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PART 1.]

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LITERARY AND SCIENTIFIC INTELLIGENCE.

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Royal Society of LITERATURE. in the death of the Rev. Edward Davies, At the Anniversary Meeting, April 28, one of the Royal Associates, the learned the Bishop of Salisbury, as President, deli- author of the Celtic Researches,' the vered his Annual Address.

• Mythology of the Druids,' and several Adverting to the loss which the Society other highly esteemed publications ; and a had sustained in the decease of its munifi- contributor of some valuable and ingenious cent founder and patron, King George IV., papers to the Royal Society of Literature. he took occasion to enumerate some of the The President's Address being concluded, more important services rendered by the the Secretary read the Annual Report of deceased Monarch to the cause of Literature. the Proceedings of the Society, as prepared

“ His Majesty's attention to the interests by him under the direction of the Council. of Literature and sound Learning, -an at

It noticed that the Council having obtained, tention called forth by the genuine bias of on a lease for ninety-nine years from the his cultivated taste and classical accomplish- Commissioners of Woods and Forests, a ments—was evinced as early as the year piece of ground for the site of the proposed 1796, by his donation of two gold and two House for the Society, in the vicinity of St. silver medals to the Scholars of Winches- Martin's Church, proceeded to commence ter; the former for the best English com- the building without further delay. A beauposition, the latter for the encouragement tiful design was gratuitously furnished by of eloquence.

Mr. Decimus Burton, whom the Council “The King was a contributor to the had appointed their architect; which building of St. David's College; and this Messrs. Haward and Nixon, builders, have benefit to the interests of Religion and engaged to execute, according to the speciLearning was subsequently augmented by fication and estimates furnished by Mr. some valuable endowments bestowed upon Burton, for the sum of 32751. The buildthat Institution.

iog will, at the latest, be ready for the So“ That meritorious charity, the Literary ciety's accommodation at the First MeetFund, has, at various times, largely par- ing for the ensuing Session, in November taken of the munificence of the late Sove- next. The Council have agreed to let the reign.

ground floor of the new House to the Incor. It was by his Majesty's order, that the porated Society for the Building and Enwork · De Doctrinâ Christianâ,' &c. disco- largement of Churches and Chapels, at the vered in the State Paper Office, in 1823, annual rent of 1401. and ascribed (though, in his Lordship's The Council are unable to communicate opinion, erroneously) to Milton, was trans- what may be his Majesty's intentions with lated and published.

regard to continuing the annual Royal Do“In the same year, George IV. further nation; and under the circumstances the merited the title of a Benefactor to Litera- further adjudication of Royal Medals is neture, by giving to the nation the valuable cessarily suspended. and extensive Library which had been col- The Council is at present engaged in lected by his Royal father.

printing the First Part of a Second Volume “ One of the earliest proofs given by the of the Society's Transactions ; to consist of, King of his cultivated taste and love of an- First-M. Letronne's Memoir on the Greek cient learning, was shown in the Literary and Latiu Inscriptions upon the colossal Mission to the Court of Naples, for the Statue of Memnon, at Thebes. Secondly more rapid developement and transcription -Mr. Millingen's paper on the late Discoof the Herculanean Manuscripts—a Mis. veries of Ancient Monuments, in several sion equally honourable to the country from parts of Etruria. Thirdly,—A Collection which it emanated, and the accomplished of Inscriptions from the Rocks of Waady Prince who promoted it; and successful, Mokatlib, near Mount Sinai ; with an Acbeyond what is generally known, in its re- count of their Discovery, &c. by Mr. sults.

George Francis Grey. “ The mention of the literary zeal dis- A brief notice is then given of such of played by the late Sovereign of England, in the original Communications with which these exertions to recover the remains of the Council has been favoured, as have Ancient Learning, led his Lordship into been read since the last anniversary. some details respecting recent discoveries of 1.- Observations on the Origin of fragments of great antiquity, in the works thenism, and on its Progress among the Jews, of comparatively modern writers.

early Christians, and Mohammedans. By “In conclusion, the President noticed, the Rev. Samuel Lee, B.D. Professor of as another subject of condolence, the loss Hebrew, &c. in the University of Camwhich the Society had likewise sustained bridge, Honorary Associate, R.S.L. The Gent. Mag. Suppl. Vol. CI. Part I.

G

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626
Royal Society of Literature.

(vol. CI. purpose of this Memoir is to show that all

rious sects which profess the religion of the splendid, but fallacious, systems of hea- Mohammed ; particularly the two Grand then philosophy and theology are derived Divisions of the Sonnee, or Orthodox,from the authentic records of Creation, as who hold the purest form of Mohammegiven by Moses; and that, although vary- danism, and the Shiah, or followers of Ali, ing in particulars, they are all identical in -among whom it is so much corrupted as, principle: the whole of these systems agree- in some cases, to border upon pure heathening in the doctrine of emanations ; that is, ism. The esoteric doctrine, called Suffeeof various orders of angelic or superhuman ism, which prevails almost universally abeings, proceeding, together with the ma- mong the higher classes in Persia, is noterial universe, from one Fountain of Light thing more nor less than the metaphysics and Power, in the acknowledgment of whose of Plato, grafted in upon the religion of the Supreme Unity they all coincide. With Arabian prophet. " From what has been this view, the Professor first carries his in- said,” observes the Professor, “ I think it quiry through the theological systems of must have appeared that Heathenism, Hiothe ancient Chaldeans, Egyptians, and Per- dooism, Buddhaism, Gnosticism, Judaism, sians, all of which he substantially identifies and Mohainmedanism, in the main, are all with the opinions of the Greeks, and with regulated on the self-sanie principle; and those now taught by the followers of Buddh actually end in bringing about the same reand Brahma ; the common foundation of sults in practice. It is to my mind equally all these corrupted forms of Religion being certain, that all have built upon the same the doctrine above stated, founded upon the foundations, viz. the facts recorded in the principles of Revelation, debased by tradi- Holy Scriptures, but which have been more tion and by the inventions of a fanciful Phi- or less distorted, by the operation of a false losophy. The writer's researches are next philusophy.” This valuable and learned directed to supply an answer to the ques- Memoir concludes with some advice to tion whether, and to what extent, the prin- those who are engaged in introducing a ciples of heathen philosophy may be traced purer form of worship among the professors to the Jews. The conclusion to which he of these erroneous systems, respecting the comes, on this point, is, that although it way in which their corruptions may be most may be true that the Pagan philosophers effectually met.—Read May 5th, November did not borrow the facts and notions ad- 17th, December 1st, and December 15th, duced by them, directly from the Hebrew 1830, and February 2d, 1831. writings, yet those facts and notions cannot II.- An Account of the late Discoveries of strictly lay claim to originality; inasmuch Ancient Monuments, in several parts of as both the theology of the Jews and the Etruria. By James Millingen, Esq. Royal theories of the philosophers are alike drawn Associate of the Society.-- Read May 1912, from one common source in an original 1830. Revelation. His arguments are here sup- III.-An Abstract of a Memoir, by M. ported by references to the Cabbala, and the Letronne, Honorary Member of the Soother monuments, of the early opinions of ciety, on the Inscriptions upon the colossal the Jews. The numerous heresies which Statue of Memnon, at Thebes. Drawn up deformed Christianity in the first centu- by W. R. Hamilton, Esq. M.R.S.L. &c.ries, were merely an adaptation of the phi- These inscriptions, the work of various perlosophic system of emanations to the form, sons who visited this celebrated Statue, at and under the name, of the Religion of an early period, and who thus attested the Christ. The able attempts of Larduer to fact of the sound said to have been emitted refute the charges brought on this head by it, were first collected by Pococke : adagainst the early heresiarchs, are examined ditions and corrections have been since made by the writer in this part of his Essay. by Norden, by the French Commission of Professor Lee proceeds, lastly, to consider Egypt, by Mr. Hamilton, &c. and finally, the Mohammedan faith. The corruption by Mr. Salt. Upon the copies supplied by of the religion of Mohammed, from one of these authorities, several learned critics pure authority, as it was left by its author, have already exercised their powers, with to one appealing to evidence and argument, various degrees of success. The writer's which began to take place in the time of El attention, in the present - Memoir, is conMamūn, seventh Calif of the House of Ab- fined exclusively to an account of the Inbas, was similar in character, and derived scriptions ; he does not go into the quesfrom the same sources of heathen philoso- tion respecting the causes, &c. of the phy, with those corruptions which the he- sounds alleged to have been heard. He diretics of the first century introduced into vides these records into two classes—those the Christian Church. After the metaphy which are, and those which are not, dated. sical system was once brought into Arabia, Io the former class, consisting of thirtyit soon began to be pursued with ardour. nine Inscriptions, he adopts the chronoloIts beginning, gradual extension, and com- gic order, without regard to the nature of plete establishment, are traced by the wri- the composition. The latter he subdivides ter in a sketch of the opivivus of the va- into, Ist, Greek, 2d, Latin.-Read June 16,

1831.

nicle."

a

PART 1.]
Royal Society of Literature.

627 IV.-Letter on The Old Egyptian Chro- the Rev. Frederick Nolan, LL.D. M.R.S.L.

From J. Cullimore, Esq. M.R.S.L. This very learned contribution to the SoThe design of this communication is to ciety's Collection of Papers is a further eluprove that the aucient Egyptian astrono- cidation of the subject treated in Dr. Nomers and historians possessed in the Her- lan's Memoir on the Chaldean Chronology, maic Zodiacal period (stated in the Chro- of which an account was given in the last nicle referred 'to, from the Genesis of Annual Report. As the greater part of the Hermes, * to have consisted of 36,525 un- Essay still remains to be read, the analysis intercalated solar years), a great cycle, is deferred till a future occasion.-A portion equivalent in its nature and uses to our Ju- read Decemler 1, 1830. lian period—both being compounded of a VIII.-At the Meeting of December 15, series of solar and lunar cycles, or, the 1830, two ancient Latin Manuscripts, besolar canicular period of 1461 unintercalated longing to Sir Thomas Phillipps, were preyears multiplied into the lunar cycle of sented for the inspection of the Society, twenty-five unintercalated years ; in conse- and an account of their contents, in a letter quence of which, each year of the Egyptian from Sir Thomas, read. One of the manuannals (which were regulated by the Zodia- scripts, a work of the twelfth or beginning cal Revolution) possessed fixed and unalter- of the thirteenth ceatury, entitled • Mappa able solar and lunar characters, that could Clavicula, contains a description of the vanever return but with a new revolution of rious materials used in the art of painting the great cycle. Upon the principles of and illuminating nianuscripts, with the comthis remarkable system, the writer proceels positiou of the ingredients for forming the to show the epoch of the Egyptian Mo- different colours. It likewise explains the narchy, as fixed in the Chronicle, neces- method of gilding, and writing in gold letsarily corresponds to the 598th year of the ters; and describes several other mechani. 24th solar canicular period, and conse- cal arts, as practised in those centuries. The quently to the year before the Christian æra subject of the other Manuscript is a narra2188-an epoch confirmed by the testi- tive of the Conspiracy entered into by the mony of all original and impartial authori- Archbishop of York, and others of the noties. He further makes it appear, from in- bility, in the reign of Richard II. dependent calculations, drawn respectively IX.—A Catalogue of Pictish and Scottish from the solar and lunar characters of the Kings, with Remarks, communicated, in a Zodiacal revolution, that this systein must letter, from Sir Thomas Phillipps, Bart. have been constructed in the sixteenth cen- M.R.S.L. This Catalogue is taken from tury before the Christian æra ; which was an ancient Manuscript, in the possession of the age of Hermes Trismegistus, its author, Sir Thonias. It «liffers from that given by and the golden age of Egyptian science. Innes, and is more correct. Read Feb. 2, This being, therefore, the time at which the. 1831. Genesis of Hermes was composed, as deter- X.-Letter on the Hieroglyphic Chronomined by the system which it developes, a logical Tablets of Abydos and Carnak. By strong confirmation is hence obtained for J. Cullimore, Esq. M.R.S.L. In this letter the conclusions of the writer, in a previous the author explains the principles on which paper, laid before the Society, that the he proceeded in an attempt to restore the Hermaic system is a corruption of the sa- lost fragment of the hieroglyphic tablet of cred chronology of Moses, effected in the Ramses the Great, found at Abydos * ; laid age of the Hebrew Legislator, the contem- before the Society in November, 1830; in porary of Hermes.- Read June 16, 1830. cornection with a scheme of the monumen

V.-W.Sotheby, Esq. read a second spe- tal and historical succession of the Pharaohs, cimen of his Translation of the Iliad, Nov. 3, likewise presented by him at the same time. 1830.

From the evidence of history, and of other VI.—On the late Monastic Libraries and Egyptiau monuments, compared with the Archives in France." By Sir Thomas Phil- votive elements of the record of Abydos, he lipps, Bart. M.R.S.L. This paper contain- proves that the two parallel lines of succesed an account of numerous valuable Books sion, which that Tablet presents, do not, as and Manuscripts, formerly belonging to hitherto conjectured, form a single consecuMonasteries, inspected by the writer in the tive series, but are synchronous. _He next Public Libraries of St. Omer and Lille ; to- shows, that the hieroglyphic Tablet of gether with a notice of the contents of the Thothmos III.t, the seventh predecessor Archives of the latter town; in which are of Ramses, discovered at Carnak, by Messrs. to be found many most valuable manuscripts Wilkinson and Burton, in 1825, which has relating to the history of Flanders, and the also been viewed, so far as it has been exasurrounding states.- Read Nov. 17, 1830.

VII.- On the use of the Ancient Cycles in * See Society's Hieroglyphics, Fascicusettling the differences of Chronologists. Me- lus V. Plate 98, to which Mr. Cullimore's moir ll. On the Egyptian Chronology. By delineation of the restored fragment is ac

commodated. it Syncel, Ed. Par. pp. 51 and 52.

t Ibid. Plate 96.

628
Royal Society of Literature.

[VOL, CI, mined, as exhibiting a single succession, is M.R.S.L. The author's object is to conlikewise constructed on similar principles; trovert the following opinions advanced by and seems indeed to have been in all re- Selden, and other writers after him,--that, spects the prototype of that of Abydos. from the conquest to the latter end of King The double succession of both records being Joha's reign, all who held lands of the established, and that of Carnak ascending King, had a right to be summoned to Parinto ages considerably higher than the re- liament ; and this right being then confined cord of Abydos, when complete ; while the to the royal tenants, all Peers of Parliament identity of the primary Pharaonic lines of sat by tenure and writ of summons, and that both, as a continued succession, is made evie the subsequent division of the royal tenants dent by means of several minor collateral into greater and less barons, eventually prolists; the connection and identity of the duced the lower house of Parliament.' la subordinate and more mutilated lines is in- the only paragraph of Magna Charta relative ferred from analogy, supported by many to our parliaments, the author discovers coincident proofs. The result is, that the five distinct recognitions upon this subject, complement of the Tablet of Abydos ap- each of which, taken singly, shows that pears to be completely supplied, as to the Selden was led to form erroneous conclumiddle or primary line; and, with very siors from a misconstruction of the whole little exception, as to the upper or subordi- passage. The first of these recognitions, nate succession. If the validity of this re- viz. that of a Common Council of the whole storation be admitted, the Tablet of Abydos realm, or full Parliament, he coufirms by now presents a most valuable record, con- references to a record of Ina, King of Wesnecting the unknown ages with the brightest sex, and to the Saxon Chronicle; the seperiod of hieroglyphic history; and the so- cond, viz. that burgesses were included in lution of several of the most important pro

a full Parliament, for the purpose of grantblems in the Egyptian annals is pointed out ing aids, by a passage from the annals of by the writer, as clearly attainable by means Wigorn : the third, viz. of the tenants in of the study of these two connected monu- capite for the assessment of scutages, by ments. - Read February 2, 1831.

writs of summons, issued by John, Henry II. XI.-On the Moral Fame of Authors." and Edward II. for a general assemblage or By Prince Hoare, Esq. M.R.S.L. It is the Parliament, and military muster, to be held opinion of the writer of this elegant Essay, simultaneously at the same place : the that there exists in every case a connection fourth, viz. of the summorses being adbetween the durability of works of genius, dressed to the barones majores singly, from and the sincerity and soundness of the mo- Eadmer : the fifth recognition of Magna ral and religious principles which are dis- Charta regards summonses being addressed played in them. In support of this opinion generally, through the sheriffs and bailiffs, he adduces, in the first part of his Memoir, to all other tenants in capite. From the the principal poets of both ancient and mo- premises thus laid down by the writer, he dern times, as instances of the advantages concludes-1. That no Peer claimed a right possessed in this respect by writers whose to be summoned to Parliament, except it works have a preceptive value over those of was held for the assessment of scutages. a different description; and he thinks that 2. That the Lords attended the Court from Virgil failed in his attempt to rival his great custom at the festivals of Christmas, Easter, model, chiefly by omitting to follow him and Whitsuntide, and that theu parliamenin the noble path to fame, indicated in that tary business was transacted. 3. That they reverence for the Supreme Powers that pre- were summoned upon emergencies. 4. That side over the actions of mankind, which dis- the inferior tenants in capite had a right to tinguishes the Iliad. In the second part of be summoned en masse, whenever a scutage his paper,

the writer enters, with the same was to be levied; and that when so sumview, into a particular examination of the moned, they elected delegates from their moral character of Shakspeare's dramas. own body to represent them in ParliamentThe play which he selects for observation, whence our knights of the shire. 5. That as exemplifying his views, is Macbeth ; in citizens and burgesses had a right to return which sublime composition he shows that members from their own body, when aids the poet's powers are no less apparent in the were to be granted. 6. That a convocation way in which he attains his moral object, of the Clergy accompanied such Parliaments than in his surprising delineations of hu- of King, Lords, and Commons. From these man passions. "In conclusion, he infers deductions it follows, that whatever modififrom the facts adduced, that Literature is cations may have subsequently ensued, the one among the principal means employed ancient constitution of Parliament was, in by Providence in promoting his great mo- substantials, much the same as it now is ral purposes in relation to mankind.--Read with this exception, that parliamentary buMarch 2, 1831.

siness was transacted at the royal festival XII.--"Illustrations of the Constitution of meetings, without apparently any convenour Ancient Parliaments, before the time of tion of the Commons' House, although Edward 1.By the Rev. T. D. Fosbroke, that was indispensable when taxes were to

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PART 1.] Mr. Clarkson's Lectures on Political Science.

629 be imposed, or full Parliament was requi- strated the fallacy of Rousseau's extraordisite, on account of the importance of the nary assertion that the representative system business.-Read April 6, 1831.

was a “ political nuisance of modern invenXIII.-Official Report of Yousouf Agah tion, uoknown to the ancient CommonEffendi, Ambassador Extraordinary from wealths ;” referring to numerous instances the Sullime Porte, on his delivering the Im- in Greece and Asia Minor, not only of reperial Credentials at the Court of St. James's, presentation by the election of Deputies, in January 1795. Translated into English sent to a common diet or congress, but to by M. Joseph Von Hamıner, Honorary elective representation with double stages, Member of the R.S.L. In this document and again, to instances of elective representhe Ambassador gives his government a very

tation, of which taxation and the control minute and characteristic account of the of the public purse were the basis. Rousceremonies attending his reception by the seau had also asserted that the first political Sovereign of England, the presents of which institutions were republican. Although he he was the bearer, the speeches delivered gave no proof of this, Mr. Clarkson said that upon the occasion, &c. 6. This curious he inclined on the score of presumptive evipiece of Turkish diplomacy,” observes the dence to adopt this view. The co-operative learned translator, “ though it has no great system that is to say, common lands, historical interest, has at least a local one common labour (commercial or agricultural), for London, and a recent one, as the cir- common tables, common education, common cumstances narrated took place only thirty- store houses, and common distribution of six years ago."-Read April 20, 1831. earnings—which is found in the framework

of all the early republics in developed matu

rity-is also found, in its elementary rudiMr. Clarkson's LECTURES AT THE Me

ments, and was so found anciently, among CHANICS' INSTITUTION, ON The “ Pro

savage tribes, who hunt, fish, or cultivate the GRESS AND Prospects of Society."

ground, in common, and use common reThe following is a summary report of ceptacles for storing and distributing the some of the more novel and remarkable pas- produce. This analogy would seem to lay sages of these Lectures.

bare the first link in the social chain, and Mr. Clarkson began by saying that Politi- tends to bear out the inference that the first cal Science, which was barely admitted as a social step was republican in its character. science in this country, was invested with Proceeding from theory to fact, the Lecthe honours of the Professor's chair in Ger- turer then analyzed the earliest social instimany and France. Plato, Aristotle, Sir tutions to be found on record, those of Thomas Moore, Hobbes, Harrington, Hume, Egypt, which he argued exhibited a second Condorcet, and Rousseau, were referred to stage in the social progress-the co-operaas the more eminent ancient and modern tive commonwealth of all freemen being authors on this science--which is as capable overlaid, through conquest, by a feudal sysof demonstratiou in its results as Political tem, consisting of privileged freemen and Economy. The latter is only a branch of disfranchised labourers. The land, instead the former, confining itself to the develope- of belonging to the whole community, and ment of the industry and resources of a being laboured in common, was now divided state ; the former comprehends a general in absolute property, between the three prianalysis of social institutions from their first vileged castes, royal, sacerdotal, and milirough germ among savage tribes, to their

tary; and cultivated for them by the conrefined developement at the present day. quered co-operatives, now become serfs. Mr. Clarkson, while admitting the immense After showing the stunting effect of this antiquity of the earth, which may have system on the arts and sciences, and the inrolled for myriads of ages throughout space, tellectual progress of the species when they denied the exorbitant antiquity, sometimes had reached a certain point, Mr. Clarkson claimed by philosophy and chronology for stated that this feudal system was broken the buman race; contending for a period of through, first, by the growth of a commernot more than sone 5000 years, and sup- cial class, and finally by a colony of cotton porting this view by a survey of the astrolo- spinners and weaving manufacturers from gical, retrospective, and forged Chronolo- Sais, who, urged by the pressure of populagies of Egypt, China, and India ; by the tion on subsistence, emigrated to Athens, testimony of early history, as well as Geo- and there first founded the model of free pology. In examining Rousseau's theory of litical institutions, which by two steps through the origin of political institutions, as as- the Roman provincial municipal organizaserted in the “ Contrat Social,Mr. Clark- tion, borrowed from Athens, led to the forson contended against the possibility of any mation of the English Constitution; and by original compact. Utility, as Aristotle

three steps to its present meditated reform. urges, or what Mr. Bentham terms the Mr. Clarkson then analyzed the political in“ Greatest happiness principle," must alone stitutions of Athens in their mature state, have formed the object and basis of the first and remarked that three political elements, social union. Mr. Clarkson next demon which always now excite great difference of

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