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low and sandy with black rocks showing in places. There is a narrow strip of cultivated land between the beach and the foot of the sheer, rocky cliffs, or pali. These sheer cliffs are a characteristic of the mountains from a point abreast of Kaneohe Bay to Makapuu Head. The mountain range gradually draws nearer to the coast as Makapuu Head is approached.
Kailua Bay, southeastward of Ulupau Head, is an open bight affording no shelter from the trades. The beach at the head of the bay is sandy. Between Kailua and Waimanalo Bays may be seen a group of grass-covered hills near the beach.
Mokolea Rock, lying about 1 mile offshore in the northerly part of Kailua Bay, is a small black rock, about 20 feet high, with 5 to 8 fathoms around it.
Mokulua Islands, the northerly one 206 feet high and the southerly one 182 feet high, are steep, rocky islets with grass-covered slopes, lying about 4 mile offshore and midway between Alala and Wailea Points.
Waimanalo Bay, lying between Wailea Point and Makapuu Head, affords shelter in all weather for small craft behind the barrier reef which parallels the coast in this vicinity. The entrance is in the northwesterly part of the bay, with a least depth of 12 feet over the bar and 10 feet inside. During strong trades the entrance is closed by breakers. There is a small wharf in the southerly part of the bay. The small craft calling here lie off its end and lighter their cargo. There is a shallow boat passage along the beach between Waimanalo Bay and Kailua Bay.
Manana Island, 359 feet high, lies 1 mile north-northwestward of Makapuu Point Lighthouse. It is part of an old crater and consists of a lighter shade of rock than any in the vicinity. Its sides are bluff, except on the westerly side, where there is a short sloping point. There is deep water close-to on the northeasterly side of the island. There is a depth of about 4 fathoms between Manana Island and the mainland, but it should not be attempted by strangers.
Kaohikaipu Island is a flat, black mass of rock, about 70 feet high, lying about midway between Manana Island and Makapuu Head. A double rock about 10 feet high lies 200 yards northeastward of the islands. In a heavy swell the sea breaks about 100 yards outside of the rock. A small black rock, just showing above the water, lies about 170 yards southwestward of the island. There is a depth of about 5 fathoms between Manana and Kaohikaipu Islands, but owing to the reefs which make off from both islands, strangers should not attempt it. There is good water in the bight between Kaohikaipu Island and Makapuu Head, but vessels should not attempt to pass through between the island and the mainland.
Kauai (Ieiewaho) Channel, between Oahu and Kauai, is about 64 miles wide and clear of obstructions. During trade winds the current generally sets westward across the channel and when Kauai is reached it divides, part following around the northerly side of the island and another part around the southerly side. During the first calms after strong trades the current often sets eastward. Strong southerly or southwesterly winds cause the current to set in the opposite direction to that produced by the trades.
the fourth in size of the islands, lies 64 miles west-northwestward of Oahu. It is nearly circular in shape, about 23 miles in diameter, and slopes from the central mountain mass of Kawaikini, which has a greatest elevation of about 5,170 feet. On the westerly and northerly sides the mountains slope in steep and jagged ridges, and on the easterly and southerly sides in gentle slopes, which are much cut up by gulches. There are few outlying dangers, and by giving the coast a berth of 2 miles all danger will be avoided.
RIVERS.-There are numerous streams emptying into the sea, none of which are navigable except for small boats.
POPULATION.-By the census of 1920, Kauai had a population of 29,247 inhabitants.
WINDS. The trade winds divide on the easterly side of Kauai, part following the northerly and part the southerly coasts, uniting again on the westerly side of the island.
RAINFALL.-The weather side of the island is noted for its frequent heavy rainfalls, with a fall of less than 20 inches a year along the southerly side.
ANCHORAGES are numerous, but none of them afford shelter in all weather for large vessels.
SUPPLIES. No supplies of any kind can be obtained, except some provisions in case of necessity.
COMMUNICATION with Honolulu is frequent. Vessels of the Matson Navigation Co. call to load sugar.
HIGHWAYS.-There are good highways in many parts of the island, and transportation can be obtained at most of the towns.
TELEPHONE.-There is telephone communication to all parts of the island, and by wireless telegraph to Honolulu.
CURRENTS. The currents are said by many of the best interisland navigators to be very uncertain as to direction, but they generally. follow the winds, though frequently setting in the opposite direction during the first calms after strong trades.
Nawiliwili Bay, at the southeast end of Kauai, is about 3/4 mile wide between Ninini Point and Carter Point and indents the coast about mile. The shore is rocky bluffs, except at the mouth of Huleia River and in the northwesterly part near the landing at Nawiliwili village. The inner part of the bay is obstructed by reefs, but with local knowledge small steamers enter to discharge or load. The anchorage used by these steamers is just inside Kukii Point. In the absence of local knowledge the inner harbor should not be attempted by anything but small craft. An anchorage for deeperdraft vessels can be found anywhere in the bight between Ninini and Kukii Points. A reef with depths of less than 1 fathom in places extends about 3 mile northward from Mokole (Carter) Point. A breakwater is being constructed on this reef, extending from the south shore. There is frequent communication with Honolulu. Passengers and cargo are transported between the vessel and the wharf, in the northwest corner of the bay, at which there is a depth of 4 feet, in small boats.
Ninini Point is low and flat, marked at its east end by Nawiliwili Harbor light.
Kukii Point, 34 mile westward of Ninini Point, is a high bluff with deep water close-to, and is marked by a light.
Huleia River, at the southwesterly end of the bay, is navigable several miles for boats.
Mokole (Carter) Point is rocky and rises rapidly to a peak 786 feet high. The mountain spur which makes inland from this point rises to Haupu Peak, 2,280 feet high, which is the most prominent landmark in southeastern Kauai.
Kawai Point, 1⁄2 mile southward of Mokole Point, is a bold, rocky headland 525 feet high. It is very irregular and jagged in appearance.
Kawelikoa Point, 3 miles southwestward of Kawai Point, is a dark, rocky, headland, 687 feet high, at the end of a ridge making northward to Haupu Peak. From a point about 2 miles northeastward of Makahuena Point to Hanapepe Bay the coast is made up of low bluffs and beaches, the country is almost all under cultivation, and in places the cane fields extends well up the mountains.
Makahuena Point, the south end of Kauai, is low, flat, and sandy, with a rocky shoreline, and is marked by a flashing white light. The land in this vicinity is low and rolling. A reef is said to extend about 1⁄2 mile off the point.
Koloa Bay, 111⁄2 miles westward of Makahuena Point, is marked by a small warehouse, which stands on the bluff just above the landing. It is a small indentation affording fair protection in trade weather. At night a fixed red light, maintained by private parties, is shown from a pole in front of the warehouse. A narrow reef fringes the shore, just outside of which the small local steamers anchor. Anchorage, with. good holding ground, can be found in 10 fathoms about 300 yards off the landing. Between Koloa and Hanapepe Bays there are several small bays in which small craft can find shelter during trade weather. Makaokahai (Hinalua) Point, about 34 miles westward of Koloa Bay, may be recognized by several hills close to the beach.
Lanipuao Rock, with 3 feet over it, and marked by a red nun buoy, lies 44 miles westward of Makahuena Point and 3 mile southeastward of Hinalua Point. Vessels should not attempt to pass northward of the buoy.
Hanapepe Bay, 8 miles westward of Makahuena Point, is about 2 mile wide and indents the coast 3 mile. It affords shelter during the trades, with good holding ground. The shores of the bay are low, rocky bluffs, except at its head, where it is sandy. Eleele Landing, locally known as Port Allen, is on the easterly side of the bay just inside the breakwater, which is built out about 100 yards from the easterly point at the entrance. At the inshore end of the breakwater is a warehouse, one large and three small oil tanks, and a tall flagpole. A fixed red light, maintained by private parties, is shown from a mast surmounting a tripod near the inshore end of the breakwater. There are several mooring buoys southwestward of the breakwater. The local pilot will moor vessels. Small vessels can anchor 150 to 300 yards from the end of the breakwater, bearing 112° true (E by S mag.), in a depth of about 22 feet. The Matson Navigation Co. steamers call here to load sugar. Limited quantities of fuel oil may be obtained. Fresh water can be boated aboard, and ice can be obtained in any quantity on 24 hours' notice.
Hanapepe River enters the northeasterly end of the bay through a deep gulch. Boats can enter at high water, taking care to avoid the rocks at the entrance.
Ukula Point, forming the westerly side of Hanapepe Bay, is low and flat and is marked at its easterly end by Hanapepe Light, with red sector covering Lanipuao Rock.
Makaweli mill, painted red and with a red stack, is about halfway between Ukula Point and Makaweli Landing and about % mile inland. It is prominent and at night is lighted by electricity. A ledge is reported to extend 34 mile offshore between Makaweli mill and Makaweli Landing.
Makaweli Landing, about 41⁄2 miles northwestward of Hanapepe Bay, is a wharf built in a small bight. The current generally sets northward and westward in this vicinity. Sugar is shipped from here.
Makaweli Reef extends offshore about 1 mile between the point 5% mile westward of Makaweli Landing and the easterly point at the entrance of Waimea Bay. It is marked off its end by a buoy (nun, red), and vessels should not attempt to pass inside it.
Waimea Bay, 14 miles northwestward of Makaweli Landing, is an open bight affording good anchorage in 3 to 9 fathoms in all but kona weather. The beach is sandy, back of which there is a narrow strip of lowland. The village is built in a coconut grove. A mill stack is a prominent mark. There is a substantial wharf. The local steamer calls here and anchors off the wharf in deep water, supplies and passengers being landed in small boats. A shoal about 4 mile wide and with depths of 6 to 14 feet fringes the shores of the bay. Waimea River empties into the Bay on the easterly side of the town. It comes down from the mountains through the deepest gorge on this part of the island. Small vessels can anchor in 3 fathoms with the end of the wharf bearing 356° true (N by W4 W mag.), distance about 4 mile. Provisions in limited quantities and fresh water can be obtained. A low, flat plain, about 2 miles wide, extends westward from Waimea Bay around the western end of the island to a point about 4 miles southward of Alapii Point. Along the seaward edge of this plain may be seen algaroba trees, behind which are several high sand dunes. Sugar is grown as far west and north as Nohili Point.
Kekaha, 21⁄2 miles west of Waimea, is a plantation settlement marked by a large gray stack on the mill.
Kokole Point, 5 miles west-northwestward of Waimea Bay, is low and rounded and is marked by a flashing white light. The coast between Alapii and Kailiu Points consists of a series of precipitous cliffs known as Napali. These cliffs are 2,000 feet high in places, are much cut up, and numerous streams can be seen forming small waterfalls. The southerly half of this section of the coast is practically bare, while the northerly half is wooded.
Kailiu Point, the extreme northwesterly point of Kauai, is the seaward end of a jagged ridge, which ends abruptly in a sharp peak about 150 feet high. There is a narrow strip of lowland at the point.
Haena Point, 1% miles eastward of Kailiu Point, is low and rounding. About 4 mile southward of the point is a small white church with spire.
Wainiha Bay, 14 miles eastward of Haena Point, is an open bight in the mouth of a deep valley affording no protection except during easterly trades and kona weather. There are reefs in the bay, the positions of which can not be given, as no survey has been made.
Kolokolo Point, marking the easterly entrance to Wainiha Bay, low. Lumahai River is just eastward of the point.
Makahoa Point is a black, rocky point on the west side at the entrance to Hanalei Bay. Back of the point is a high, green hill.
Hanalei Bay, about 1 mile eastward of Wainiha Bay, is about 1 mile wide between Makahoa Point and Puupoa Point and indents the coast about the same distance. A coral reef about 4 mile wide, over which the sea generally breaks, fringes the shore on both sides. The beach at the head of the bay is sandy. Enter midway between the two entrance points on a 157° true (SE by S mag.) course_and anchor in 6 fathoms, sandy bottom, about 1/2 mile from shore. During northerly or northwesterly gales the sea breaks across the entrance of the bay. Hanalei River empties into the bay about 11⁄2 mile inside the easterly entrance point, and is navigable for boats of shallow draft for a distance of 1 mile. There is a wharf with 6 feet of water at the end, about 700 feet west of the mouth of the river. The local steamer calls weekly. Rice is grown in the valley and is the principal export. Waioli River empties into the westerly part of the bay, but its mouth is generally closed by a bar. The village is scattered along the beach, behind which the mountains rise to an elevation of about 4,000 feet, and on account of the frequent rains are covered with vegetation. The land between Kailiu Point and Hanalei Bay is used chiefly for the cultivation of rice.
Puupoa Point, on the easterly side of the entrance to Hanalei Bay, is a bluff about 50 feet high, back of which a green ridge makes inland. From offshore the northerly side of Kauai presents a very irregular and jagged sky line, with ridges running in every direction. In the northwesterly part of the island these ridges often end abruptly at the sea. The mountains are heavily wooded. The coast between Hanalei and Kalihiwai Bays is a series of more or less wooded bluffs, much cut up by gulches, back of which a rolling plain extends to the mountains and is used chiefly for grazing.
Kalihiwai Bay, about 5 miles eastward of Hanalei Bay, is marked on its easterly side by Pukamoe Point, a red, precipitous bluff about 150 feet high. The bay is about 11⁄2 mile in diameter, and there are several houses scattered along the sand beach at its head. The gulch at the head of the bay is wooded. An indifferent anchorage, with poor holding ground, can be found in 5 fathoms near the head of the bay, but during northerly winds a heavy swell sets in.
Kilauea Point, about 11⁄2 miles eastward of Kalihiwai Bay, is a high bluff, and is marked by Mokuaeae Island, a black rock about 100 feet high, which lies about 200 yards offshore, and Kilauea Point Lighthouse, from which is exhibited a group flashing white light. Kilauea sugar mill lies about 14 miles southward of Kilauea Point. It can not be seen when close inshore. Between Kilauea Point and Mokolea Point, which lies about 114 miles southeastward, the coast is bluff, rising gradually from each point to an elevation of about 500 feet about midway between them. A black rock about 150 feet high lies close to shore just eastward of the highest point of the bluff. Sugar is grown between Kilauea Point and Moloaa Bay.
Mokolea Point is a high, sharp point, near the seaward end of which are two red houses and a derrick for handling freight.
Kilauea Bay is an open bight just eastward of Mokolea Point. The local steamers load sugar here by means of a wire cable. Kilauea River empties into the westerly part of the bay.