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STATUS OF CHILDREN IN THE HOUSEHOLDS STUDIED.

The status of children in the households studied may be seen in the following table, which shows, by general nativity and race of individual, the percentage of children 6 and under 16 years of age who were at home, at school, and at work:

Table 72.-Per cent of children 6 and under 16 years of age at home, at school, and at work,

by sex and general nativity and race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[This table includes only races with 40 or more children reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.)

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Of the total number of children 6 and under 16 years of age 94.6 per cent are at school, 4.7 per cent at work, and 0.8 per cent at home. The foreign-born show a larger proportion at school than the nativeborn of foreign father. The latter, however, have 6 per cent at work as compared with 3.2 per cent of foreign-born. Each specified class has a greater proportion of male children at school than of female. The Hebrews, however, have a predominating proportion of female children at school. Female children of every class and race, the Hebrews excepted, are more commonly at work than are malé children.

CITIZENSHIP.

As regards the interest in and the attainment of citizenship by the operatives of foreign birth the following table shows, by race, the present political condition of foreign-born male employees who had been in the United States five years or over and who were 21 years of age or over at time of coming to this country:

Table 73.-- Present political condition of foreign-born male employees u ho have been in

the United States 5 years or over and who were 21 years of age or over at time of coming, by race.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.)

(By years in the United States is meant years since first arrival in the l'nited States.)

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Armenian...
Bohemian and Moravian
Canadian, French.
Canadian, Other.
Danish.
Dutch.
English.
French.
German.
Greek.
Hlebrew, Russian.
Hebrew, Other.
Irish.
Italian, North.
Italian, South.
Magyar.
Norwegian.
Polish
Russian
Scotch
Slovak
Slovenian
Spanish..
Swedish.
Sorian.
Welsh.
Austrian (race not specified).
Belgian (race not specified).
Swiss (race not specified).

Total..

54.2
25.9

16.3

20. 4 (a)

2 2 13

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a Not computed, owing to small number involved.

From the data presented in the preceding table it appears that 61.3 per cent of the foreign-born male employees for whom information was secured are fully naturalized and 18.4 per cent have first papers only. Of the foreign-born races for which the percentages have been computed, the Germans, English, and North Italians, in the order mentioned, have the largest proportion of fully naturalized individuals and the Russian Hebrews have by far the largest proportion of individuals who have first papers only.

The tendency to acquire citizenship after designated periods of residence in this country is set forth in the following table, which shows the present political condition of foreign-born male employees according to the number of years in the United States: Table 74.- Present political condition of foreign-born male employees who were 21 years

of age or over at time of coming to the United States, by years in the United States and race.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.) [By years in the United States is meant years since first arrival in the United States. This table includes

only races with 100 or more males reporting. The total, however, is for all foreign-born.]

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It appears from the above table that 16.6 per cent of the males who had been in the United States from five to nine years, as compared with 75.7 per cent of those who had been here ten years or over, are fully naturalized. Of those who had been here from five to nine years 40.2 per cent, as against 11.3 per cent of those who had been here ten years or over, have first papers only. Each race shows an increase in the proportion of fully naturalized individuals with added length of residence in the United States. This increase is particularly marked in the case of the North Italians. Upon the other hand, the proportion of individuals having first papers only is considerably smaller for individuals who had been in the United States ten years or over than for those having been here from five to nine years.

The table next presented shows, by race of individual, the present political condition of foreign-born males in the households studied.

Table 75.-Present political condition of foreign-born males who have been in the United

States 5 years or over and who were 21 years of age or over at time of coming, by race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[By years in the United States is meant years since first arrival in the United States.)

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As showing the interest manifested by the foreign-born in this industry in acquiring citizenship, it will be noted that of the 143 males for whom information was obtained 28.7 per cent are fully naturalized, while an additional 25.9 per cent have declared their intention to become citizens. Of those races reporting in sufficient numbers to admit of comparison the positions of the North Italians and Hebrews, as regards those fully naturalized and those having first papers only, are opposed; the former report 43.2 per cent fully naturalized and an additional 16.2 per cent having first papers only, while the latter report 14.8 per cent fully naturalized and an additional 48.1 per cent who have declared their intention to become citizens of the United States. The South Italians, on the other hand, while showing a considerably smaller proportion than the North Italians, and even a larger proportion than the Hebrews, fully naturalized, show the proportion with first papers only to be extremely low as compared with that shown by the Hebrews and North Italians.

ABILITY TO SPEAK ENGLISH.

The following table shows, by sex and general nativity and race of individual, the percentage of persons in the households studied, 6 years of age or over, who speak English: Table 76.Per cent of persons 6 years of age or over who speak English, by ser and general

nativity and race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

(This table includes only non-English-speaking races with 40 or more persons reporting. The totals,

however, are for all non-English-speaking races.)

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Of the total number of persons 6 years of age or over, 92 per cent of the males and 70.9 per cent of the females speak English. The native-born of foreign father show 100 per cent of each sex speaking English. Every race specified shows a larger proportion of males than of females speaking English. The greatest difference between the sexes is among the Armenians, 90.9 per cent of the males speaking English and only 51.4 per cent of the females. The Poles show the most equal proportions of the two sexes speaking English, the difference in favor of the males being less than i per cent.

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The following table shows, by sex and race, the percentage of foreign-born employees of non-English-speaking races who speak English:

TABLE 77.-Per cent of foreign-born employees who speak English, by sex and race.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.)

[This table includes only non-English-speaking races with 80 or more persons reporting.

however, is for all non-English-speaking races.)

The total,

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The proportion of foreign-born employees who speak English is 79.5 per cent for males and 78 per cent for females. Of the different races, the Dutch, Germans, and French Canadians, in the order mentioned, have the largest proportions of males who speak English, and the North Italians and the South Italians have the smallest, while the Dutch, Russian Hebrews, and Germans, in the order mentioned, have the largest proportions of females so reported, and the North Italians and French Canadians have the smallest.

The progress of younger and older immigrants in acquiring an ability to speak English according to age at time of arrival in this country is considered in the table next submitted.

Table 78.Per cent of foreign-born persons 6 years of age or over who speak English, by

age at time of coming to the United States and race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[This table includes only non-English-speaking races with 40 or more persons reporting. The total, how

ever, is for all non-English-speaking races.)

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