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PART 1:] RevieW.-Nichols's Literary IUustrations, vol. VI. 615 illustrated by original correspondence, thentic account of his life. It appears - we may notice, as particularly worthy by a letter here that his friends knew -of our readers' attention, those of the very liule of his early life. For a bishop · Jate Earl of Buchau, and of Bishop bis life was singularly eventful. As he Percy. The life of the Earl of Buchan went through its different stages, he was a long, active, and busy period. went through corresponding changes He was the brother of Thomas Lord of station and opinions; and what is Erskine, sometime Lord Chancellor, rather singular, every new event made and of Henry Erskine, an eminent him anxious to bury in oblivion that lawyer at Edinburgh, perhaps the only which preceded. The account before one of the three who did not frequently us affords various illustrations of what call the public attention to certain pe we may term the mutability both of his culiarities of what is termed eccentric pursuits and his temper. He set out as cily, which are still remembered. The ihe author of many performances (no all Earl, born in 1742, seems very early to enumerated here) which he afterwards have distinguished himself by an inde- wished to be forgotten. Attaching pendence of political characier, which himself, however, at a very early peprevented his attaining some of the ho- riod, to poetical antiquities, he pronours to which he might have aspired, duced those volumes of Ballads and and seems to have thrown him back on Ballad History which will probably be his own resources, which were those longest remembered. They served to of a man of general literature and anti forin a class, or a school, of poetical quarian taste. Besides being the foun- antiquaries which still flourishes; but der of the Society of Antiquaries of it was long before the public could reScotland, he was a frequent and inde- cognise the divine, the future prelate, fatigable contributor to that and other in Dr. Percy's history. The only similar societies, as well as to the Gen. symptoms a single sermon, tleman's Magazine and other periodical preached on a public occasion, and á publications for a great many years.

small volume, entitled " A Key to the His Lordship married at Aberdeen, in New Testament,” published in 1773. 1771, Margaret, eldest daughter of his His temper appears to have embroiled cousin-german, William Fraser, of him with many of his friends; of this Fraserfield, co. Aberdeen, esq., but by we have well-known specimens in her, who died in 1819, had to family. Boswell's Life of Johnson, and CraThe Earl died April 16, 1829, when dock's Memoirs; and in the corresthe titles devolved on his Lørdship's pondence before us he is wrangling nephew, Henry David Erskine, esq., with booksellers and printers. He eldest son of the Hon. Henry Erskine, continued to the last the affectation who died in 1817. It is impossible to of suppressing his literary contribua read the worthy Earl's correspon

tions.' 'He seems even to sink upon us dence with Mr. Gough, Mr. Nichols, his share in the Life of Dr. Goldsmith; &c. without admiring the spirit and prefixed to the edition of that author's perseverance he displayed for many works in 4 vols. 8vo.

Still there apo years in promoting the siudy of the an pears to have been much in his chaiiquities and the biography of his na racter that was good—substantially live country; and that amidst difficul. good—but his rank as a churchman is țies and discouragements, which do inconsiderable; nor can he form any little credit to many of his contempo. more than a very slight article in any furaries. But it inust be owned there ture collection of the Lives of Bishops, was a warmth in his politics which in The lives of the Rey. Thomas Ker. terfered rather too much with those rich, of Sir James Edward Smith, of public opinions which prevailed both the Dawsons, of the Rev. Geo. Burin Scotland and England during the ton, and Mole the algebraist, will form last thirty years of his life, and this very interesting additions to future biowarmth he could not conceal, either graphical collections; but these and in his public or private correspondence. many others we must pass over with

The Life and Correspondence of Dr. this brief, though commendatory noPercy, late Bishop of Dromore, or ra tice. We cannot, however, omit reįher the Correspondence, confirms many ferring our readers to two letters in the particulars of ihe learned Prelate's tein life of Mr. Kerrich, on the origin of per, which were previously not un. Gothic architecture, which bring that known. . We have had as yet no au. question nearer to a point, than any

pp. 117.

616

REVIEW.-Brayley's Knowledge of Nature. [VOL, CI. thing we can remember. Indeed, contribute at the same time to the welfare of Kerrich's life is altogether original and society at large, are resolvable, either diinteresting

rectly or indirectly, into the control or reThis volume is illustrated by the

sistance of the powers of nature, the acquifollowing portraits, which are engraven

sitiou of that degree of knowledge concernfrom original pictures, and in a very

ing them, which is necessary, effectually to

subdue them, or to counteract their injurious superior style :-William Gifford, Rev.

influence, or the review and illustration of Baptist Noel, Rev. Theophilus Bucke

the Moral History of Man. Such, I conridge, Rev. Treadway Nash, D.D., ceive, if we regard the entire human race, John Charles Brooke, esq., Right

Hon. are the ends for which every department of William Burton Conyngham, David natural knowledge, whether of quantity and Earl of Buchan,

Dr. Percy Bishop of form, of substance, or of organized being, Dromore, Rev. Thomas Kerrich, and every species of profane literature, and all Sir James Edward Smith, Pr. L. S. the arts of life, are cultivated. Everything

man has in view as desirable, in any condiThe Utility of the Knowledge of Nature consi tion of existence, is designed by him either

dered ; with reference to the introduction of to contribute to his well-being in this world, Instruction in the Physical Sciences into -to the healthy and secure enjoyment of the general education of Youth. By E. W. all his means of gratification, whether of the Brayley, jun. A.L S. Lecturer on Natural senses or of the mind, -or, by enabling Philosophy and Natural History. 8vo, him, in a more perfect manner, to appre

hend and comply with the requirements of THERE are two palpable positions

Revelation, to conduce, as preparative means,

to his eteroal happiness.' with regard to the subject before us;

We shall further extract a very useone is, that the inability of man to receive or acquire knowledge, but through ful caution concerning successless prophysical media, renders ii absolutely ne- jects for finding coal-mines, a caution cessary that he should know the quali- which we hope will prevent any further

foolish waste of money. ties and operations of those media; the other, that a lecturer or teacher of them “ Among the geological formations which is bound to have a perfect acquaintance are developed in Great Britain, there are at with his subject. Both these positions most two only which include beds of this are truisms, but we add no more, be

mineral that can be worked with commercial cause in disquisitions of this kind the advantage. One of these is the Great Cual

Formation, situated between the two series actions of the particular subjects exhibit the merits or benefits distinctly the New Red Sandstone and the Old Red

of strata called by geologists, respectively, from others, and because Mr. Brayley Sandstone ; the other is the lower division introduces his work with the following of the assemblage of clays, sands, and freeexcellent proëmium :

stones, called the Oolitic series ; which lies " Civilization may be defined to be that above the new red sandstone, and consestate of human existence, in which Man so quently is much higher in the series of strata disposes the objects of nature which are than the

great repository of coal just meno subject to his use, as to enable him either tioned. The coal-field of the Eastera Moorto control, or to evade, the action of those lands of Yorkshire, and that of Brora * in natural powers which would otherwise injure Scotland, belonging to the latter formation; him, or interfere with his supremacy over

but it is the former on which the manufacthose impediments to his happiness which turing iudustry of this island priocipally are inseparable from his material constitu rests; the coal-fields of the midland counties tion; and for the final cause, that, being in of England, of Northumberland and Durthe one case enabled to substitute those ham, of Cumberland, and the principal coalpowers for his own bodily labour, and in the fields of Scotland, are situated exclusively in other, relieved from their injurious opera it. I have mentioned the deposits of coal in tion, he may, by the cultivation of his higher the Oolitic series, in order to be philosophiintellectual and moral faculties, so increase cally correct in my statement on the subin wisdom and gooduess, as to attain the ject; but in a commercial point of view highest degree of happiness he is capable of enjoying; both in this world, and in a future * For the authenticated knowledge of eternal state. The Civilization attained, is the true geological position of the Brora proportionate to the degree of perfection coal, we are indebted to Mr. Murchison, to with which those natural powers are con whose extensive researches in Geology much trolled, or made subservient to the welfare of our present improved acquaintance with of mankind; and all those secular pursuits of the more recent regular strata is due. See the human race which tend to augment the Transactions of Geological Society, Second true happiness of the individual, while they Series, vol. ii. pp. 293, 353,

occur

PART 1.] Review.—Brayley's Knowledge of Nature.

617 they are_insignificant; and although the rule. In every alphabet some letters beds in Eastern Yorkshire have long been

more often than others. In known, an eminent geologist, after enume English we believe that the most frerating the various positions in the earth in which carbonaceous matter occurs, so lately quent is e, the most rare z. That cha

racter therefore which is most frequent as the year 1822, thought it necessary to

means e; that which is more rare, %. conclude with the following explicit caution: ". In thus stating the occasional occur

A scale of proportional occurrence is

made in a similar manner with regard rence of carbopaceous beds in other formations [than the Great Coal-Formation above

to ihe other letters. Therefore by mentioned,] it is necessary carefully to guard having alphabets of all known lanagainst the error of supposing that any sup guages (such as we see in Dr. Fry's plies of this mineral, capable of being pro- Pantographia), and appending to each fitably worked, are to be found anywhere a scale of proportional occurrence, it is without the limits of the coal-district of of no moment what the characters which we are now treating; an error that may be, provided each of them that has led to much waste of capital in fruitless denotes a letter is of similar form. As speculation. The local deposits above mentioned [thuse of the plastic clay, the Oolites, precisely speaking, more appropriate to

to picture writing, which is a term, &c.] are objects of Geological curiosity, hieroglyphics, the figures there are not not of statistical interest.' In the digest of his matter, the perspi- which denote things; and these are

constituent parts of words, but symbols cuity of his elucidations, the solidity of his remarks, the picturesque exhibition very scantily understood, and except in

a few particulars will probably remain of his phænomena, and frequent corrus

so for ever. We speak so, because we cations of talent, Mr. Brayley is to be know from Tacitus that the Egyptian classed with the best of our Lecturers on Natural Philosophy. In one parti- pretations of the hieratic language upon

priests themselves made different intercular only, the mode of decyphering the obelisks. We also learn from Mr. inscriptions in unknown languages (see Dodwell, that the Abraxas probably p. 71 seq.), we think that there is a defect. It is known that a wager was

denote the hidden language of the laid, in regard to the King's decypherer Young * denies the existence of any

priests. It is very true, that Dr. characters should be handed to him of alphabet whatever, at any time, of the

Enchorial Egyptian ; but both he and which he could not furnish an interpretation. The only condition imposed the characters an alphabet. We shall

M. Champollion have formed out of on his part was, that the characters should indicate the letters of an alpha- tion. Dr. Young says (p. 13) that

try to explain that apparent contradicbetical language, each letter having the

he could not,“ same character, the form of that cha

through the remains racter being optional. A quantity of of the old Egyptian language, as they

are preserved in the Coptic and Thepure arbitrary strokes, but conformable

baic versions of the Scriptures," find to the condition, were accordingly for. warded ; and, in an hour, the manu

any traces of an alphabet, that is to script was returned, satisfactorily decy- say, of any

one applicable to that old phered, and pronounced to be what it

resembled the Chinese, the only hie. actually was, the Lord's Prayer in Swedish. It is therefore plain, that, roglyphical language now extant; and without the slightest disrespect to men

one of which only a part can be acof such transcendent merit as Dr. quired by the labour of a whole

life.t But Young's and ChampolYoung and others, there has been nothing miraculous in the discovery of Greek language, and are only A. B. T.

lion's alphabets plainly apply to the the Greco-Egyptian Enchorial lan

&c. represented by old hieroglyphical guage; nor would there be in any other language whatever, which is construct

figures of animals or things ; in other

words, their alphabets are Greek ones, ed upon the principle of an alphabet, where similar characters denote similar written in Egyptian letters. The elu?

cidations therefore belong only to the letters. Decyphering is in fact an art founded chiefly upon the following Greco-Egyptian æra, one not earlier

Conybeare: 6 Outlines of the Geology * Hieroglyph. Literat. p. 13. of England and Wales," p. 329.

f Id. 12. Gent. Mag. Suppl. Cİ. Part. I.

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618
Review.-Conder's Italy.

[Vol. Cr. than the age of Alexander. Of course Brockedon, Cadell, and Pennington, nothing older than this has been in

A more modern traveller, Dr. Johnreality decyphered at all; and of the son, has exposed the dirtiness of the previous existence of a Greek alphabet people, and the danger of the malaria. ihere is no doubt. In fact, then, all On this last point Mr. Conder has that has been done is the discovery of suggested some very simple precautions, those signs by which the Greco-Egyp- which we shall extract for our spetians expressed Greek letters. The cimen. real old Egyptian hieroglyphical lan

«« It is well known to persons acquainted guage remains, with a few very partial with the shores of the Mediterranean, that exceptions, in its original obscurity. concealed water, lurking as it were beneath

In proof of this, it is to be remem the surface, is the enemy most to be dreaded bered, that the Rosetta stone does not as the source of fatal miasmata. High exhibit, like the papyri consulted by grounds are in general safe ; but this is beDr. Young (see chap. iii.), an agree cause they are generally dry.* When water ment, character for character, between has been conveyed to them by artificial the enchorial and hieratic writing. means, and afterwards suffered to staguate This disagreement, Dr. Young says,

and soak into the earth, or whenever there can only be explained by consider happens to be moisture in the soil from

other causes, fevers are generated. ing the sacred characters as the remains

“ Gardens, in low situations, often beof a more ancient and solemn mode of

come the source of malaria ; aud it may be expression, which had been superseded partly for this reason, that, in the East, in common life by other words and they have been excluded from the closelyphrases(p. 16), and to decypher an built cities. Mr. Simond remarks, that, in un-alphabetical hieroglyphic language, the low but healthy parts of Rome, those like the Chinese, by means only of a houses which have a garden are not safe, few surviving monuments, presents, ac while the neighbourhood without gardens cording to the same author (p. 12), a

is safe. The outskirts of towns thus situcombination of difficulties almost in. ated are always particularly unhealthy, while, surmountable to human industry.

within the walls, the inhabitants are secure. We suggest further, for Mr. Bray- In the pipe-barrens of South Carolina, ley's consideration, the remarks upon As

where, during the sickly season, it is deemed tronomy in Mr. Godwin's “ Thoughts healthy spots where the overseers of planta

hazardous to pass a night, there are some on Man” (Essay, xxi. p. 376). We

tions reside with impunity; but it is found give no opinion about his doubts; but

that, in order to be safe, not a tree must be they deserve attention, for if they are

cut down, except to leave room for the correct, the mathematical ladder by house; and the smallest garden would entail which astronomers ascend to heaven, some risk. Even broad streets, notwithis one like Jacob's, a dream only. standing the apparent benefit of a freer ven

tilation, are neither a luxury nor an ad

vantage in southern climates; and it is not Italy. By Josiah Conder, Author of the without reason that Tacitus represents Nero “ Modern Traveller.3 vols, 16 mo. Platcs.

as having spoiled Rome by widening the A GENERAL description of Italy,

streets. Before his time, they were, in geapproachnig to accuracy or complete the least healthy.' It is still found, that the

neral, very narrow, and the wider ones were ness, does not says Mr. Conder) exist in our Literature.' Lord Byron inakes

heart of the modern city, where the houses a similar complaint of Eustace," whose

are contiguous, notwithstanding the lowness

of the ground, and how near soever to the work affords little evidence that he

river, is quite exempt from the malaria had ever set foot in Italy," (pref. vii.) which reigns in the gardens and vineyards of Millin and Lalande have ihe same the Seven Hills. character in that country. Errors of all kinds abound in other writers, be

* “ Kuolls and bluffs, in a marshy councause the curiosities of Italy belong to

try, have often been found far more unhealthy

situations, than the immediate margin of the sculpture, painting, and architecture, of which the writers have no profes. within reach of the miasmata. In the Pon

river ; but this must be because they are sional knowledge; and no man cari

tine marshes, an elevation of 200 feet is explain what he does not understand.

barely sufficient to ensure safety. FreThe best English writers on Italy quently, the infected atmosphere does not are pronounced in particular to be rise higher than 100 feet, and rarely higher Forsyth, Williams, Bell, Woods, Hob than 500; nor is it carried to any great dishouse, Burton, Lumsden, Cramer, tance by the wind."

PART 1.] Review.-Sketches from Venetian History.

619 « All these facts concur to prove, that as against weather; and he acquires the danger originates in laying bare the soil moral strength of character, heroic to the direct action of the sun; and that, bravery, and chivalrous generosity, when shaded by either woods or buildings, Many instances of these qualities, and the plague is stayed. Although moisture is much ingenuity, displayed in overnecessary to generate these noxious exhalations, they arise not from the water, but coming circumstances, are conspicuous

in these interesting sketches. We shall from the soil. Consequently, tracts covered

however only extract some curious with water, but not reduced to marsh, are

matters. rendered harmless, although their immediate neighbourhood may be highly insalu

In p. 29 we are told, concerning a brious. The exemption from endemic fever,

from endemic fever, Constantinopolitan Dogessa, who shared which Venice enjoys, has been attributed to

the Crown of a Doge in 1069, that the salt water ; but experience has taught “ her apartments were so saturated with the Indians of Venezuela to build their huts perfumes, that those who were unaccuson piles amid their great fresh-water lake, tomed to such odours fainted upon entering." in order to escape the noxious atmosphere

The explanation given by Dr. Johnwhich constantly envelops its borders. * It

son, in his “ Change of Air,” p. 274, is the vapour of stagnant water only that is

is this, “ Habituation to the STINK of injurious, because it then becomes charged

the Roman streets, perverts the sensi. with vegetable or mineral effluvia. Ships, indeed, have been affected by noxious exha

bility of the olfactory nerves-renders lations from swampy shores, at a consider

them unaccustomed to decent smellsable distance, in tropical climates ;t but

and throws them into convulsions on this must be owing to the wind setting in

contact with a perfume.” that direction. The exhalations of the soil The origin of our cross-legged moextend further in proportion to their greater

numents is not kuown; and the meandensity and malignity; and these appear to ing is supposed to denote performance be according to the greater intensity of at of a crusade. It is certain that the mospheric heat. Under the climate of Italy, Emperor Frederic Barbarossa is so rethe endemic pestilence is so strictly local, presented in a sitting position upon a that an ascent of ten minutes will often

basso-relievo on the Porta Romana at place you above its reach, while a narrow street will sometimes divide the healthy in his Dresses, pl. vii. gives us an illu

Milan (see p. 82, woodcut). Strutt, from the infected district.”

mination of the eighth century, where Knowledge concerning Italy is so

a personage of distinction is seated in accessible, and rendered particularly so

a similar cross-legged position; and by Mr. Conder's well-digested work Montfaucon gives us a figure of Dagobefore us, that we add no more. We

bert, who reigned ann. 628-644, and have deerned it an affair of general has his feet resting upon dogs. We utility to disseminate his elucidation

shall make no other observation upon of malaria, and that has occupied our

the subject, than this, viz. that the utmost allowable space.

fashion with sitting figures is antece

dent to the Crusades. Sketches from Venetian History. Vol. I.

Every body has heard of the famous Murray's Family Library.

bronze horses ascribed to Lysippus. THE utility of “ bogs turned

The following is the account given of

up dry,” is conspicuous in the iwo amphi. bious states of Holland and Venice; ing the date and even the native country of

“ Antiquaries appear to hesitate concernone inhabited by Lutheran frogs, the other by Papal sea-gulls. It is certain

these horses ; for by some they have been that maritime sites sharpen our intel

assigned to the Roman school, and to the

age of Nero; by others to the Greeks of lectual powers and augment our re Chio, at a much earlier period. Though sources; danger appears not as a giant, far from deserving a place among the choicest but as a ghost; difficulties are reduced specimens of Art, their possession, if we to only bad roads; man by custom and may trust their most generally received hiscontrivance is great-coated against water tory, has always been much coveted. Au

gustus, it is said, brought them from Alex* ". Hence the name of Venezuela, or andria, after his conquest of Antony, and Little Venice, given by the Spaniards to the erected them on a Triumphal Arch in Rome; territory. See Modern Traveller, vol. xxvii. hence they were successively removed by p. 211.

Nero, Domitian, Trajan, and Constantine, + Sir Gilbert Blane says 3000 feet, and to Arches of their own; and in each of even further.

these positions, it is believed that they

to

them :

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