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system has worked very badly, because, transplanted from autocratic government first, the government of the Agent has not to democratic government, without any been for the benefit of the governed but intervening preparation, is illustrated tragifor the benefit of the governor, and, second, cally by the French Revolution, and less it has been aimed, not to prepare the Indian tragically by the carpetbag government for self-government, but to keep him in in the South. That person, property, tutelage. But where the Agent has been reputation, the family, and liberty are honest, capable, and progressive, the re- better protected in Egypt under an autocsults have been wholly admirable.

racy than they would be by a government The next step in the evolution of gov- formed and administered by the fellaheen ernment is the development of an aris- will hardly be doubted by any. Whether tocracy. This aristocracy is often far these fundamental rights will be better from absolutely excellent; but it possesses protected in Cuba under an independent certain elements of courage, self-control

, democracy, or in Porto Rico under a mixed and intelligence which make it superior to government, partly democratic, partly authe average. It puts limits on the power tocratic, we shall soon know. of the autocrat; it demands better pro- But while there is no one form of govtection for its own rights, if not for the ernment which is absolutely right and no rights of the people ; it wrests from a one form of government which is absoKing John a Magna Charta. Under its lutely best for all peoples and under all influence political power is somewhat circumstances, there is one principle of more diffused and government is some- government which is the ultimate princiwhat more equable than under the autoc- ple, and to which all history is slowly but racy. The class below the nobles are surely conducting the peoples. That prinawakened and stimulated by their exam- ciple—for it is a principle rather than a ple; they in turn limit the power of the form-is self-government. nobles, and in turn appeal to the still Government is the control of a part of lower classes to aid them in securing a the community by another part of the more equal distribution of justice—that is, community; it may be by a king, by an a more general and equable protection of oligarchy, by an aristocracy, by a vote of person, property, reputation, the family, seven million voters to which the opposand liberty. The people under Simon de ing six million three hundred thousand Montfort demand and secure a represen- voters submit, but in any case it is the tation in the House of Commons. What control of a part by a part. It is clear are the rights of man, what are the privi- that the government is best when the best leges of class, what are the distinctions control and the less competent and virtubetween the two, and what the functions ous are controlled. But it is not less and therefore what the powers of govern- evident that the supreme and ultimate ment, become matters of debate, each side government is that in which the best in enforcing its own interests with reasons, each man controls the inferior in each and sometimes with courageous battle. This is self-government; and the The privileges of the few give way gradu- more nearly any community approaches ally to the interests of the many, and at self-government, the more nearly it aplength the simple principle that govern- proaches the ultimate goal of all political ments exist for the benefit of the governed, organization. The end of government is and that their function is primarily the mutual protection against injustice. But protection of the fundamental rights of when the people have become so educated man and of all men, is wrought into the that no one wishes to do his neighbor an consciousness of the people. Then, and injustice, the supreme end of government not till then, is the community ready for has been reached, because there is no a government founded on the will of the longer any need of mutual protection ; majority.

and when public sentiment has been so Autocracy is the best government for a educated and developed that even men people in its early childhood ; oligarchy who would do an injustice to a fellow-man or aristocracy for a people in its teens; dare not do it, not because they fear a democracy for a people in its manhood. punishment forcibly administered, but What happens when a people is suddenly because they fear the judgment and


condemnation of their fellow-men, the end erty, reputation, the family, and liberty, of government is approximated. For the and it is safe to assume that no people object of all government is to destroy the ever will. The question which confronts necessity of any government, by develop- self-governing countries in this beginning ing such a public conscience that no other of the twentieth century is, Shall we force than that of conscience will be leave races just emerging from childhood needed to protect the rights of man. to acquire capacity for self-government

But it is also evident that a govern- through the long and dismal processes ment which proposes to rest on the united which have been necessary in our case, conscience and united judgment of a great or shall we serve as their guardians and body of men as its means of enforcing tutors, protecting their rights and educatjustice, or, better, as a means of dis- ing their judgments and their consciences pensing with all external enforcement of until they are able to frame their own justice, must have in the community a mutual protective associations—that is, to great number of individual men whose constitute and administer without aid their judgment and conscience have been so own governments ? educated. A great body of men who are To sum up in a paragraph the concluunable to govern themselves, either be- sions of this and the preceding article: cause they lack the judgment or the con- Government is a mutually protective assoscience, cannot constitute a community ciation ; it grows out of the instinct of which can govern itself. Self-government men to protect their own rights and the is not an assumption on which we are to rights of their neighbors; it is a just and part in framing a government; it is the a free government when it adequately progoal which we are to reach by means of tects those rights; it is neither a just nor government. It is the terminus ad

quem, a free government if it does not adequately not the termiuus a quo.

protect those rights. The possession of An educative preparation is necessary the powers of government gives to those for self-government in the race as in the who possess such powers the responsibility individual. To thrust a childlike people of determining when it is right to interfere out into the world and expect them to pro- in order to prevent injustice. Man is vide for and protect themselves without born under government, and he is to be any previous training is as unwise, not to subject to that government, unless it fails say as cruel, as it would be to thrust the to fulfill the functions of government; if it little children out from a home and expect does so fail, and he can find adequate them to take care of themselves. It is remedy for himself and his fellows neither sometimes asked whether a despotic gov- by submission, protest, nor migration, the ernment has ever prepared a people for right of revolution exists; because the freedom. The answer is that no people same right to organize for self-protection have ever been prepared for freedom in government exists to overthrow the except by a despotic government. The government when it becomes an instruNapoleonic Empire was a necessary prep ment of oppression, not of protection. aration for the French Republic. The There is no absolutely best form of govsuddenly liberated people had to learn to ernment; that is the best form of governobey before they could learn to command. ment which, in any stage of the world, in A long line of kings, beginning with any age of human development, best William the Conqueror and ending with secures human rights; but the ultimate Charles I., laid in England the foundation form of government, toward which history for her constitutional liberties. Our own is gradually conducting the human race, preparation was made in the same school, is that form in which every man governs and a post-graduate education was added himself, and therefore all men partake in in colonial government under an English the common functions of government. autocratic authority. No people in the But such self-government in the comhistory of the world have ever passed munity, as in the individual, is a terminus directly and without intervening education ad quem, not a terminus a q110 ; that is, it from a primitive or tribal condition of is a result to be reached by means of govgovernment to a self-governing democracy ernment, not a foundation to be assumed which adequately protected person, prop- on which government can be built.

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Y the time this issue of The Outlook reaches its readers, the formal opening of the Pan-American Exposition at Buffalo will have occurred; and

at this writing it seems certain that the great Exposition will be in a state of completeness far in advance of those at Philadelphia, Chicago, and Paris on the days set for their opening. In the June Magazine Number of The Outlook the attempt will be made to furnish our readers with some adequate idea of the Exposition in its picturesque and significant aspects, by description and through illustration. Meanwhile we present here the portraits of the men who have made it possible that the Pan-American Exposition should be what it is.

The President of the Exposition, the Hon. John G. Milburn, is, in the highest and truest sense of the word, a representative man; one who stands in the mind of the public for the best things in personal and professional life. Mr. Milburn was born in England and educated in English schools, came to this country as a young man, studied law at Batavia in this State, was admitted to the bar in 1874, and since that time has practiced his profession with steadily increasing success in the city of Buffalo, where he has come to hold a foremost position. He is a man of large legal attainments, whose scholarship is highly respected as well as widely known in his own profession. He is a man of general culture, a student of literature, a speaker of dignity and unusual charm—his voice, manner, intonation, and spoken style indicating the culture of his mind and tastes. There is about him the ripeness which comes not only from knowledge, but from contact with the best in thought and life. He is a man of very agreeable personality, who, by his address, his courtesy, and his dignity, no less than by his ability, is pre-eminently fitted to discharge the delicate and difficult duties imposed upon him by the presidency of the Exposition.

As to the other officers of the Exposition, it need only be said that Mr. Buchanan, Director-General, has worked with assiduity and with extraordinary



Chairman of Architects.

Director-General. executive power to bring into unison and into a complete and perfect result the different elements which properly pertain to such a great undertaking ; while to the Chairman of the Architects, Mr. Carrere, to Mr. Coffin, the Director of Fine Arts, and to Mr. Turner, the Director of Color, are to be ascribed the notable artistic effect which will make this exposition in its way as individual and unique as was the Chicago Exposition in quite a different manner.

As we have already pointed out, the Pan-American Exposition differs from the great fairs held at Philadelphia, Chicago, and Paris, in that it is designed primarily to celebrate and record American achievement, American industry, and American art. That resolution of Congress was justified which declared that "such an Exhibition would undoubtedly be of vast benefit to the commercial interests of the countries of North, South, and Central America."

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The Kitchen-Garden

By Laura Winnington
INGING a merry song,

After an exercise with the trays, in
about“ helping mother,' which the children, bending first to the
twenty-four little girls in right and then to the left, sing,
white caps and aprons come “We pass the tray like this, we pass the tray
trooping into a room where like that,
by each one's chair at two Try to hold it, always hold it, very, very flat,"
long tables stand two small a march is played, and they file out, each
wooden boxes on a round stopping at the door to bow and say good-
wooden tray. At chords morning to a little maid who remains at

struck on the piano the chil- the head of one of the tables and caredren seat themselves, push in their chairs, fully bows back to each, and the Kitchenand take off the lids of the boxes. A dainty Garden lesson is over. set of doll's dishes are inside-glasses and It may seem a simple thing, this lesson knives and forks and little plates, and in table-setting to twenty-four missioneven napkins rolled up in their rings. school children, but from the seed planted The children take out the dishes while in the kitchen-garden has sprung the the piano is played softly to cover any present movement for industrial educa. noise of rattling. The child who replies tion, the demand that in every school to the question, “ What is the first thing studying from books shall be suppleto be put on the table?” “ Knives and mented by the training of eye and hand. forks,” learns better as little tablecloths The incorporators of the first kitchenare spread on the round trays, and the garden formed in 1880 the Kitchen-Gar. children learn how to set a breakfast-table, den Association, to promote the teaching giving rhyming answers to the questions of “Industrial Domestic Arts,” and in how the forks should be laid, where the its first season enrolled eighty active glasses should stand, and how the coffee- members from different cities, supervised pot should be heated. Then follows the the instruction of nine hundred and ninety occupation of clearing the table, with children in and near New York, and songs about how the dishes are to be formed classes in the West and South. washed and wiped and put away. One Four years later the Kitchen-Garden Assocan see how much more skillfully and hap- ciation, realizing that the field in which pily those simple things will be done in it had begun must be more and more all after life, from their early association widely extended, reorganized as the Induswith cheer and song and gay companions. trial Education Association. To the work

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