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fons, beginning with the laft fix months of the year 7, in proportion as they were extinguished, to be placed to the fame account, and employed to the fame purpose. From the date of the periods of payments of the fecurities, treafury-warrants, of bons de requifition, were to be granted by government to the receivers-general, and be payable every three weeks by the fund, for the management of which there was established a kind of bank, und. r the name of a Cuiffe d'Amortifewent a redemption cheft.

The expenfes of the war department, for the year 8, had been eftimated by the late directory at four hundred and feventy-two millions; but reduced by the legislative body to three hundred and thirty-three millions: a fum which was deemed equal to the employment of five hundred and fixty thoufand, four hundred and twenty men. But in the new estimates for the year 8, by the directory and councils for the year 8, no account was made of the army of Egypt. This omiflion could not be overlooked by Buonaparte. An annual fund therefore of fifteen millions, in confequence of a propofition made by the general to the commuffioners of the councils on the third of December, was establified, to be railed by contributions on Egypt. This arrangement was not an augmentation of expenfe, because the advances in France would be compenfated by the receipts in Egypt. It merely, as was fiated by Buonaparte, opened a credit in favour of the army of the eaft. In the mean time, it was but an act of rational justice and gratitude to enable the minifter at war, to make good in France the fums which were jufly claimed by the foldiers

and military agents who were returning from Egypt, as alfo by the women whole hufbands were in Egypt, and who were abfolutely deftitute of the neceffaries of life. The national treafury was on this account authorized to leave at the difpofal of the minifter at war, the fum of one million, by way of advance, and to be taken from the fund of fifteen millions to be drawn from an equilibrium, arifing out of the contributions levied in Egypt.

Inftead of a number of particular fums allotted to particular purpoles, under certain limitations, the grofs fum of one hundred and thirty mil lions, and eight hundred thoufand francs, was committed to the difpofal of the minifter at war, Berthier: a vaft truft, and which ftrongly marked the confidence of Buonaparte in Berthier, and that of the councils and nation in Buonaparte.

In the whole of the financial plans, or, as we would fay, the budget of Buonaparte, there is an air of juftice, equity, and len ty to the great mafs, that is the poor of the people, and at the fame time an addrefs to the fanguine temper of the French nation, ever prone to facrifice a great deal to hope. His lottery allurements were not without their effect in France; but neither thefe, nor others held out by general Marmont, one of the confular agents, had any effect on the Dutch; very few of whom could be induced to fubfcribe to the loan, or to advance money to the French government on any account or confideration. They profefled good will, but pleaded inability. But, after all, the main ftrength of the plan for raifing the fupplies, adopted by the confuls, refted, like thole of their predecellors both during the


monarchy and fince the first revolution, on anticipations, paying in bills, and contract with the great officers of the revenne.

It does not appear for certain what was the real motive that in duced the conful, in the midst of a career of conciliation, moderation, and juftice, to condemn fifty-nine jacobins, excluded deputies and others to banishment, thirty-seven to Cayenne, and the reft to the neighbourhood of the Ile of Oleron. By an article in the law enacted at St. Cloud on the tenth of November, the confuls were charged with the re-establishment of the public tranquillity. But this, in the prefent tone of the nation, could not be in danger from any machinations against the army and government. Perhaps the fentence of banishment against the leaders of the jacobins was intended to imprefs à conviction that a plan of af faffination had been really formed, and to magnify the clemency of the conful in fparing his greatest enemies. Certain it is, that the decree of banishment was quickly changed into an order for placing the fame individuals under the infpection of the minifter of police, and it was foon thereafter totally repealed, without the exception even of Arena, who had attempted to affaffinate Buonaparte. The decrees against priests of the nineteenth of Fructidor (5th September), of the fifth year, were repealed, in as far as they related to priests of either of the two following claffes: 1ft, Thofe who had taken all the oaths prefcribed by the laws for minifters of worship, and at the periods of time which the laws require.-2. Thofe who had married. Religious liberty was reftored in its fullest extent, on

condition of the minifters fwearing fidelity to the new conftitution. The decrees forbidding the places. of public worship to be ufed, except on decadi, were repealed. The churches which had not been fold, were opened for public worthip. The body of the late pope, which had lain unburied at Valence, was ordered to be interred with the ufnał funeral honours due to his rank. By a law of the twenty-fourth of December, a power was vefied in the confuls of admitting the return of perfons condemned to exportation by an act of the legiflature to deportation, in confequence of the violence of the fourth of September, 1799, without a previous trial. It left to the wildom and prudence of government the right of re-admitting, at the mo convenient periods, thofe whom it might deem incapable of difturbing the public tranquillity, and to fubject the interior of the country to whatever fuperintendency it might think proper. Thoufands were

ftruck off from the lift of emigrants and haftened to return to their native country. All the vexatious laws which excluded the nobles, and relations of emigrants, from public employments were abrogated, and feveral perfons of this clafs were nominated to various functions. Moft of the members of the new government were of late, of the council of five hundred, or of elders. But there were likewife fome who had been members of the conftituent affembly and the convention. In the latter end of the year 1795, a number of emigrants, flying from their country by fea, were fhipwrecked on the coaft of Picardy, near Calais. By the orders of Merlin, minifter of the


extraordinary police, under the
name of commiffary obfervator,
they had been dragged from one
dungeon to another, from tribu-
nals to military commiffions, and
from thefe back again to their
dungeons. He infifted that they
fell under the law against emi-
grants who had returned, after
emigration and banishment, with-
out permiffion. He fufpended over
their heads the fword of death, but
was unable to bend either the civil
or military courts to a compliance
with his inhuman defign. At the
epoch of the revolution of St.
Cloud, they had been transferred
from the citadel of Lifle to the
caftle of Ham, in Piccardy. The
minifter of police was ordered to
make a report of the cafe of thofe
fhipwrecked emigrants. His re-
port was this: "The emigrants
thipwrecked at Calais have often
tuffered the punishment inflicted on
emigration. For death is, not the
blow that ftrikes and deprives us of
life, it confifts in the agonies and
tortures that precede it. For four
years paft, thefe individuals, thrown
by a tempeft on the foil of their
country, have breathed there only
the air of the tombs. Whatever then
may have been there offence, it is
expeated by the fhipwreck.".
If Fonché was, as reprefented, a
willing and active inftrument in the
hands of terror, it appears that he
was not a lefs proper agent in thofe
of mercy. In confequence of his
report, prompted no doubt by Buo-
naparte, the confuls decreed that
the emigrants hipwrecked at Ca-
his, and detained in the caftle of
Ham, were in no cafe within the
contemplation of the laws against
emigrants, but that they fhould be
carried out of the territories of the
republic. The confular govern-


ment carried its humanity towards thofe unfortunate people fo far, as to grant many of them individual paffports, that they might not experience the difagreeable ftate of a public and military efcort. In the number of the emigrants, and of thofe thus favoured, were the dukes of Montmorency and Choifeul, and Vibraye. The other emigrants, befides thefe, amounted to the number of twenty-feven. The prefident of the central bureau of Paris received orders, from the minister of the general police, immediately to repair to all the prifons in Paris, and to assemble all the perfons in cuftody, by a warrant of the police, or under pretext of the general fafety, to procure and tranfmit to him full information refpecting their arrests, together with his opinion on the cafe of each of thofe prifoners. He was directed to particularize every circumftance that might operate in their favour, and all the confiderations arifing from age, infirmity, or misfortune." He was farther inftructed to indicate to Fouché thofe who ought to be fet at liberty, in the inftant; thofe who ought to be placed merely under the fuperintending eye of their refpective magiftrates, without alarm to the general tranquillity; and alfo thofe whole conftant hatred to the republic, or whofe antifocial principles might induce him to confider them as enemies to order, and the public peace. All that juftice required, he faid, fhould be forthwith done; all that humanity folicited without danger to the ftate, fhould be favourably liftened to. It was his intention to do prompt juftice to all; that innocence might no longer have any thing to dread, or guilt any thing to hope. In confequence of the report made by the bureau, [E] a great

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a great number of prisoners were immediately fet free. A fhocking monopoly of fupplies to prifoners was overthrown; and great attention was fhewn in every refpect to their comfort. It was difcovered that the hardened prifoners feverely lorded it over the new comers. This tyranny was checked and fabverted; and equality, with the concomitant degree of liberty which this, in every fituation implies, reftored to thofe abodes of defolation. A number of journalists and printers, that had been exiled by the directory, were recalled: but, on the other hand, an immenfe number of journals was fuppreffed, and out of near forty only twelve permitted to be publified; of thefe not a few foon affumed a tone of very free animadverfions and cenfure, and became, what we would call oppofition papers. The tolerance of thefe was undoubtedly a proof that the new government was neither very weak nor very tyrannical. Not lefs than fifty newfpapers, before this purgation, have been in courfe of publication, in Paris, at one time: many dying daily, and being replaced by others, which expired in their turn, often neglected and unknown. Some of them were morning, others evening, papers. They were for the moft part badly printed, both in refpect of type and paper. The price was two fous: fomething lefs than twopence fterling, of which the hawker was allowed one-third for his profit. Every parian had his favourite print, which, becaufe it fpoke his fentiments and wishes, became his oracle. Few of them, we believe, befides the Mercure François, exifted before the revolution! They furnished a theatre on which the different partics engaged

one another, and on which cham pions did not fail to appear on the part of government.

Yet it would be wrong to fuppofe that the confuls were fond of newfpaper and vulgar praife: although it would have been imprudent to have wholly defpifed the daily and other journals, and. neglected them. They appear to have been as much. afraid of indifcreet and paffionate praile, as of cenfure and abuse. The following admonition, which was published, November 17, from the minifter of general police to the theatres, claims notice and applaufe: In the fucceffion of parties which have by turns difpofed of the fupreme power, the theatre has often refounded with unprovoked infults on the conquered, and base flattery towards the conquerors. The prefent government abjures and difdains the refources of faction. It willies for nothing from thefe. It will do every thing for the republic. Let the fentiments of concord, the maxims of moderation and wifdom, and the language of great and general paffions be alone dedicated to the ftage. Let nothing that may divide the minds of men, foment their hatred, and prolong melancholy recollections, be tolerated there. Let him be punished who would provoke re-action, or dare to give the fignal. For re-actions are the fruit of injuftice and feeblenefs in government. They can no longer live among us, fince we have a ftrong, or what is the fame, a just government."

A report of the minifter of police ftated that the police, as it was conftituted in the third year, neither guaranteed the fafety of perfon or property; its whole fyftem, it flated, was deftitute of unity, con


nection, and partial application. From the centre to the circumference every intermediate part was ifolated. The agent, in his commune, and the juftice of peace in his canton, had not the neceffary correfpondence or communication with one another, or with respect to what related to the diftrict in general. Neither had the department any communication with that common centre which is confiituted by government. Thus the tranfgreffors of the law knew that there was no eye which, contemplating every object, could follow them from one place to another, and arreft them in the midst of their crimes. While the police thus abandoned the citizens in general to the excelles of plunderers and robbers, it left every Frenchman fubject to the arbitrary and unnecellary purfuit of its of ficers. From five to fix thousand officers of police could fummon before them every individual against whom there was either proo or prefumption, and to declare what was a crime worthy of imprifonment, from the act of throwing a

glafs from a window, to poisoning or affaffination. And, as there were crimes, which, from the nature and extent of their ramifications, required ample and fometimes protracted examination, and which could not, by any known rule, be examined into within any determined period, the moft trifling affair was not unfrequently confounded with the moft ferious, and chance or malice might retain in prison, for an equal length of time, him who might not finally be find thrée francs, and him who might ultimately lofe his head on a scaffold. As remedies against these two evils it was enacted, that the police appointed to difcover robbers, and preferve citizens from their attacks, thould be connected together in all its parts, from the centre of the fyftem to its circumference; and that the right of imprisonment fhould be reftrained, not only with regard to the officers who were to authorize imprisonment. From these and other measures refpecting the interior adminiftration and go. vernment of France, the confular

"Every arrondiffement or circle of which a district or canton is compofed, is thus denominated. This term, under the former kingly government, was applied to cities and towns in France, which, by special privilege granted by the crown, were in the enjoyment of civil liberty, and had the right of judges to decide differences arifing from the oppreffion of the nobles who held thefe places in vaffalage. The term is now indifcriminately applied to every city and town throughout France, from Paris to the meanest village, because the inhabitants of them are all free (or it may be faid, rather lay claim to freedom). The communes in France amount to upwards of eighty thousand.' NEOLOGICAL FRENCH DICTIONARY. By William Dupré, Efq.

The little wosk from which we have borrowed this definition or defcription of commune, is not only a very useful companion to the readers of the French hiftory of the prefent times, but is really a book of much amufement, and ferves to give a more complete infight into the prefent political ftate, characters, caprices, and humours of the French, than any volume that we know of equal fize and price. To adopt the new French terms, is certainly not confiftent with the most perfect purity of the English tongueBut it is not always to be avoided without tedious circumlocution; nor, indeed, can there be any fuch thing as perfect purity in any living language, especially in times of very extenfive and clofe intercourfe among nations. Had Cicero or Salluft lived two or three hundred years longer, in writing of their own times, they must have adopted new words with new facts, things, and ideas. [E 2]


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