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persevere and fulfil “the godly history throughout." In his Epistle Dedicatory, prefixed to “The Laboryouse Journey” of “Iohan Leylande,” addressed to the young monarch, he says ;

“We fynde Exodi .i. that the mighty magistrate vndre God Moyses, among his other most worthy actes, droue the deuouryng locustes, which had in Egypte destroyed al that was greene vpon the earth, into the reade sea, and there drowned them so that they were no more sene, The like wrought your highnesses most noble father of excellent memory Kynge Henry the .viij. though it were in an other kinde, suche time as he dyscharged this his realme of Antichristes noyful cattel, Monkes, Chanons, Frires, Nonnes, Heremites, Perdoners, and soule syngers, with other execrable sectes of perdicion. Neuerthelesse our Egypcyanes both of the clergye, and layte, haue soughte euer sens, and yet seketh to this daye, to leade your Maiesties people in a palpable kynde of darkenesse by their masses, and other sorcerouse witchcraftes ; as lately apered in the last commocyon of Cornewale and Deuenshyre, to reduce them agayne to the old obedyence of the great Pharao of Rome, in the stynkyog kyngdome of ydolatry. But your noble counsell, to withstande thys vyolence, hath hytherto moste worthelye wrought, in the myghtie worde of the Lorde, and in the stronge power of your regall rodde, to dryue this horryble plage of darkenesse from the face of thys earthe, and our good hope is, that they wyl gracyously so styll continue.

"Salomon is commended of Jesus the sonne of Syrach, Eccle. xlvij. for that the Lorde had hym replenyshed wyth all wysdome, and for hys sake had dryuen the enemyes awaye farre of, that he myghte buylde an howse in hys name, and prepare ynto hym a sanctuary for euer, whych al to this daye we behold in youre kyngelye persone fulfylled, prayeng vnto God that it may so styl endure. As in your pryncelye begynnynges ye apere vnto vs a very Josias both in your tendre youthe and vertuouse educacyon, so our specyal hope is, that in your dayly procedinges, ye wyl styl perseuer the same."--Sign. A. v.

To return, however, to Bale's Declaration—there is another point which is worthy of notice, with a view to our present inquiry. The book professes (and I presume truly) to have been written “in the yeare of our Lord a. 1554. By John Bale,” who dates the preface “ Wrytten from Basile in Heluetia. An. 1554.” I have already said that I do not know whether it came over into this country in print or in manuscript, and, in fact, I do not know whether there is any edition which purports to have been printed at that time at Basil or anywhere else. What I wish the reader to observe, however, is, that the copy before me is of an edition " newlye set fourth and

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allowed, according to the order appointed in the Quenes Maiesties Iniunctions," and "Imprynted at London by * Jhon Tysdall, for Frauncys Coldocke dwellinge in Lom

bard strete, ouer agaynste the Cardinalles hatte, and are 'there to be sold at his shoppe 1561."—that is in the days of Elizabethan safety and triumph, while the exbishop of Ossory was contenting himself with his stall at Canterbury, and the ex-bishop of London was in gaol,

mercifully, I may say, laid in there, to defend him from the rage of the people."? Nobody will dispute that there might be some mercy in putting the aged prelate even in a gaol as a place of safety, if “ the rage of the people” was to be cultivated by the republication of such virulent invective; but what was the object of reprinting it at such a time? By whom, and with what view, was it done? Supposing it only a permitted speculation by the booksellers, whom did they expect to make it worth their while ? These are points worth inquiring about ; but they must be passed by for the present while I bring forward the other two writers to whom I have alluded.

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The writer of whom I come now to speak is described by Strype as "a man of great parts and acquired learning"I_ "a very ingenious as well as a learned man "_in fact, as

of the best and eminentest sort of divines.”3 Whether he was of St. John's College in Cambridge, as Strype says in one place,' or of Queens' College, as he tells us in another, is of little consequence, though I believe the latter is the truth ; at any rate, he was, according to the same authority, “one of those many brave shoots that the university of

? Strype, Grindal, p. 150.
2 Cran. ii. 607.
4 Cran. i. 403.

1 Cran. i. 403.
3 Cheke, 95.

Smith, 13,


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Cambridge then produced,” and “one of the greatest ornaments of learning then in Cambridge.”

There seem to have been some among his contemporaries whose opinion resembled this, for when Bishop Gardiner was deprived of the see of Winchester, Dr. John Ponet, who was then Bishop of Rochester, and who had previously been chaplain to King Henry VIII., and to Archbishop Cranmer, was selected to fill the vacant see. He held it until the accession of Queen Mary, when he fled beyond sea, and became one of that body of exiles whose proceedings form the subject of our present inquiry.

First of all, however, (and, for the present, exclusively,) we are concerned with his style as a writer, and perhaps I cannot illustrate this better than by quoting his description of his predecessor in the see of Winchester. It is incidentally brought into his account of Sir William Paget, and is as follows:

"And how at leinght was P[aget] the maister of practices handled, that will haue one parte in every pagent, if he maye by prayeng or paieng put in his foote? But before I procede to speake of this maister of practices it shall not be amysse, that I tell you somwhat of his maister, the doctour of practices. For albeit this doctour be now (but to late) throughly knowen, yet it shall be requisite, that our posteritie knowe what he was, and by his description see, how nature had shaped the outwarde partes, to declare what was within. This doctour hade a swart colour, an hanging loke, frowning browes, eies an ynche within the head, a nose hooked like a bussarde, wyde nosetrilles like a horse, euer snufting in to the wynde, a sparowe mouthe, great pawes like the deuil, talauntes on his fete like a grype, two ynches longer than the naturali toes, and so tyed to with sinowes, that he coulde not abyde to be touched, nor scarce suffre them to touche the stones.

And nature hauing thus shaped the forme of an outwarde monstre, it gade him a vengeable witte, which at Cambridge by labour and diligence he hade made a great deale worse, and brought vp many in that facultie: Wriothesley, Germayne Gardiner (whom he caused spedily to be hanged, least he should haue to muche disclosed his maisters arte) and among many other this maister or proctour of practices, whom we are now entred to speake of.

This doctour to geue some signification of his nature and conning to come alofte, that he might doo the more mischief, betrayeth his M. Carnall Wolsei 8; and more than any other laboureth the diuorse

6 Smith, 159.

7 Cheke, 18. 8 This sort of wit is very characteristic of the school of writers with wbich we are concerned, and to which Bishop Ponet belonged. He had before (Sig. G. iii.) said " as Carnal Phoole truly citeth,” &c. The betwene king Henry and the dowager. And by and by he earnestly sought to haue ridden in the kinges bootes : worse could not content him. But whan he sawe that wold not be, and considred it better to haue stoare than one only paire (for so perchaunce he might baue founde them somtymes not all cleane whan he wolde haue vsed them, and also it should be a let to bring to passe that he purposed) he changeth his purpose : and bycause none shoulde remembre his practices before, nor suspecte the rest to come, he shaueth his crowne as broade as a sawcer, and decketh him self with a white smocke like a portour of the Stiliarde. But what nedeth suche circumlocucion, whan euery body knoweth this doctour of practices was called D. Stephan Gardiner? After this, his lucke was to be committed to the towre, whan Tyburne hade ben a place more worthy his desertes.”9—Sig. I. iii. b.

Another passage relating to Bishop Gardiner is as follows. Speaking of the debasement of the coin he says :

“Which thing the great deuil and cutthrote of England (the papistes God) in his sermon that he made at Paules Crosse, upon this theme (now is the tyme to wake from slepe, my brethren, for now is our ioie and pompe more nye, than whan we before dissembled to beleue in Christ. Be of good cheare, my disciples, our trouble is past, our ioye is at hande) letted not to blustre out. In this sermon to bring the dead innocent and blessed King Edwarde (whom for his vertue he hated) in hatred of the people: for he imputed to him (a childe and a warde) the lewde and wicked behaveour of his cruell counsailours, &c. .... the same deuil Gardyner was the chief counsaillour to have the money abased, to maintain the same. And now lately (whan he hath broken his chayne) devised Rosemary pence,” &c.Sig. F. ij. b..

It is impossible to quote the passage without directing the attention of the reader to the irreverent burlesque of Scripture which it contains, and which was too common, and too characteristic among the writers with whom we are now engaged. As to the exiled prelate's power of invective, however, it is a very inadequate specimen. A much better

may be found in his attack on Bishop Bonner. Let the reader imagine the ex-Bishop of Winchester from his reader is probably aware that the name of the Cardinal, now commonly called Pole, was then generally pronounced as if spelt (and frequently was spelt) Pool, or Poole.

9 It is strange to find Strype quoting this description of Bishop Gardiner, and telling us that Bishop Ponet“ left a character of him, concealing the bishop's name under the periphrasis of the doctor of practices," (M. III. i. 450,) while the expression of his name occurs so immediately after the description (as the reader may see by this extract) and is, in the original book, rendered peculiarly conspicuous by being the only two words of roman type in the middle of the page of italic.

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