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§ 12. Dakota pronouns may be classed as personal (simple and compound), interrogative, relative, and demonstrative pronouns, together with the definite and indefinite pronouns or articles.
§ 13. To personal pronouns belong person, number, and case. 1. There are three persons, the first, second, and third.
2. There are three numbers, the singular, dual, and plural. The dual is only of the first person; it includes the person speaking and the person spoken to, and has the form of the first person plural, but without the termination “pi.'
3. Pronouns have three cases, nominative, objective, and possessive.
§ 14. The simple pronouns may be divided into separate and incorporated ; i. e. those which form separate words, and those which are prefixed to or inserted into verbs, adjectives, and nouns.
Separate. § 15. 1. a. The separate pronouns are, Sing., miś, I, niś, thou, is, he. The Plural of these forms is designated by employing “unkiś’ for the first person, 'niś’ for the second, and iś' for the third, and adding “pi’ at the end of the last principal word in the phrase. Dual, unkiś, (I and thou) we two.
b. Another set of separate pronouns, of perhaps more frequent occurrence, are, Sing., miye, I, niye, thou, iye, he. The Plural of these forms is denoted by “unkiye' for the first person, niye’ for the second, and “iye' for the third, and adding “pi' at the end either of the pronoun itself or of the last principal word in the phrase. Dual, uŋkiye, (I and thou) we two.
2. These pronouns are used for the sake of emphasis, that is to say, they are employed as emphatic repetitions of the subjective or objective pronoun contained in the verb; as, miś wakaga, (I I-made) I made ; miye mayakaga, (me me-thoumadest) thou madest me. Both sets of pronouns are used as emphatic repetitions of
the subject, but the repetition of the object is generally confined to the second set. It would seem in fact that the first set may originally have been subjective, and the second objective forms.
3. Miś miye, I myself ; niś niye, thou thyself ; iś iye, he himself ; unkiś unkiyepi, we ourselves, etc., are emphatic expressions which frequently occur, meaning that it concerns the person or persons alone, and not any one else.
§ 16. 1. The possessive separate pronouns are, Sing., mitawa, my or mine, nitawa, thy or thine, tawa, his; Dual, unkitawa, (mine and thine) ours; Plur., uŋkitawapi, our or ours, nitawapi, your or yours, tawapi, their or theirs : as, wowapi mitawa, my book ; he mitawa, that is mine.
2. The separate pronouns of the second set are also used as emphatic repetitions with these; as, miye mitawa, (me mine) my own ; niye nitawa, thy own ; iye tawa, his own ; unkiye unkitawapi, our own.
§ 17. The incorporated pronouns are used to denote the subject or object of an action, or the possessor of a thing.
§ 18. 1. The nominative pronouns, or those which denote the subject of the action, are, Sing., wa, I, ya, thou ; Dual, un, (I and thou) we two; Plur. un-pi, we, ya-pi, ye. The plur. term. 'pi' is attached to the end of the verb.
2. a. These pronouns are most frequently used with active verbs ; as, wakaga, I make ; yakaga, thou makest ; uykaġapi, we make.
6. They are also used with a few neuter and adjective verbs. The neuter verbs are such as, ti, to dwell, wati, I dwell ; itoŋśni, to tell a lie, iwatoyśni, I tell a lie. The adjective verbs with which wa' and 'ya’ are used are very few; as, waoyśida, merciful, wao,siwada, I am merciful ; duzahay, swift, waduzahan, I am swift of foot ; ksapa, wise, yaksapa, thou art wise.
3. When the verb commences with a vowel, the “unʼ of the dual and plural, if prefixed, becomes “unk;' as, itoŋśni, to tell a lie, uykitoŋśni, we two tell a lie ; au, to bring, uykaupi, we bring,
4. When the prepositions “ki, to, and “kići,' for, occur in verbs, instead of 'waki’ and “yaki,' we have “we’ and ‘ye’ (§ 7. 2.); as, kićaġa, to make to one, wećaga, I make to; kilićaġa, to make for, yećićağa, thou makest for, yećilagapi, you make for one. Kiksuya, to remember, also follows this rule; as, weksuya, I remember.
5. In verbs commencing with 'yu' and 'ya,' the first and second persons plural are formed by changing the ‘y’into ‘md' and `d; as, yuwaste, to make good, mduwaśte, I make good, duwaśte, thou makest good, duwaśtepi, you make good ; yawa, to read, mdawa, I read, dawa, thou readest. In like manner we have iyotanka, to sit down, imdotanka, I sit down, idotaŋka, thou sittest down.
6. The third person of verbs and verbal adjectives has no incorporated pro
§ 19. 1. The objective pronouns, or those which properly denote the object of the action, are, Sing., ma, me, ni, thee ; Plur., un-pi, us, and ni-pi, you.
2. a. These pronouns are used with active verbs to denote the object of the action; as, kaga, he made, makaga, he made me, nićaġapi, he made you.
b. They are also used with neuter verbs and adjectives; as, yazan, to be sick, mayazay, I am sick; waste, good, mawaste, I am good. The English idiom requires that we should here render these pronouns by the nominative case, although it would seem that in the mind of the Dakotas, the verb or adjective is used impersonally, and
pronoun in the objective. c. They are also incorporated into nouns, where in English the substantive verb would be used as a copula; as, wićaśta, man, wimaćaśta, I am a man.
3. In the same cases where 'we' and ‘ye’ subjective are used (see 18. 4.), the objective pronouns have the forms mi’ and “ni,' instead of maki’ and nići; as, kićağa, he makes to one, milaga, he makes to me, nićağa, he makes to thee, nilagapi,
he makes to you.
4. There is no objective pronoun of the third person singular; butówića' (perhaps originally man) is used as an objective pronoun of the third person plural; as, waśtedaka, to love any one, wastewićadaka, he loves them ; wićayazan, they are sick. When followed by a vowel, the oa’ final is dropped ; as, ećawićunkićonpi, we do to them.
§ 20. Instead of “wa,' I, and • ni,' thee, coming together in a word, the syllable •ći’ is used to express them both; as, wastedaka, to love, wastećidaka, I love thee. The plural of the object is denoted by adding the term “pi ;' as, wastetidakapi, I love
you. The only essential difference between ci’ and the “unʼof the dual and plural is, that in the former the first person is in the nominative and the second in the objective case, while in the latter both persons are in the same case.
The place of the nominative and objective pronouns in the verb, adjective, or noun, into which they are incorporated, will be explained when treating of those parts of speech.
§ 21. a. The possessive pronouns are, Sing., mi or ma, my, ni, thy ; Dual, un, (my and thy) our ; Plur., un-pi, our, ni-pi, your.
b. These pronouns are prefixed to nouns which signify the different parts of oneself, as also one's words and actions, but they are not used alone to express the idea of property in general; as, mitanlay, my body ; minaġi, my soul ; mitawaćin, my mind; mitezi, my stomach ; misiha, my foot ; milante, my heart ; miiśta, my eye ; miisto, my arm ; mioie, my words ; miokay, my actions ; untayćan, our two bodies ; untaŋćanpi, our bodies ; nitaŋćaŋpi, your bodies ; unnaġipi, our souls ; úŋćaŋtepi, our hearts.
c. In those parts of the body which exhibit no independent action, the pronoun of the first person takes the form ‘ma;' as, mapa, my head ; manoġe, my ears ; mapoġe, my nose ; mawe, my blood, etc.
§ 22. 1. The pronouns of the first and second persons prefixed to nouns signifying relationship, are, Sing., mi, my, ni, thy ; Dual, uyki, (my and thy) our ; Plur.,
unki-pi, our, ni-pi, your : as, mićiŋća, my child ; nideksi, thy uncle ; nisuyka, thy younger brother ; uŋkićiŋéapi, our children.
2. a. Nouns signifying relationship take as the pronouns of the third person, the suffix • ku,' with its plural • kupi ;' as, sunká, the younger brother of a man, sunkaku, his younger brother ; tanká, the younger sister of a woman, tankaku, her younger sister ; hihna, husband, hihnaku, her husband ; ate, father, atkuku, his or her father.
b. But after the vowel 'i,' either pure or nasalized, the suffix is either ‘tku' or •ću;' as, dekśi, uncle, dekśitku, his or her uncle ; tankói, the younger sister of a man, tankśitku, his younger sister ; cinkśi, son, binhintku, his or her son ; tawiŋ, a wife, tawiću, his wife ; éiŋye, the elder brother of a man, ćiŋéu, his elder brother.
Perhaps the origin of the 't' in ‘tku' may be found in the 'ta' of the third person used to denote property. See the next section.
§ 23. 1. •Mita,” “nita,' and ta,' singular ; • unkita,' dual; and unkita-pi,” • nitapi’ and “ta-pi,' plural, are used to express property in things: as, mitaonspe, my axe; nitaśunke, thy dog; they say also mitahokśiday, my boy. These pronouns are also used with koda, a particular friend, as, mitakoda, my friend, nitakoda, thy friend, takodaku, his friend ; and with kićuwa, comrade, as, nitakićuwa, thy comrade, etc.
2. a. “Mita,' nita,' and “ta,' when prefixed to nouns commencing with 'o' or ‘i,' drop the “a ;' as, owiņża, a bed, mitowinže, my bed ; ipahiŋ, a pillow, nitipahin, thy pillow ; itazipa, a bow, tinazipe, his bow.
b. When these possessive pronouns are prefixed to abstract nouns which commence with wo,' both the 'a'of the pronoun, and w' of the noun, are dropped ; as, wowaśte, goodness, mitowaśte, my goodness ; woksape, wisdom, nitoksape, thy wisdom ; wowaonśida, mercy, towaoŋsida, his mercy.
c. But when the noun commences with a,' the “a’ of the pronoun is usually retained ; as, akićita, a soldier, mitaakićita, my soldier.
3. · Wića' and 'wići' are sometimes prefixed to nouns, making what may be regarded as a possessive of the third person plural; as, wićahuŋku, their mother ; wićiatkuku, their father.
§ 24. The reflexive pronouns are used when the agent and patient are the same person ; as, wasteiệidaka, he loves himself, wasteniệidaka, thou lovest thyself, wastemiçidaka, I love myself.
The forms of these pronouns are as follows :
$ 25. 1. The relative pronouns are tuwe, who, and taku, what ; tuwe kaśta and tuwe kakeś, whosoever or any one ; taku kaśta and taku kakeś, whatsoever or any thing
2. Tuwe and taku are sometimes used independently in the manner of nouns : as, tuwe u, some one comes ; taku yamni waŋmdaka, I see three things.
3. They are also used with dan ’ suffixed and • śni’ following: as, tuwedan śni, no one ; takudan mduhe śni, I have not any thing ; tuktedaŋ un śni, it is nowhere ; uŋmana ećoypi śni, neither did it.
§ 26. These are tuwe, who ? with its plural tuwepi; taku, what? which is used with the plural signification, both with and without the termination .pi ;' tukte, which ? tukten, where ? tuwe tawa, whose ? tona, tonaka, and tonakeća, how
§ 27. 1. These are de, this, and he, that, with their plurals dena, these, and hena, those ; also, ka, that, and kana, those or so many. From these are formed denaka