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State summary for allotments for distribution of forest planting stock under section
4 of the Clarke-McNary law, fiscal year 1934
State funds Per cent Total State devoted to of total funds cooperative output to project
Distri. Indicated bution of total Fed. decrease eral allotproposed ments fisfor fiscal year 1934
$660.00 11, 430.00 2. 305. 00 8,000.00 3,500.00 4, 205.00 3,500.00 45, 600.00
928. 00 20, 500.00 3,000.00 7, 471.00 5,000.00 11, 342. 00 1,500.00 8, 475. 00 38,000.00 7, 428.00
657.00 4,300.00 10, 750.00 18, 179. 68
24, 330.00 263, 500.00
4, 117.00 7, 750.00 24, 300.00 4,000.00 2,000.00 42, 960.00 10, 044.88
7, 054.00 4, 476.00 1,300.00 7,000.00 2,823.00 3, 265.00 6,000.00 13, 440.00 2, 438.00
437.00 2, 305. 00 2,000.00 1,500.00 2, 992.00 2, 400.00 19,896.00
928. 00 10, 375.00 2,000.00 1, 585.00 2, 667.00 3, 337.00 1,500.00 2, 190.00 8,000.00 5, 542. 40
657. 00 3,040.00 10, 750.00 8,089.84 16, 431.00 24, 550.00 3, 505. 00 7, 750.00 11, 150.00 4,000.00
2,000.00 20, 480.00 6, 431. 42 3, 432.00 4, 476.00 1,300.00 2,500.00 2, 147. 78 2, 475.00 2,800.00 2, 632.00 2, 438.00
7 100 40 60 80 80 46 100 55 80 35 66 40 100 40 25 80 100
80 100 50 70 10 90 100
50 100 100 50 70 60 100 100 50 86 85 60 30 100
437.00 2,000.00 2,000.00 1,500.00 2,000.00 2,000.00 2,000.00
928. 00 2,000.00 2,000.00 1, 584.00 2,000.00 2,000.00 1,500.00 2,000.00 2,000.00 2,000.00
657.00 2,000.00 2,000.00 2,000.00 2,000.00 2,000.00 2,000.00 2,000.00 2,000.00 2,000.00 2,000.00 2,000.00 2,000.00 2,000.00 2,000.00 1,300.00 2,000.00 2,000.00 2,000.00 2,000.00 2,000.00 1, 522.00
5. 00 27.00 27.00 20.00 27.00 27.00 27.00 12.00 27.00 27.00 22.00 27.00 27.00 20.00 27. CO 27. CO 27.00
8.00 27.00 27.00 27.00 27.00 27.00 27.00 27.00 27.00 27.00 27.00 27.00 27.00 27.00 27.00 18.00 27.00 27.00 27.00 27.00 27.00 20.00
432.00 1,973.00 1, 973.00 1, 480.00 1, 973.00 1, 973.00 1, 973.00
916.00 1,973.00 1, 973.00 1. 562.00 1, 973.00 1, 973.00 1, 480.00 1, 973.00 1, 973.00 1, 973.00
649.00 1,973.00 1, 973.00 1,973.00 1, 973.00 1,973.00 1,973.00 1,973.00 1,973.00 1, 973.00 1, 973.00 1, 973.00 1, 973.00 1, 973.00 1,973.00 1, 282.00 1, 973.00 1,973.00 1,973.00 1,973.00 1,973.00 1, 502.00
1 This column includes all State funds available for tree production and distribution.
Mr. BUCHANAN. Referring to the item, Cooperative distribution of forest planting stock, the appropriation for 1932 was $95,000; the appropriation for 1933 being $79,960, and the Budget estimate for 1934, $74,730, showing a decrease of $5,230.
That decrease is only $270 reduction on account of the legislative furlough, so for the remaining decrease of $4,960, that has been procured by a curtailment in the amounts allotted to the States.
Major STUART. In this instance it would be necessary to reduce the allotments heretofore made to the States under this cooperative project; that is, cooperative distribution of forest planting sotck, The table accompanying the explanatory note under this item, and referred to as “State summary of allotments for distribution of forest planting stock under section 4 of the Clarke-McNary Law, fiscal year 1934,” indicates that the States expend under this item
$213,229.44. I say expend in the sense that they devoted that much money to the project.
The Federal allotment to the States for the fiscal year 1933 was $71,968.
Mr. BUCHANAN. You say that is allotments to the States? Did the States expend that themselves?
Major STUART. The expenditures for this work are made by the States. The Federal contribution is made on the basis of certification by the State of permissive expenditures. In no case have we been able to give any State under this project an initial allotment of more than $2,000.
The money is used by the States to maintain forest nurseries and distribute stock from them. The money that is contributed by the Federal Government must go toward the production and distribution of small tree stock for farmers. This fund is exclusively for that purpose.
Mr. BUCHANAN. There are 40 States in this cooperative business, I believe.
Major STUART. For the calendar year 1931, that is correct, Mr. Chairman-40 States.
We recognize the fact that there are some very substantial results come from this project not solely in the fact that the Federal Government and the States are making it possible for the farmers to obtain forest trees at reasonable prices, but it has been our experience, and it has been the experience of the State foresters, that if a landowner becomes interested to the point of actually setting out plants on forest lands, he becomes a great deal more interested in forest protection, a great deal more interested in taking care of his forest property, particularly his forest plantation, and one of the most helpful influences in forestry in the United States has been not so much the number of plants that have been planted, or the acreage covered by forest plantings, as the psychological effect of people planting trees and wanting thereafter to see that they are properly taken care of.
That point of view is very prevalent in Michigan, Mr. Hart, in relation on to our Huron Plantations, where we are getting the very finest kind of cooperation in forest protection largely for the reason that the people there have a very deep and sentimental feeling toward the protection of those plantations. That is a very material factor in forest protection.
Mr. BUCHANAN. All of these plantings go to private owners?
Major STUART. These plants are sent out by the State to private owners. Many States distribute to municipalities and counties, but not under the Clarke-McNary project.
Mr. Buchanan. That would be private owners, as distinguished from the Federal Government.
Major STUART. None of this stock goes on Federal forest land. Mr. Hart. I think we have a law in the State of Michigan practically --not quite, but practically-exempting certain lands which have been designated as forest lands for reproduction. They do not bear the same taxation. It has been officially cut, and one of the things that is bringing that land to the attention of buyers and utilitizing some of its for game preserves, they are beginning to establish some private preserves in there, gathering up big tracts of land which they put into forestry and practically escape taxation, and they are work
ing into these private hunting grounds and there are quite a lot of deer even in some counties where there is good farming land. There are a lot of deer. It is practically level land and there is quite a lot of game on it. They stock it with birds and there are streams through there in which there is very good fishing and that is attracting people.
Major STUART. I think one of the considerations which should be given to the possibilities of forestry is how, with protection from fire, even if you are not in a position to utilize the wood that may grow on the land, well protected and managed forest lands do become a very real and valuable asset for recreation.
Mr. Hart. I think it runs into the millions, the money that is spent by tourists and hunters in northern Michigan, but I think that is largely a problem of the State to protect that from the standpoint of income, and they are doing it—that is, the State is doing it-and I think it is up to the State. They are on the ground-close to itand they know the land intimately. This doing long-range work, especially in a State as we are, I doubt the efficacy of it.
Major STUART. You realize, of course, Mr. Hart, that the men who are handling the Federal properties, are men that are living right there and have for years in those particular communities.
Where the National Government's interest lies in this broad question we are discussing is the lack of security the Nation would have if the State and county would fail to do what is needful in relation to forest lands. That is, consider such factors as watershed protection, such factors as wood supply, and other forest benefits, and some States are in a position of absolute dependence on what other States do with their forest land. They have a very vital interest in what is done on forest lands in other parts of the United States, so there is a real national interest in what happens on forest lands just as there is a real national interest in what happens on agricultural lands. It becomes a national problem.
Mr. HART. We can work up a lot of national problems out there under that theory. Of course, we have a lot of them.
ACQUISITION OF ADDITIONAL FOREST LANDS
Mr. BUCHANAN. The next item is: For the acquisition of additional lands under the provisions of the act of March 1, 1911 (U. S. C., title 16, secs. 513-519), as amended by the act of June 7, 1924 (U.S. C., title 16, secs. 564-570), $192,100 of which amount not to exceed $17,480 may be expended for departmental personal services and supplies and equipment in the District of Columbia.
Major Stuart. The following justification of this estimate is submitted:
CHANGE IN LANGUAGE
It is recommended that the language "as authorized by the act of June 2, 1930 (46 Stat., p. 491)," be omitted, since the particular act cited does not carry an authorization for the fiscal year 1934. Existing law is deemed sufficient authorization for appropriation and no special legislative authorization has been sought.
Under the act of March 1, 1911 (36 Stat. 961), as amended by the act of June 7, 1924 (43 Stat. 653), and other amendatory or supplemental acts; a total of 41 national forest purchase areas have been established within 22 of the States east of the Great Plains. Within these units the United States to the present time has purchased or approved for purchase 4,727,680 acres of land, at a total cost of $21,203,021.93. These lands combined with lands reserved from the public domain or transferred from other departments or secured through exchange aggregate 7,231,555 acres now under Federal control. Within these areas there
remain in private ownership approximately 7,500,000 acres that should be acquired in order to realize the public purposes for which the areas were initially established. The estimated cost of these unacquired lands is approximately $30,000,000, and all present circumstances indicate strongly the certainty that as soon as financial conditions will permit the United States will proceed to extend its holdings within the areas.
In recognition of this situation it seems necessary to maintain the nucleus of the skilled and specialized organ tion developed to conduct this purchase work. While this force will not be engaged on current purchases, it will be employed in the determination and compilation of grant, title, and survey data and in the examination, mapping, and appraisal of lands ultimately to be acquired by the United States, so that its work will contribute fully and directly to the objectives of the appropriation. Of the proposed appropriation, approximately $95,209 will be expended for salaries and wages, and $19,750 for subsistence, travel, supplies, equipment, and other similar items.
The remainder of the appropriation, $85,041, will be used to pruchase small tracts of land vitally essential to the proper protection, management, and use of the Federal lands. Every year it is found that certain privately owned lands control the utilization of the products of the national forest lands, or constitute undue fire hazards or obstruct orderly plans of road and trail construction. Where such lands can be purchased at fair and equitable prices their acquisition generally is the most economical solution of the problems created by their private control.
WORK TO BE DONE UNDER APPROPRIATION
(1) Determinations and compilations of title data, including original colonial grants and other basic information; checks and execution of surveys defining boundaries of public and private holdings; examination, mapping, appraisal, etc., of lands ultimately to be acquired by the United States; preparation of. reports and plans of management; protection and administration of lands now owned by United States; (2) purchase of key tracts or areas so related to present holdings of United States as to control the utilization of the products of national forest lands; or accentuate or increase hazards of fire, insects, or disease; or obstruct the orderly development of the necessary system of roads, trails, and other administrative and protective improvements.
CHANGE IN LANGUAGE
The insertion of the following language at the end of the Forest Service section of the appropriation act after “Total, Forest Service ($17,383,304)” is recommended:
$12,355,519, of which amount not to exceed $26,835 shall be available for the purchase of motor-propelled and horse-drawn passenger-carrying vehicles necessary in the conduct of field work outside the District of Columbia, and in addition thereto there is authorized for expenditure from funds provided for carrying out the provisions of the Federal highway act of November 9, 1921 (U. S. C. title 23, secs. 21 and 23), not to exceed $4,250 for the purchase of motor-propelled passenger-carrying vehicles for use by the Forest Service in the construction and maintenance of national forest roads."
Under the department's authorization for 1933 for purchase of passengercarrying vehicles, $46,740 was alloted to the Forest Service. The estimate for 1934 is $31,085, a decrease of $15,655. A brief summary of the motor-propelled passenger-carrying vehicle estimate follows: Vehicles on hand July 1, 1933.. Estimated purchases, 1934.
The estimate of authorizations for passenger-carrying vehicles for the fiscal year 1934 is approximately 35 per cent less than the amount allotted to the Forest Service for the fiscal year 1933. The authorization requested is needed in order to substitute where practicable, without increased cost, Governmentowned automobile transportation for either or both privately owned automobiles paid for on a mileage basis and horse and pack outfits subsisted by the Government. Nearly one-half of the authorization requested is needed for the replacement of cars now in service.
Approximately 65 per cent of the employees of the Forest Service do the major part of their work while actually in the woods and must necessarily be in a travel status a great part of their time. Where there are few roads in the forests, work must be performed largely by the use of privately owned Government-maintained horses and employee-owned or hired cars paid for on a mileage basis. It is not economical for the Government to own cars where their use is limited and the annual mileage consequently low; but where roads and the work to be performed call for the greater part of travel by car, it is more economical for the Government to own the car than pay mileage. Mileage rates are based on actual operating costs; and since the Government can purchase cars, repair parts, gasoline, and oil at large discounts and pays no taxes or insurance, it can operate cars for much less per mile than the employee. As a substitute for horses in administration and fire control, the car is indispensable. With the development of roads in the forests, the fire hazard and use of such areas increase and the automobile has been largely instrumental in keeping abreast of such managerial problems. The policy has been the gradual substitution of a more efficient means of transportation for a less efficient one with little or no increase in the aggregate cost. It is recommended that this practice be continued as rapidly as funds will permit. · Mr. BUCHANAN. As to the acquisition of lands for protection of watersheds of navigable streams, what have you to say?
Major STUART. This item, Mr. Chairman, represents a reduction of $7,900 in the item as set up for the fiscal year 1933, and this reduction covers the legislative furlough.
With the sum set up for 1934, it would be possible to continue the needful, experienced personnel for such work, and would leave available some $85,000 to cover the purchase of any tracts in the national forests as might be necessary in connection with utilization of forest products or that are otherwise desirable to consolidate our holdings.
You will remember that we have been carrying on an acquisition program here in the East since 1911. It had its origin in the need for the Federal Government to interest itself in the protection of the watersheds of navigable streams.
Up to date, we have acquired some 4,727,680 acres at a total cost of $21,203,021.93. There were, however, some public domain lands within the territory within which these purchases were made. Adding those public-domain lands, the aggregate now under Federal control in these eastern areas, including the Lake States and the South, is 7,231,555 acres.
These purchases are made by the Secretary of Agriculture, subject to the approval of the National Forest Reservation Commission. That commission is made up of the Secretary of War as chairman, the Secretary of the Interior, the Secretary of Agriculture, two Senators, and two Representatives.
Over the years, that commission has been impressed, and has emphasized that impression in its annual reports to Congress with the need for the Federal Government through the operation of this project to acquire limited areas of land for the purpose of protecting watersheds and, by the Clarke-McNary Act of 1924, the purchase of lands to demonstrate forest production.