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The plants after being set, are carefully cultivated and SAVING GIRDLED APPLE TREES. not trimmed the first year. Before the ground freezes in the fall, with a plow throw up four deep
furrows on each about one inch in diameter, which has been completely gir.
EDITORS COUNTRY GENTLEMAN I have an apple tree side ; the dirt being well thrown in among the plants. dled by mice for two or three inches from the ground. Can I Then with a hoe, level the dirt about them to the amount not save the tree by cutting a square piece out from one edge of some six or eight inches--clean out the drains on both of the bark to the other on both sides of the tree, and then it sides, particularly at the place where the hedge crosses in other pieces of wood with the bark on from a limb or tree the ditch, if any. The hedge is now ready for winter. of the same size, tying them fast and covering the whole with Straw and brush about the roots covered with dirt is good a coat of wax? If you know of a better way, please inform for protection, but not safe, for it affords a winter's home me through the columns of the Cultivator. A SUBSCRIDER for inice. In the next spring, not before the middle of The mode described by our correspondent has been long May, (for the Maclura is slow and late in leafing out, practiced with success; but it requires great care in fitting throw back all the dirt placed around the fall before, and the parts accurately, and especially in cutting off the intrim and cut down to within about four or six inches of serted pieces to exactly the right length. A much easier, the ground ; cultivate well during the summer. In the more certaid, and far more expeditious mode is described fall bank up as before. In May next
, remove the dirt and in the first yol. of Rural Affairs, p. 333, which we copy: cut down, leaving the hedge about ten or twelve inches high. In June (about the middle,) the plants have a little of apple trees, are first provided, and as they are wanted,
A number of young shoots or portions of the branches over two years growth in the hedge; cut back a little and shape the hedge, leaving it like a boy's top turned upside are sharpened in the form of a wedge at each end, being
bylong enough to connect down; it will now be about 16 or 18 inches high. In the fall bank up and clean out the ditches as before. If the
in the upper and lower por
witions of the bark sep. frost gets under the roots in the low lands, there is danger of freezing and heaving out. In the spring of the fourth
Jasarated by gnawing. A
chisel, the breadth of year's growth, trim, leaving the hedge about two to three
which is about equal to feet high, (all of an even height at top,) cultivate as be
the diameter of the fore, and in Sept. sow white clover seed on each side. You now have a fence that will guard your crops from into the bark, (say half an inch from the
shoots, is then driven all intruders. When openings are left for gates or bars, gnawed edge) both above and below, place on either side a good substantial post; if not done, and the prepared or sharpened shoot is then firmly pressthe cattle will break down the plants, or the wagon wheels ed at each end into the cut made by the chisel. This is under the management of a careless driver, will break them down. When your gate is ready to be hung the easily done by first bending the shoot outwards at the bedge should come close up to the posts . This makes all middle, so as to allow each end to enter
, and then crowd snug, tidy work. After this, either late in the fall or in ing it in again. The place must be then well waxed. The spring, trim and preserve the hedge in shape of a boy's tal line in the bark, and then be driven nearly vertically
edge of the chisel must be placed so as to make a horizontop with bottom upwards. In growing a hedge, it is important that every part of the work be well done; upwards or downwards for the upper or lower parts of the more so, perhaps, than for anything else. If a fruit tree bark. When the shoot is placed in the cut thus made, fails in any way it can be replaced by another; but when some portions of the line between the bark and the wool gaps occur in a hedge by being trampled down by cattle, ()
in both tree and shoot, must necessarily coinor frozen or drowned out by standing in low wet places,
cide, and as a consequence, the two parts al
most invariably adhere and grow togetheryou cannot well repair it. To have a hedge with occa
there is scarcely ever a failure. Fig. 1, repsional brakes and imperfect places in it, is truly an unsightly and a very unpleasant affair. If all the rules above
resents a girdled tree; Fig. 2, the same with
the shoots inserted ; and Fig. 3, is an enlaid down are carefully observed, all may fence their farms with this invaluable shrub. It is evident, from past expe
larged section, showing the position of rience, that in all soils, in latitudes where the apple tree
the sharpened end of the shoot when in flourishes, the Osage Orange or Maclura will, if properly
its place. The great advantage of this cared for, FENCE OUR FIELDS successfully. C. G. TAYLOR.
mode consists in the rapidity with which Hazlitt, Rock Island Co., Ill.
the work may be done, and the difficulty
of displacing or knocking out these shoots
FIG. 3. when once in. There should always be a few Bees for California.
stout stakes driven around each tree, to keep off plows, The shipment of bees for California and Oregon has been a harrows or cultivators, which might otherwise strike the
tree and loosen these shoots. brisk business for a few months past. One hundred dollars a
The shoots used were about one-fourth to one-half an stock - the price paid — for good ones, has sent out a host of inch in diameter when applied, and they had already tripled speculators. Our valley of the Mohawk has furuished a good their original size. Probably larger ones would be better, ly share. From between Utica and Schenectady there have and the more numerous they are the greater will be the been sent off over one thousand hives. M. QUINBY & Co., security, and the sooner tliey will grow and unite in one Bt. Johnsville, furnished five hundred and twenty-two. The solid trunk.
LI( greatest number shipped at any one time, was the 5th Jan.
[For the Country Gentleman and Cultivator.) A loss of from fifty to eighty per cent attended the first at
Wintering Cabbage. tempts, mostly for want of room and ventilation in the hot climate they passed through. A sheet of wire cloth was simply I have practiced for four years, the following mode of wintacked over the bottom of the hive to confine the bees, and re- tering cabbage, and it has proved so well, I give it for the sulted in destroying the most of them by heat and suffocation benefit of others. My cabbage are left out till there is danger
from frost. The heads are then cut off, with a few course an approved and more successful mode now, is to make a box leaves, and if winter does not seem to be upon us, thrown into or cage of wire cloth large enough to hold nearly all the swarı, heaps, and covered with litter of some kind, till winter seems and put it over the bottom or top of the hive. When the in- to be coining in earnest. Then the cabbage are put in heajus terior of the hive becomes too warm, most of the bees will leave by placing them on the ground--three for the bottom course, and come out into this box, where they are niuch more com- two for the second, and one for the top. Make your heap as fortable, as the air can freely circulate through it. They are long as you wish - pack them close by putting largest at botplaced on the upper deck of the ship, and at the same time tom, and keep the stem end up. Cover ten to twenty inches kept as much as possible from the light. It would seem that or more with earth, without any straw. The enrth must be in an effort is being make to extend this trade into other quar- proportion to the frost. A little frost will not hurt them if ters. - Mr. Q., we understand, has filled an order recently for the cabbage are not takon out till the frost has left them, fi somo to go to South Ainerica.
A. S. Mosselio
A Farm Improvement--I. Size of Fields, etc. propose, then, that the amount of manure which the farm Progress in Symmetry, Fertility, and Capacity for Profitable Cultiva. can furnish, determine the size of the fields. tion Desired. Importance of Weli-Planned Subdivisions--Rules for
We will suppose that a farm is now without systematic Laying out Farms, by J.J. Thomas-What shall Determine the Size of our Fields ? - Amount of Manure available, should do so under division into fields—that the fences follow the lines of the sa System of Mixed Husbandry-A Case Supposed and a Plan Pro. posed-One Field at a Time, and Thorough Work
with it-Clear, old clearings, and that the soil, though naturally good, has Large for the Manure"-Why Corn should be a First Crop-Hints on been pretty closely worked, and is not equal to the prothe Rotation to Follow, etc. " How can I improve my farm—how can I increase its duction of good crops. The owner, with only the usual
means at command, wishes to "turn over a new leaf"-to symmetry, fertility and capacity for profitable cultivation ?" asks the progressive farmer, and the subject receives his improve the symmetry, fertility, and profit of his farm, earnest and careful consideration. He studies the present
and to do it gradually, as his capital and force will allow. state of his farm and its facilities for improvement, with We could suggest no better plan than the following
The division of the farm into fields of an extent approan eye to making the most of it as a home, and as a source of income and support. He looks to its adaptation to dif- priate to the manure made in any year, should be accomferent products, and to the best means of fitting his soil plished. This may be done gradually; but the fields as for large returns from those suited to its capacity; not in taken, should be put into good condition, finishing up the
WO as far as may be, within the year. Fence each field the twilight of tradition alone, but in the sunshine of modern agricultural literature—an aid to which he grate ed, then manure it heavily, get it in good order
, and plant
well, clear it of stones and stumps, underdrain it if needfully acknowledges his obligations. Every farmer should
it to corn and potatoes. These carefully cultivated, will study thus-should earnestly seek to make the best of the
leave the land in good condition for a grain crop, perhaps means and opportunities he possesses. Por The symmetry of a farm, and the system with which it followed from field to field, with good management of
two of them, and then seeding to clover; and this course is carried on, depends to a considerable extent upon its subdivision into fields, and the character of its fences. A every crop, will in a few years put a new face on any of
“our common run" of farms. well considered plan here, “lies at the very foundation of
We propose this criterion of the size of fields, because convenience, system and economy.” Upon the general
it is a mistaken though common policy to attempt the subject of laying out farms, we can do no better than to reprint here, from The Cultivator of 1862, some general working of more land than we can fully fertilize and thorules
, closing an article by J. J. Thomas, who has further roughly cultivate. As we have urged before, in speaking illustrated it in the Annual Register for 1859, to which we fields too large for the manure” brings many losses in its
on this point, (Co. Gent., Aug. 26, 1858,) the evil of refer the interested reader.
train. It is this which has led to the decreasing average “1. The farm-road or lane should be as short as possible in connecting the fields with the buildings. If much used, the product of so many of our staple crops, so much harped form of the fields, if needed, should be made to conform to upon by statisticians. We have exhausted the original this requisite, and to its levelness.
fertility of the soil—we must supply it by a different sys, "2. The barn and other farm buildings should be as near as practicable to the center of the arable land, for economy
tem of management. There is no decreased average under and expedition in the cartage of manure and crops; at the the better system of farming—the soil is as good as ever same time that access to the public road should not be for it fed and tilled as it should be, and in most products the gotten.
"3. The number of fields should be accommodated to the yield has been increased beyond its old amount. The system of rotation established on the farm, and should there- labor once given to clearing off forests and bringing new fore be as nearly as may be of equal size.
land into cultivation, must now be applied in giving old “4. The fields should be made nearly square, for economy land better culture—to applying to use the fertilizers withof fencing material, and to save occupancy of land by boundaries, less being needed for a square than any other rectangular in our reach—to securing large crops by increased attenform.
tion to the conditions necessary to their production as de15. When the land varios greatly in character, as in wet: veloped by a careful study of their characteristics in growth ness or dryness, &c., such as is most similar should be brought within the sanie boundary, to be subjected to the same treat
and purpose. ment in rotation. Dissimilar fields may however often be rendered alike by draining and subsoiling, when not other several reasons.
The corn crop has been particularised as a first crop for wise easily subjected to a regular system.
It should have a place in every rotation “6. Bringing streams of water a longside the fences, afford- where the soil will admit, and it is well suited to take preing facilities for irrigation, and also supplying water to each cedence in any plan of improvement, as it can scarcely be field for stock, should not be overlooked. “7. Hills should be brought near the center of fields, to
injured by any amount of manure, fresh or fermented, enable the plow to pass around them, to throw the earth down- which can be applied. It can receive that thorough and ward from the mould-board.
frequent culture necessary to clear the land of weeds, and "8. The area of each field should be determined, to enable it is a crop having no deleterious influence on those sucthe farmer to judge of the requisite quantity of seed and manure, and to measure the amount of crops, etc., etc."
ceeding it in the course. From fields so treated, fifty The particular question which we would now discuss, is, bushels of shelled corn is not an uncommon crop; this is what shall determine the size and number of our fields, or followed by a heavy crop of barley or oats, and then with in other words, what “system of rotation shall we estab- a light dressing of manure, a good yield of wheat has lish on the farm.” If we unite grazing with grain-growing, been bad, and this was succeeded by a grass crop, giving which we must do to keep our farms fertile, we must have under proper treatment, three or four heavy annual crops a considerable part of the farm devoted to pasturage, and of hay or pasture, when the ground was again brought shall need a greater number of fields than for either branch
under the plow. of farming taken alone. On a grain farm, with a four
The length to which our present remarks have extended, course or crop system, five or six fields will suffice, though which occur to us upon the subject. We may recur to it
induce us to close without presenting all the considerations other means of enriching the soil, aside from the barn ma-again, but shall next refer to drainage and manure as bear. nures of the farm, must be depended upon. We woulding important parts in the work of Farm Improvement.is
LARGE OR SMALL FARMS.
SHEEP RACK. The first step toward a reformation of the rude and un- Messrs. Editors-Herewith I send you a design for a satisfactory condition of farming in this country, is for sheep rack, in a form used by me during the last eighteen farmers to sell half their land, and to expend all their or more years,' It may not be too late in the season to be capital, labor and manure on the other half. This grand of use to those, who, like myself, are sometimes rather remedy is proclaimed everywhere, and become almost behind time” in doing those little jobs which were as stereotyped in the agricultural columns of the periodical well (or better) done somewhat earlier, if convenient. I press
have just finished the repairs to an old one, and am now But are there not two or three fatal errors in this schema engaged in making several new ones of some eight feet in of reformation ! First—To whom shall the owners of length, requiring some 24 rounds. large farms sell half their land? There are now more
15-4 farins in our country, than there are men who are capable and willing to manage them. There is nobody to sell to. We have the land, and we have only so many to work it. Those in the professions, in the trades, or in commerce, would but very few of them be induced to turn to the labor of the field. And would there be any gain if the due aut a jud Fig. 1. EL land should be divided among the laboring men ? Are For a rack of the dimensions above given, take two not two hundred acres of land better managed, and more boards 7 inches wide, 17 in. thickness, and 15} feet long economically, by the same force in a single farm, than if two do. of the same length and thickness, 7 in. widedivided into four farms! It seems to be assumed that a two do. 6 in. wide, 2.8 ft. long-two do. 7 in., 2.2 ft. in small farm must be better managed than a large, which is length—for the sides and ends, and three pieces 5 in. wide, not true according to our observation. Every where in 2 ft, long, to lay the bottom boards on-(or 8 in. wide, for the country, large farms are in as good condition, if not the ends of the trough if grain is to be fed.) Also six better than small ones.
posts, 2.8 ft. long, of oak, or other lasting timber, 2 by 4 Again-we are told that if the manure should be applied inches. to a smaller area, the crops of fifty acres would be equal to the present crops of a hundred acres, making a vast saving of capital, taxes, fencing, labor, &c. We miglit ask how fifty acres can be manured from its own resources better than a hundred acres from its own resources, for it will be granted that the principal source of fertility must be found upon the farm itself. I suppose no zealous advocate of high culture would propose that the manure of Into the lower edges of the 5 in. top boards, and the the whole farm should be given to one-fourth of it, and upper edges of the 7 in. lower sideboards, bore three-quarthe other three-fourthis be abandoned to inevitable bar- ter inch holes, 2 or 24 inches deep, 8 in. from center to renness.
center, and 8 in. from the end (and side) studs—also about I do not deny that our style of farming is very far in- 7 in. from center to center, in the end top boards; in the ferior to what it should be, and to what it will be. But I lower end boards the holes will be about 6 in. from center do not look to a subdivision of land as the sure means of to center. Of good tough wood, (white oak, or if to be bastening an improved system. I think the present ten- bad, swamp oak" is best,) 18 inches long, make 44 dency is the other way; small farms are being united with rounds," split and shaved so as to be about one inch in larger ones. This is growing out of the fact that land is diameter in the middle, and three-quarters, some 24 in. managed with more economy in pretty good sized farms, at each end—(paint the ends when used.) Nail the 5 in. and at a better advantage in many respects—requiring less top boards of the sides to the outsides of the tops of the proportional outlay for team and implements admitting two inch sides or edges of the studs, letting the side boards a greater variety of stock and grain in a mixed husbandry, extend an inch and a half beyond the studs, and drive in which is best.
the rounds. Put the lower boards on the ends of the I do not apprehend any danger of an overgrown landed rounds, and drive them to within some 13 inches of the monopoly, which is contrary to the genius of our institu- top boards. Make the ends in the same manner, excepttions. It is a happy thing for our country, that the whole ing the slope of the studs, which should be about 4 in. on system of rural labor in this country is against the creation each side; the width at top being about 2.8 ft., and the or perpetuity of large landed estates. The noble business bottom 2 ft. or less, as wished. Nail the three 5 in. supof farming cannot be monopolized, like manufacturing, by ports for the bottom (on the inside of the end posts,) to associated capital, but will ever be free and independent. the posts, so that the tops of them will be the thickness of
There are reasons enough that our agriculture has been the bottom boards from the lower edge of the end boards. in such a low condition. We are comparatively a new Put in the bottom boards with the ends extending to the people; every thing has been hurried, and unsettled, and outer side of the lower end boards, and it is ready for use. superficial. Now the times demand skill, thoroughness, See figs. 1 and 2. and a wiser expenditure of labor. Labor is limited; we If grain is to be fed, the bottom may be made of two cannot increase it at will, and it is high; but no matter, troughs, with boards about 8 inches wide, put edge to well directed, it will pay. But it must have room—and edge, in triangular form, with 8 in. supports, cut to fit and there is room. Young men need not go into other pro- nailed to the studs, (instead of the 5 in. supports.) See fig. 3. fessions; neither should they be shut up in a narrow patch A rack thus made, is light, easily moved about, and insufficient to call out their talents, and afford them a strong enough to last twenty years, if properly housed handsome income. Some who have not sufficient capital when not in use. The rounds, though small, are light and of their own, may unite, for a time, in a farm of respecta- smooth, not tearing off the wool like the clumsy and rough ble size, especially members of the same family. "Two strips of boards generally used. And I think I made mine heads are better than one," sometimes. In other business, with less labor and materials, than I could have done in the heads and the purses are united pleasantly and profita- any other manner which I have seen described or usedbly. It is better to keep the old homestead intact, under not even excepting the celebrated “Geo. Geddes' Rack." the wise counsels of the father and the activity of the Seneca County, N. Y. sons, till there be means sufficient for one and another to go forth to an estate of his own. This we sometimes see SELLING APPLES IN THE SPRING.—I have neglected to realized in the happiest manner. The cares and labors of report in regard to my fruit cellar of late. My last year's the farm are divided, the discouragements of debt are stock was consigned to the New-York market about the avoided, and the pleasures of this delightful occupation first of May, and sold most readily at $7 to $8 per barrel. increased. N. REED. Amenia Union, N. Y.
| I have about 150 barrels “of the same sort lefi." I W.
J. H. II.
THE INFLUENCE OF EXAMPLE. the whoie neighborhood feels 'thre influence of the advent
of one progressive farmer among them—whose only teacheThere has been no period in the history of Agriculture ing may have been that of silently exemplifying in his own without its examples of produetive and profitable farmning, practice an improved method of agriculture. In this way, but probably at no previous time has there been found on and by the constantly recurring lessons which experience the acres tilled by American Industry, 56 mary bright teaches
, a better systein of cultivation has been in part in. spots to gladden the hearts and encourage the hands of the friends of improvement. The time has been when troduced, and thus also diffused and extended. nearly every farın under cultivation for fifteen or twenty those who see them—those who hear or read of them are
The influence of such examples are not confined to years, seemed rapidly deteriorating in fertility and in pro- also influenced. These form the larger portion of the duct, but at present many old farms give better returns
farming community, and here the agricultural newspaper than ever before. In buildings, implements, and farm
gives its powerful aid to progress. It brings home the stock, there has also been large adváncement in appear: practice of the best farmers to thousands of interested ance, effectiveness and value. This has been accomplished readers
, and they can but gain hints and suggestions of by the introduction of radical reforms in theory and prac mnch value if applied in their own operations. The imtice, and extended by the influence and slight of exam-provements of one part of the country are diffused over ple.
the whole country, and benefit all regions where their apOur meaning may be explained further by an instance plication is practicable. Those who contribute to the in: in amplification. When an intelligent and thorough-going terest and value of our rural journals are doing a good practical farmer buys in' a neighborhood of well-worn work-the influence of their example' may thus shine into farms, and engages in the work of reclaiming and improv- every part, and hasten the progress, and increase the ing his new purchase, bis movements are sure to awaken prosperity of our wide-spread country. a spirit of inquiry, and his example and success can but exert an influence upon many of those who witness it.
INDIAN CORN. He does not grow crop after crop of the same grain upon a field until it will produce it no longer, but secures good Indian corn is one of the leading crops of our country, crops of different grains and products upon the several and in a pecuniary point of view takes precedence over fields of his farm by a carefully adapted rotation. He any other of our cereals. Occupying as it does, a wide introduces new and improved varieties of grains and range of territory, and adapted as it is, to great differences fruits, the products of which are seen at a glance to be of climate and length of season, it necessarily exhibits an greater and of better quality than those commonly grown, almost endless variety. Some of the hard flinty sorts, are and of better demand and price in market. The same is grown almost to the northern limits of our country; contrue of his domestic animals. His example goes to show sequently the plant there, is dwarfed in its growth, and that care in selection, in breeding, and in feeding, is well the grain matures early. Every degree or two of latitude repaid—that at a small expense, a good return is ensured south from this northern limit, exhibits an enlarged growth without fail. With improved implements of tillage, he of foliage, stalk, ear, cob and grain. The farther south accomplishes a deeper and more thorough cultivation of we go, the longer the season required for maturing the the soil, resulting in better crops, and insuring these crop. Corn raised in New Hampshire, and planted in against the effects of seasons of drouth or excessive mois- Maryland, will ripen many weeks in advance of the varieture. His war against weeds is unceasing, and it soon tells ties usually grown there. While the corn raised there, in the appearance and productiveness of his farm. Clean will not mature in the first named State. culture is the rule with all hoed crops, and clean seed and The past season (1859) was comparatively cold, and unclean summer fallows and fence corners, soon give him a usually frosty; therefore was unfavorable for the corn erop farm exempt from the heavy tax upon its fertility, which overn large portions of New-England, and other of the is paid in the production of useless and injurious vegeta- Northern States, while in the Middle, the South, and tion. He gives great attention to making, saving, and ap- Southwestern States, (with some trifling exceptions,) the plying manures—seeking in every way to enrich bis farm; corn crop is said to be unusually large. a course that tells at once upon the products thereof, put- In the New England States, the corn crop in 1816 was ting a new and attractive face upon all things. He aftords nearly a failure, in consequence of the low temperature of them an example of the effect of underdraining in the that season. In 1836, in consequence of a cold summer, radical improvement of the soil-an improvement so won a very large part of the corn failed to ripen in the Northderful that it must be seen to be believed—and (to in- ern States. In many sections of these States, the past stance nothing more in this connection,) barvests his crops, season much of the corn failed to mature, but it averaged and forwards all the farm-work admitting of their employ- much better than the crop of 1836. ment, by using the best labor-saying implements of this In portions of New-England the past year, much of the inventive age.
corn planted on the intervale, and other low-lying land, These improvements, as we remarked before, exert an suffered greatly by the frosts of early June, and again by influence upon the farmers who may see or hear of them. those of the middle of September. But on more elevated They may doubt and cavil for a while, but the unmistaka- lands, with good culture and early maturing varieties, the ble signs of prosperity to be seen upon the farm and corn was generally sound, and the yield was nearly an with the farmer-showing his course to be highly profita- average with that of preceding years. ble--will generally influence the most incredulous, if they The above shows the importance of a proper selection of possess any degree of enterprise, into some sort of an soil, abundant manuring, and a thorough preparation of imitation. These slight beginnings are almost invariably the land before planting the seed. Especial attention will followed by better returns, and by extended and more be required this year in selecting the seed com. In 1857 thorough improvements, and thus the work goes on until the farmers in some of the western States suffered immensa
losses by planting seed that failed to germinate. The past says a writer on this topic, “may safely and profitably be season, millions were lost by planting late ripening varieties. fed frequently. The digestive powers are most active in the
We may not again be visited with such an untoward sea- young animal, as a matter of theory even ; in practice it is son for years to come; yet, as no one can accurately predict found emphatically so; and if the animal is fed always, the the temperature of the coming summer, it will be wisdom growth is never stunted, and the animal does about all it in us to be prepared for the worst. The loss of a corn crop was made to do, in a short time.” An instance is given to the farmer is usually a serious one, yet this loss can where two pigs fed from two months old, three, and often frequently be guarded against by a change of secd. In mak- four times a day, with Indian meal and skim milk, weighing a change of seed corn it is the safest way for the farmer ed when slaughtered, at seven months old, three hundred to procure seed north of his location. The farther north, and fifteen pounds. the earlier it will mature, and, as a general rule, the smaller An example of the cost and results of fattening shoats the growth. But then, ten bushels of ears of well ripened by feeding through the summer, met our eye sometime Canada corn is worth more for “man or beast" than twice since, in the N. E. Farmer. A pig was bought of a drothat amount of large frost-bitten, soft ears. We pen these ver, weighing at the time 120 pounds, and costing $10.20. suggestions for the benefit of our readers in those sections He was kept nearly nine months, consuming meanwhile, of our country where the corn failed to properly mature the besides slops from the house, $25 worth mostly of coinpast season. There will be ample time between this and meal, and his dressed weight was 353 pounds. Taking planting season, for farmers to procure seed grown far first cost and expense of food purchased only into account, north of them, if they so clioose. But if they do not see the pork cost ter gents per pound, though the cost of the the necessity of it, we would suggest to them the import- meal would not average above $1.00 per bushel. The time ance of soon selecting from that of their own raising, and spent in feeding, and the value of the slops, may have carefully ascertain whether it will all or only a part of it been remunerated by the manure, but we think manure vegetate; and then have the requisite supply of seed ready could be made less expensively by fattening spring pigs; at for use whenever the temperature of the season and soil least less time would be required in the process. will justify the committal of the seed to the bosom of mother earth.
SUCKERS IN APPLE ORCHARDS. Some farmers are always in a great hurry to get their
Eps. Co. GENT.-Can you or some of your contributors, cort planted "extra early," and they sometimes “ miss it" give me an effectual remedy for what I suppose is a disease by so doing. In the North American Review for October among my apple trees, to wit
, the sending up of hundreds is an article, from which we make the following extraet, of sprouts from and around the roots of the trees? Where having a direct bearing upon this point-it says:
I have cut them off two or three times during the past "No plant can germinate without a certain degree of heat. year, it seems only to increase their number fire-fold.
J. C. Each plant, however, has its own peculiar range of temperature. Wheat will not gerininate when the soil is below forty
The remark is often made, that the suckers of apple five degroes Farenheit, or aboro ninoty-five degrees. Corn trees, made use of as stocks to graft in, are apt to prorequires ten degrees more heat than wheat. Should it be duce suckers. This is true only so far as those particular planted, therefore, when the soil does not indicate fifty-five degrees at least, its starchy portions, if the weather continue trees which sucker most abundantly are apt to be selected wet and cold for a week or two, will be decomposed and dif- from which to obtain the supply, and of course the new fused, wholly, or in part, through the soil, so that when the stocks have the same peculiarity. Suckers should never warmth becoines sufficient to quicken the germ into activity, the plunule, failing to find the proper nourishment at its root, be used for stocks; but if they are, they should be taken does not appear at all, or comes up a puny starvling, and after from trees producing the fewest. living a few weeks at a poor, dying rate,' expires like the
To clear suckers from orchard trees, they should not be wretched cardinal, and" makes no siga.”
cut off, for new shoots will spring from every stub left. This principle is universal in its application to the ger- The right way is to keep the ground smooth, mellow, and minating processes of the vegetable kingdom. The man clean; and then about the middle season of growth, or therefore who puts his sced into the ground without any during the first half of summer, put on thick cowhide reference to its temperature, is liable both to lose his time boots, and stout buckskin mittens; seize one sucker at a and “beg in harvest."
time, placing the boot upon it close to the tree, give a
sudden jerk with the hands, and it will be torn out root SPRING PIGS FOR MAKING PORK. and branch, leaving no stump. An occasional repetition That pork may be made most profitably of spring pigs, of this process will keep the orchard clear. Suckers alkept growing as rapidly as consistent with health until fall ways give a slovenly appearance to an orchard, and should or early winter, has been shown by many successful expe. not be suffered to grow. They also favor the depredations riments. Yet nothing is more common among farmers of the borer. than to winter over pigs, weighing in the fall about one
Receipt for Crullers. hundred pounds, expecting to make hogs when fattened a year later, weighing in the neighborliood of three hundred Two teacups sugar-two teacups sweet milk-two large and fifty pounds. A year's care and keeping is given to tablespoonfuls of butter-two eggs—two large teaspoonfuls of very small advantage over pigs properly fed for less than soda-four do. of cream tartar—a teaspoonful of essence
lemon half the time. March pigs of a good breed, well kept and learned to
I feel indebted to Tue Cultivator, for many valuable eat while with the sow, then taken away at two months old suggestions and recipes, and in return I should like to give and fed all they will profitably consume, will make “ three a simple one that has never failed : bundred hogs," by the last of November. There have
To Cure A Cow Of A Cakep Bag.-Half bushel of been frequent instances of a gain of one and a quarter Ibs. carrots a day for two or three days, and milk clean, a day, and even more. “Pigs, recently from the mother,"
E. H. MULFORD.
L. S. Q.