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6. At all the members of a commencing series, except the last. Rule X.

7. At all the members of a concluding series, except the last but one. Rule XI.

8. At the close of a parenthesis, where the next preceding it is the falling inflection. Rule XII.

REMARK. Where the clause included in the parenthesis is complicated, or a part of it emphatic, or where it is disconnected with the main subject, the inflections must be governed by the sense, as in other cases.



In this example, observe the influence of the series in determining the inflection. 1. WERE the divine principle of benevolence in full operation. among the intelligences that people our globe, this world would be transformed into a paradise', the moral desert would be changed into a fruitful field', and "blossom as the rose'," and Eden would again appear in all its beauty and delight. Fraud', deceit, and artifice', with all their concomitant train of evils', would no longer walk rampant in every land. Prosecutions', lawsuits', and all the innumerable, vexatious litigations which now disturb the peace of society', would cease from among men. Every debt would be punctually paid'; every commodity sold at its just value'; every article of merchandise exhibited in its true character'; every promise faithfully performed'; every dispute amicably adjusted'; every man's character held in estimation'; every rogue and cheat banished from society; and the whole world transformed into the abode of honesty and peace.

2. Injustice and oppression would no longer walk triumphant through the world, while the poor, the widow, and the fatherless were groaning under the iron rod of those who had deprived them of every comfort. No longer should we see a hard-hearted creditor doom a poor, unfortunate man, for the sake of a few dollars, to rot in a jail, while his family were pining in wretchedness and want. No longer should we hear the harsh creaking of iron doors'; the clanking of the chains of criminals'; the sighs and groans of the poof slave'; nor the reproaches of a cruel master'.

3. The tongue of the slanderer, and the whisperings of the backbiter, would no longer be heard in their malicious attempts to

sow the seeds of discord among brethren'.

Falsehood, in all its ramifications, would be banished from the intercourse of society. No longer would the votaries of falsehood triumph over blasted hopes', cruel disappointments', ruined credit', and blackened reputation'.

4. Ambition would no longer wade through slaughter to a throne, nor trample on the rights of an injured people. All would regard as an eternal disgrace' to the human character, that scourge which has drenched the earth with human gore'; convulsed every nation under heaven'; produced tenfold more injury than all the destructive elements of nature and swept from existence so many millions of mankind'. No longer should we behold the fire blazing on the mountain-tops, to spread the alarm of invading armies; nor the city which was once full of inhabitants', "sitting solitary." Nation would not lift up sword against nation, nor would they learn war any more. The instruments of cruelty, the stake', the rack', the knout', and the lash', would no longer lacerate and torture the wretched culprit'; no more would be forged cannons', guns', swords', and darts'; but the influence of reason and affection, would preserve order and harmony throughout every department of society.


REMARK.-The phrase, "the instruments of cruelty," includes the whole of the succeeding series, viz. "stake," "rack," "knout," and "lash," and does not form a part of it.

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In these paragraphs, notice the inflections proper to antithesis and series.


BEFORE that assembly every man's good' deeds will be declared, and his most secret sins' disclosed. As no elevation of rank' will then give a title to respect, no obscurity of condition' shall exclude the just from public honor', or screen the guilty from public shame'. Opulence will find itself no longer powerful'; poverty will be no longer weak'. Birth will no longer be distinguished'; meanness will no longer pass unnoticed'. The rich' and the poor' will indeed strangely mingle together'; all the inequalities of the present life shall disappear', and the conqueror and his captive;

the monarch' and his subject'; the lord' and his vassal'; the statesman' and the peasant'; the philosopher' and the unlettered hind'; shall find their distinctions to have been mere illusions'.



Dryden knew more of man in his general nature', and Pope in his local manners'. The notions of Dryden were formed by comprehensive speculation', those of Pope by minute attention. There is more dignity' in the knowledge of Dryden', more certainty' in that of Pope'. The style of Dryden is capricious' and varied', that of Pope cautious' and uniform. Dryden obeys' the motions of his own mind; Pope constrains' his mind to his own rules of composition. Dryden's page is a natural field, rising into inequalities', and diversified by the varied exuberance of abundant vegetation'; Pope's is the velvet lawn', shaven by the scythe', and leveled by the roller'. If the flights of Dryden are higher', Pope continues longer' on the wing. If, of Dryden's fire, the blaze is brighter', of Pope's the heat is more regular' and constant'. Dryden often surpasses' expectation, and Pope never falls below' it. Dryden is read with frequent astonishment', and Pope with perpetual delight'.



1. Is then the dreadful measure of your cruelty not yet complete'? Battle'! against whom? Against a king, in whose mild bosom your atrocious injuries, even yet, have not excited hate'; but who, insulted' or victorious', still sues for peace'. Against a people', who never wronged the living being their Creator formed'; a people'! who received you as cherished guests', with eager hospitality and confiding kindness. Generously and freely did they share with you, their comforts', their treasures', and their homes; you repaid them by fraud', oppression', and dishonor'.

2. Pizarro', hear me! Hear' me, chieftains'! And thou', Allpowerful! whose thunder can shiver into sand the adamantine rock', whose lightnings can pierce the core of the riven and quaking earth', O let thy power give effect to thy servant's words, as thy spirit gives courage to his will! Do not', I implore you, chieftains', do not', I implore you, renew the foul barbarities your insatiate avarice has inflicted on this wretched, unoffending race. But hush', my sighs! fall not', ye drops of useless sorrow! heart-breaking anguish', choke not my utterance.





The pulpit, therefore, (and I name it, filled
With solemn awe, that bids me well beware
With what intent I touch that holy thing',)—
The pulpit (when the satirist has, at last,
Strutting and vap'ring in an empty school,
Spent all his force and made no proselyte')—
I say the pulpit' (in the sober use

Of its legítimate, peculiar powers')

Must stand acknowledged, while the world shall stand, The most important and effectual guard,

Support, and ornament of virtue's cause.

There, stands the messenger of truth: there, stands
The legate of the skies: His theme, divine`;
His office, sacred`; his credentials, clear.

By him, the violated law speaks out

Its thunders; and, by him, in strains as sweet
As angels use, the Gospel whispers peace.


Meanwhile, we'll sacrifice to liberty.

Remember, O my friends', the laws`, the rights`,
The generous plan of power delivered down,
From age to age', by your renowned forefathers`,
(So dearly bought, the price of so much blood`;)
Ò let it never perish in your hands,
But piously transmit it to your children.
Do thou, great Liberty', inspire our souls,
And make our lives in thy possession happy',
Or our deaths glorious in thy just defense.




Tomorrow, didst thou say??

Methought I heard Horatio say, tomorrow:
Go to, I will not hear of it; tomorrow!

"T is a sharper, who stakes his penury'

Against thy plenty`; who takes thy ready cash,

And pays thee naught, but wishes, hopes, and promises`, The currency of idiots;-injurious bankrupt,

That gulls the easy creditor. Tomorrow'!

It is a period nowhere to be found

In all the hoary registers of Time`,

Unless perchance in the fool's calendar.

Wisdom disclaims the word, nor holds society
With those who own it. No, my Horatio',
'Tis Fancy's child, and Folly is its father;
Wrought of such stuff as dreams are, and as baseless
As the fantastic visions of the evening.



I would not enter on my list of friends,

(Though graced with polished manners and fine sense,
Yet wanting sensibility',) the man

Who needlessly sets foot upon a worm`.
An inadvertent step may crush the snail',
That crawls at evening in the public path`;
But he that has humanity', forewarned,
Will tread aside, and let the reptile live`.
The sum is this: If man's convenience, health,
Or safety interfere, his' rights and claims
Are paramount, and must extinguish theirs.
Else they are all`, the meanest things that are`,
As free to live, and to enjoy that life,
As God was free to form them at the first,
Who, in his sovereign wisdom, made them all.




1. HE is fallen'! We may now pause before that splendid prodigy, which towered among us like some ancient ruin, whose power terrified the glance its magnificence attracted. Grand', gloomy', and peculiar, he sat upon the throne a sceptered hermit, wrapt in the solitude of his own originality. A mind', bold', independent', and decisive'; a will', despotic in its dictates'; an energy' that distanced expedition; and a conscience', pliable to every touch of interest', marked the outlines of this extraordinary character': the most extraordinary, perhaps, that in the annals of this world, ever rose', or reigned', or fell'.

2. Flung into life, in the midst of a revolution that quickened every energy of a people who acknowledged no superior', he commenced his course, a stranger by birth', and a scholar by charity'. With no friend but his sword', and no fortune but his talents', he

This lesson is inserted in the Fourth Reader of this series, but a portion of it is introduced again here, because it is so good a specimen of antithesis and #eries.

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