A French fleet had proceeded to the morning at Kaluszyo. the Tagus for the bombardment of Lisbon, The Polish General has published a Proand three American frigates had also arrived, clamation, wherein he states that the Polish the latter to demand satisfaction for the iná army, which did not at the first amount to sults offered to the United States; several more than 30,000, had taken 16,000 priAmerican citizens having been sent from St. soners, caused the Russians a loss of 50,000 Michael's and the adjacent islands in irons. men in all, captured il standards, 15 or The demand made on Don Miguel by the 16,000 stand of arms, 30 cannon, &c. French Government was the revocation of In other respects the Poles have suffered the sentence pronounced against Sauvinet materially. On the 21st of April Skrzyand Bonhomine, two French subjects, who necki sent a report to the Government of had been sentenced to corporal punishment Warsaw, stating that a corps of 6,000 men,
455 under General Sierawski, had been defeated Goveroment, with a view to counteract the by the Russians under General Kreutz, effect of this severe edict, in pursuance of consisting of 24,000 men, whom he had which several Polish prisoners had been imprudently attacked. The Poles were com- shot at Wilna, had sent a notification to the pelled to cross the Vistula precipitately, Russian Government, that reprisals would with a loss of 2,000 men, and two Lieute- be made by the Poles upon any prisoners nant-Colonels, one of whom was drowned. who might fall into their hands. -The gallant Dwernicki who, with all the boldness though without the fortune of a
TURKEY. Scipio, had carried war into Volhynia, the The accounts from Turkey present a very invader's own territory, found himself, after menacing aspect, as respects the public a series of successful exploits, overwhelmed tranquillity in the East. An extended inby the accumulated masses brought to bear surrection had broken out, fomented, as it against him. General Roth, after the de- would appear, by agents from Russia. It feat of Sierawski, was enabled to effect a is stated that the insurgents were masters of junction with General Rudiger, while on Sophia, and it is supposed that they would the other side a formidable Russian force shortly reach Constantinople. The Divan was brought up from Moldavia to the scene were active in endeavouring to resist the of action. Thus assailed from all quarters, rebels. The grand objection taken by the Dwernicki retreated across the Galician revolters, is to the measures of the Grand frontier near Zlarasz. The Russians having Signior, who, in introducing the military pursued, and a conflict having commenced, innovatious of Europe, has offended the the Austrian troops interposed between the Mussulmans. combatants, and demanded that respect The Pacha of Scutari, whose army should be had to the neutrality of their ter- amounts to 40,000 men, has issued a proritory. The Russians consequently drew clamation in which he anuouaces his plan off, and the whole of Dwernicki's' corps, to restore the ancient order of things, and diminished by repeated contests to about the occasion of it-exhorts those under bim 5,000 men, surrendered their arms to to observe the strictest order and good the Austrians, and have been sent across conduct towards those who take no part in Transylvania into Hungary.
the affairs of the war, and especially recomThe Russian Autocrat has fulminated an mends them to respect property. angry denunciation against the revolted T he revolt is daily spreading. Farascisnobles and people of Lithuania. All those cade Ali Bey, one of the principal Albanese who offer any armed resistance to the Rus- Chiefs, entered Sophia with 8,000 inen on sian authorities are to be tried by a court- the 20th April, and established his headmartial according to military laws, and to be quarters there. instantly shot. Persons of inferior rank, Letters from Belgrade, of May 1, say taken with arms in their hands, are to be that the Grand Vizier, who was invested in draughted into the Siberian regiments, and Bitoglia by the insurgents, had been obliged to suffer all the evils of exile. The Polish to surrender for want of provisions.
DOMESTIC OCCURRENCE S.
having been complied with, a proclamation The Irish papers present, in a Inng cata. has been issued laying the entire county of Jogue of outrages, a frightful picture of the Clare under the Insurrection Act. state of society in the counties of Clare and in a speech delivered at a recent reforın Limerick ; and we are sorry to find that the meeting in the county of Roscommon, by Committee which had been formed at Ennis Sir Joho Lillie, he expressed his surprise for the purpose of endeavouring to restore that in that county, and in other parts of tranquillity, have, in the utter hopelessness Ireland, lands were let to the poor at 91. of being able to effect that object, dissolved and 10l. per acre, which was a higher rent themselves. This Committee, of which all than what was exacted during the war! He the Roman Catholic Priests were members, added, “the poor cannot pay it, and is it have published Resolutions, declaring that to be wondered at that, svoner than starve, no effort within the power of the well-dis- they have recourse to violence in opposing posed part of the inhabitants can restrain or the exaction?". put an end to the continual system of outrage and insurbordination which disgraces INTELLIGENCE FROM VARIOUS the county of Clare.
PARTS OF THE COUNTRY. The Lord Lieutenant's Proclamation to · By the Act of last Session it is directed the people of Clare, calling upon them to that the census of the population should be to resiga their arms by the 10th April, not taken throughout England on the 30th of