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a point of wisdom. But, with us. our innovators, by this artifice, do alter our settled doctrines : nay, they do suhinduce points repugnant and contrarinnt. And this I dare assume upon myself to prove.—One pnralh '. more 1 have, and that is this; amonc the Papists there is one supreme Pope, supreme in honour, in order, and in power; from whose judgment there is no nppcnl. I confess, Mr. Chairman, I cannot altogether match a I'ope with a Pope: yet one of the autient titles of our English primate was nltcrius orhis papa; but thus far I can go, ex ore suo; it is in print: lie pleads fair for a patriarchate; and for such an one whose judgment he, beforehand, professcth ought to be final; and then, I am suit, it ought to be unerring. Put these together, and you shall find that t he final determination of a patriarch w ill want very little of a Pope, and then we may say

'Mutato nomine i!c tc

Fabula narratur' ■

He plead- popeship under the name of a patriarch ; and I much fear k-t the ond and top of his patriarchal plea may lie i\s that of cardinal Pole, his predecessor, who would h,ave two heads, one caput regale, another caput sacerdotale : a proud parallel, to set up the mure as high as the crown. But herein I shall be free and clear, if one there must be, be it a Pope, be it a Patriarch; this I resob e upon for my own choice, procula Jove, procula I'tilmine ; I had rather serve one as far olf as Tyher, then to have him come so near me as the Thames. A Pope at Rome will do me less hurt then a Patriarch may do at Lambeth.—I have done; and, for this third parallel, I submit it to the wisdom and consideration of tins grand committee for Religion; in the mean tune I do ground my motion upon ihe former two, and it is this in brief: That yrfu would please to select a sub-committee of a few, and to impowcrthem for the discovery of the numbers of oppressed ministers under the bishops tyranny for these ten years last past. We have the complaint of some, but more are silent; some are patient and will not complain, others are fearful and d ire not; many are beyond sea and cannot complain. And, in the second place, that the sub-committee may examine the printers, what books, by bad licenses, have been corruptly issued forth; and what good books have been, like good ministers, silenced, clipped, or cropped. The work, I conceive, will not be ditficult, but will quickly return into your hand full of weight. Aud this is my motion.'

Sir John Wrgi/, spoke as follows:—1 Mr. Speaker; By the report made from the committee of Religion, you may see to what an" exorbitant height Popery is grown; and yet how slowly we go on to suppress it: I fear God is displeased with us, or else no disaster should have prevented the sealing of our covenant, when intended; and I hope it shall be performed the next Sabbath. Had our fast been accepted, and our outward humiliation

cordial, no blow should have distracted roir preparations. Mr. Speaker, if we had taken the good counsel of our teachers at the fait, and believed their report, we had done well; and by this time, no doubt, we might have found out Achan with his wedge of gold and Babylonish garments; but wc have spent <>ur time only in pilling off the bark, and snstcliir? the boughs and the branches of popery, ami that will do no good; lor they will grow thicker and harder; what must we do then, to preserve our religion safe and sound, to us and our posterity, that our gulden candlestick be not removed? Why, the only way is to fall to our work in earnest, and lay the axe to the root, to unloose the long and deep fangs of supcrsmnn and Popery; which being once done, the bark will soon fall dow n. Let us then endeavour a thorough reformation; for if it be imperfect, it^vill prove the seed of dissolution, if not insolation; whifch God forbid: and, to prevent that, I shall humbly move, That the gimt-s and high places of idolatry may be removed, and pulled down, and then God's wrath against England will he appeased; until thciii never.'

Ru-hworth observes, That these Speeche-", and some others, concerning Grievances, didsi> convince the rest of the house, that when a question was put relating to any considerable grievance, not one member offered to put a negative upon it. Inconsequence oftheliesolution of the house, 'That no Monopolist or Patentee should be allow ed to sit in that house,' several were turned out aecordiuelv, and nc<* writs were ordered for electing others in their stead. See p. 051.

Dec. 1. A long Report is entered from ti e Committee of Inquiry after Papists, &c. nil tending as evidence against secretary Wiudcb.tnk. In the end it was ordered, "That he should, the next day, give Answer to suiji questions as should be put to him, upon several informations delivered in here against him; and he, in the mean time, to have notice of it."

Resolutions against Sliip-Munn/.] Dec. 7. A Report was made by Mr. St. John from tic committee appointed to examine into the legality of Ship-Money; which ended, the house came to the following Resolutions upon it:— "Resolved, upon the question, nulio contradicente, 1. That the charge imposed upon the subjects for the providing and furnishing <>t Ships, and the assessments for raising of Money for that purpose, commonly called .Ship-Momy. are against the laws of the realm, and the subjects' right of property, contrary to former K'solutions of parliament, and to the Petition oi Right. 2. That the extrajudicial Opinions o\ the Judges, published in the Star-Chaiuber, and inrolled in the courts of WcsUnijattr, [ ] in the whole und every part oi

them, arc against the laws of the realm, the right of property, the liberty of the subject, contrary to former Resolutions of parliament, and to the Petition of Right. 3. That all tinwrits, commonly culled Ship-Writs, the judfr free Grace, of Perseverance, of original Sin remaining after Baptism, of the Sabbath, the doctrine against universal Grace, Election for Faith foreseen, Free-will, against Antichrist, Nonresidents, human Inventions in God's Worship ; all which sire generally withheld from the people's knowledge, because not relishing to the bishops. III. The encouragement of ministers to despise the temporal magistracy, the nobles and gentry of the laud: to abuse the subjects, and live contentiously with their neighbours, knowing that they, being the bishop- creatures, shall he supported. IV. The restraint of many godly and nble men from the ministry, and thrustiugout ofmany congregations their faithful, diligent, and powerful ministers, who lived peaceably with them, and did them good; only because they cannot, in conscience, submit unto and maintain the bishops needless devices: nay, sometimes, for no other cause, but for their zeal in preaching, or their great auditories. V. The suppressing of that godly design, set on foot by certain,

meat in the Exchequer, in Mr. Hampden's Case, in the matter and substance thereof, that be was anywise chargeable thereby, is against the laws of the realm, &c."—A committee was then appointed to go forthwith to die several Judges, to know how they were solicited or threatened, in what manner, and by whom, to give any opinion or judgment concerning Ship-Money; and, lastly, to acquaint the Judges with what had been voted tiiis day concerning it.

TtcoSubtidta granted,] Dec. 10. The way for raising 100,000/. for the Relief of the King's Army ana the Northern counties, was debated; when, after many speeches, the house resolved, That two Subsidies should be granted, instead of the sum aforesaid; and, the next day, a bill was ordered in accordingly.

Petition of the City of London againtt BilifM, 4*.] Dec. 11. A Petition from the city of London, signed by 15,000 citizens, was presented to the commons by alderman Pennington, attended by some, hundreds of people, and was as follows:

"That whereas the government of archbi'hopsand lord bishops, deans and archdeacons, ice. with their courts and ministrations in them, hath proved prejudicial and very dangerous both to the church and commonwealth; they themselves having formerly held, that they have their jurisdiction or authority of human authority, till of these later times, being further pressed about the unlawfuluess thereof, they have claimed their calling immediately from the Lord Jesus Christ; which is against the laws of this kingdom, and derogatory to his majesty and lib) state royal: and whereas the nid government is found, by woful experience, to be a main cause and occasion of many foul evils, pressures, and grievances of v. very high nature unto his majesty's subjects, in their consciences, liberties, and estate-, as in a schedule of particulars, hereunto annexed, may in part appear: we therefore most humbly pray and! beseech this honourable assembly, the premises considered, that the said government, with all its dependences, roots, and branches, may be abolished, and all laws in their behalf made void, and I be government, according to God's word, may be rightly placed among us; and we your humble suppliants, as in duty we are bound, will daily pray for his majesty's long and happy reign over us, and fir the prosperous •uccess of this high and honourable court of parliament:

A Particular of the manifold Evils, Pressures and Grievances, caused, practised, and occasioned by the Prelates and their Dependents.

I. "The subjecting and in thralling all ministers under them and their authority, and so by degrees, exempting of them from the temporal power; whence follows, II. The faintheartedness of ministers to preach the truths o: God, lest they should displease the prelates; as, namely, tue doctrine of Predestination, ol

Vol. It

saints, and sugared with many great gifts by sundry well-affected persons, for the buying of Impropriations, and.placing of able ministers in them; maintaining of Lectures, and founding of Free-Schools; which the prelates could not endure, lest it should darken their glories, and draw the ministers from their dependence upon them. VI. The great increase of idle, lewd and dissolute, ignorant and erroneous men in tho ministry, which swarm, like the locusts of Egypt, over the whole kingdom ; and will they but wear a canonical coat, a surplice, a hood, bow nt the name of Jesus, and be zealous in superstitious ceremonies, they may live as they list, confront whom they please, preach and vent what errors they will, and neglect preacliiug at their pleasure, without controul. VII. The discouragement of many from bringing up their children in learning; the many schisms, errors, and strange opinions which are in the church; great corruptions which are in the universities; the gross and lamentable ignorance, almost every where, among the people; the want of preaching ministers in very many places both of England and Wales; the loathing of the ministry; and the general defection into all manner of prophaneuess. . VIII. The swarming of lascivious, idle, and unprofitable Books and Pnmphlets, Play-Books and Ballads; as, namely, ' Ovid's Art of Love;' ' the Parliament of Women,' which came out at the dissolving of the last parliament; Barnes's Poems; Parker's Ballads, all in disgrace of religion, to the increase of all vice, and withdrawing of peeple from reading, studying, and hearing the word of God, and other good books. IX. The hindering of godly Books to be printed, the blotting out of, or perverting in, those which they allow to be printed, all or most of that which strikes either at Popery or Arminianism; the adding of what or where pleaseth them; and the restraints of reprinting books, formerly licensed, witliout roliccnsing. X. The publishing and vending of Popish, Arminian, <2 X

cerliiiii

censing

and other dangerous bocks and tenets; as, I yards, and
namely, That tlic church of Rome is a true ' liolines
church, and, in the worst times, never erred
in fundamentals; ti.Ht the subjects have no
property in their estates, but that the king may
take from them what he pleaseth; that all is
the king's, and that he is bound by.no law,
and many other; from the former whereof
hath sprung, XI. The Growth of Popery, and
increase of Papists, Priests, and Jesuits, in
sundry places, but especially about London,
since the Reformation ; the frequent vending
of crucifixes and Popish pictures, both engraven
and printed, and the placing of such in Bibles.
XII. The multitude of Monopolies and Patents,
drawing with them innumerable perjuries; the
large increase of Customs and Impositions
upon Commodities; the Ship-Money, and
many other great burthens upon the common-
wealth, underwhich we all groan. XIII. More-
over, the Offices and Jurisdictions of archbi-
shops, lord bishops, deans, archdeacons, being
the same way of church government which is
in the Romish church, and which was in'Eng-
land in the time of popery; little change
thereof being made, except only the head
from whonce it was derived; the same argu-
ments supporting the Pope, which do uphold
the prelates; and overthrowing the prelates,
which do pull down the Pope; and. other re-
formed churches having, upon their rejection
of the Pope, cast the prelates out also as mem-
ber^ of the Beast : Hence it is, that the pre-
lates here in England, by themselves or their
disciples, plead and maintain, that the Pope is
not antichrist, and that the church of Rome is
a true church, hath not erred in fundamental
points, and that salvation is attainable in that
religion; and therefore have restrained to pray
for the conversion of our sovereign lady the
queen. Hence also hath come, XIV. The
great Conformity and Likeness, both continued
and encrensed, of our church to the church , of
Rome, in vestures, postures, ceremonies, and
administrations; namely, as the bishops roch-
ets, and the lawn sleeves, the four-cornered
cap, the cope and surplice, the tippc', the
bond, and the canonical coat, the pulpits
clothed, especially now of late, with the Jesuits
badge upon them every way. XV. The standing
up at Gloria Patri, and at reading the Gospel,
praying towards the East, the bowing at the
name of Jesus, the bowing to the altar towards
the East, cross in baptism, the kneeling at the
communion. XVI. The turning of the com-
munion-table altar-wise; setting images, cru-
cifixes, and conceits over them, and tapers
and books upon them, and bowing and adoring
to or before them; the reading of the second
service at the altar, and forcing people to come
up thither to receive, or else denying the sacra-
ment to them; terming the altar to he the
roercy-seat, or the place of God Almighty in
the church; which is a plain device to usher in
the mass. XVII. The christening and conse-
crating of churches and chapels, the conse-
crating fonts, pulpits, tables, chalices, church-

many other things, and putting in them; yea, reconsecrating ufxs pretended pollution, as though evcrv uur; were"unclean without their con»ecratiug; a::.'.', for want of this, sundry churches have ha interdicted, and kept from c.se as polluted. XVIII. The L'tuigy, for the most part, ii framed out of the Romish Dreviary, ritual, and Mass-Book; also the Book of Ordination In: archbishops and ministers, framed out of the Roman pontifical. XIX. The multitude 01 Canons formerly made ; wherein, among Oil*! things, excommunication, ipso facio, l- denounced for speaking of a word against tie devices abovesaid, or subscription thtreuuto; though no law enjoined a restraint from tl* ministry without such subscription, audaf.j>ral is denied to any that should refuse subscription or unlawful conformity, though he he neverw much wronged bv the inferior judge; abmlit Canons made in the late facred synod,as the; call it, wherein arc many strange and tlarp^ rous devices to undermine the Gospel, and the subjects liberties; to propagate Poperti to spoil God's people; insnare ministers a"J other students; and so to draw all into n absolute suljcction and thraldom to them and their government, despoiling both the king a id the parliament of their power. XX. 11* countenancing Plurality of Benefices; proi biting of Marriages, without their license, tunes, almost half the year; aid I of marriages without banns asking, XXI. Prophanatioii of the Lord's Day. pli-adm; for it, and enjoining ministers to read a Dei* ration, set forth, as it is thought, hy their procurement, for tolerating of sports npon tlx day; suspending and depriving p.»any judw ministers for not reading the same only out < conscience, became it was against the l.i"'' God so t.) do, and no law of the land to pnjw! it. XXII. The pressing of the strict ol.-uvation of Saints Days, whereby great sums money are drawn out of men's parses •* work'ug on th< to ; a very high burthen on most people, who, getting tin ir living by their dull; employments, must either omit them and te idle, or part ni'h their money, whereby nwM poor families are undone, or brought behindhand; yea, many church-wardens are sued, of threatened to be sued, by their rroohlestiiB* ministers, as perjured persons, for not presenting their parishioners who faded in obsen>"5 holy-days. "t.XHI. The great increase and frequency of Whoredoms and Adulteries, occasioned by the prelates corrupt adniiuistratw0 of justice, in such cases; who taking op0" them the punishment of it, do turn ail >nt0 monies for the tilling of their purses; and, lot their officers should defraud them of Ujetr gain, they have, in their late Canon, instead of remedying these vices, decreed, that the coinmutation of penance shall not be without tlie bishop's privity. XXIV. The general abuse of that great ordinance of Excommunication, which God hath left in his church to be ssw as the last and greatest punishment the cliwTM

1

can inflict upon obstinate and great offenders;

and the prelates i.nd their officers, who, of right, have nothing to do with it, do daily excommunicate men either for doing thai which is lawful, or for vain, idle, and trivial matters; as working or opening a shop on a holy-day; for not appearing, at every lu ck, upon their Summoni; not paving a fee, or the like; yea, they have made it, as they do all other things, a hook or instrument wherewith to empty moil's purges, and to advance their own greatness; and so that sacred ordinal cc of Uod, by tlieir perverting of it, becomes contemptible to ill nit a, and seldom or never used against notorious offenders; who, for the most part, are their favourite;. XXV. Yea fuither, the pride and ambition of the prelates being boundless, uinviHing to be subject to either man or laws, they claim their office and jurisdiction to be jure divino; exercise ecclesiastical authority in their own names and rights, and under their owii seals; Hnd take upon them temporal fifiiities, places and offices in the cotnrnon«c.".I,h, that they may away both swords. XXVI. Hence follow tiic taking commissions in their u»u courts and consistories, and where else ibey sit, in matters determinable of right of Common law; the putting of ministers upon parishes, without the patrons and people's cooscnt. XXVII. The imposing of Oaths of Various and trivial articles yearly upon churchwardens, and sides-men, which cannot he observed without perjury; unless they fall it jam continually with their ministers and Beijlib mrs, and v holly neglect their own cailiua. XXVIII. The exercising the oath ei officio, and other proceedings, by way of inquisition, reaching even to men's tlsoughts; llit apprehending, and detaining of men by Botm.11 aim; the frequent suspending ami depr.iing of milliliters; lining rind impri-oning of ■H'Orts of people ; breaking'up of men's houses ami studies; taking away men's books, letters, and other writings; seizing upon their •states, removing them from their callings; separating between them and their wives •smut both their wills; the rejecting of prohibitions with thrcatniiigs; and the doing of ■soy other outrages; to the utter infringing the laws of the realm, and the subjects and liberties, and ruining oflbcin and their families; mid, of latter time, the Judges of the land arc so aw ed with the power and grentoessofthe prelates, and other wsjs promoted, 'tat neither Prohibition, Habeas Corpus, or any oilier lawful remedy can be had, or take plscc,for the distressed subjects in most cases; only Papists, Jesuit?*, Priests, and such others as propagate Popery or Arinininnisin, are countenanced, spared, and have much liberty; *nufrom hence hath followed, amongst others, these dangerous consequences, 1. The general Hope mid Expectation of the Romish party, that their superstitious religion will, erelong, oe fully planted in this kingdom again; oud so ttay are encouraged to persist therein, and to praise the same openly in divers places; to

the high dishonour of God, and contrary to the laws of the realm. 2. The Discouragement and Destruction of all good subjects; of whom multitudes, both clothiers, merchants, and others, being deprived of their ministers, and over-burthened with these pressures, have departed the kingdom to Holland, and other parts; and have drawn with them a great patt of the manufacture of cloth and tradu g unt of the land into other places, where they le-tde; whereby wool, the great staple of ihe kingdom, is become of small value and vends nut; trading is decayed; many poor people want work; seamen lose employment; and the whole laud much impoverished, to the gieat dishonour of this kingdom, and blemishmtnt to the government thereof. J. The present wars and commotions between his majesty ai.d his subjects of Scotland; wherein his majesty and all his kingdom arc indangercd, and suffer greatly, and arc like to become a prey to the common enemy, in case the wars go on; which we exceedingly fear will not only go on, but also increase to an utter ruin of all, unless the prelates with their dependencies be removed out of England; and also ibey and their practices, who, as we, under your honours' favour, do verily believe and conceive, havf occasioned the quarrel. All which we humbly refer to the consideration of this honourable assembly, desiring the Lord of Heaven to direct you in the right way to redress all these evils."

The attack made upon episcopal jurisdiction did not stop here; for the commons not only censured the whole body of the established church, but severely punished, by imprisonment, or otherw ise, several particular members of it. The Journals tire full of the names of delinquents scut for and imprisoned, lined, cVc. for carrying on, in their several cures, superstition and idolatry, as it is there called; such as bowing to the Altar, setting of the table rdtar-wi=e, with fails about it; for putting J. H. S. on the commcnion-cloth, painting images in churches, and the like.

Dec. 14. The Treasurer of the Ilouselio'd was intrentcd to acquaint his majesty with the great care and affection of this house to advance and settle bis revenue; and, for that purpose, do humbly desire his majesty that be will give them leave to enter into the debate of his revenue and expellees.

The commons entered into debate concerning the Now Canons made by the late convocation. SirE.Dering, SirBcnj. Rudyard, and Mr. Nathaniel Hemic*, spoke warmly against them: but as these speeches ure long and tedious, and as the principal arguments therein have been fully argued in the foregoing debate* on Grievances, wc purposely omit them.

^(solution vguinst the Canons lately made Ly !lie Convocation."] Dec. 15. After a long deI ate on the Canons, it was resolved, upon the question, nullo controdicente, 1. "That tin* Clergy of England, conventid in any Convocation, or Synod, 6r otherwise, have no power to mnkt ativ constitutions, canons, or acts whatsoever, in matter of doctrine, discipline, or otherwise, to bind the clergy or the hiity of this land, without common consent of parliament." 2. " That the several Constitutions and Canons Ecclesiastical, treated upon by the archbishops of Canterbury and York, presidents of the respective convocations for those provinces, with the rest of the bishops and clergy, and agreed on, with the king's licence, in iheir several synods, begun at London and York, do not bind the clergy or laity of this land, or either of thein."

Dec. 16. It wes further resolved, 1. " That the Canons and Constitutions do contain in them many matters contrary to the king's prerogative, to the fundamental laws and statutes of this realm, to the right of parliaments, to the property and liberty of the subjects, and are masters tending to sedition, and of dangerous consequence." 2. "That the several grants of Benevolence, and Contribution granted to his majesty, by the clergy of the provinces of Canterbury and York, in the several convocations, or synods, holden at London and York, in 1640, are contrary to the laws, and ought not to bind the clergy."

A committee was appointed to prepare the several votes, concerning the new Canons, and to mnke them ready for this house to present to the lords; and to examine and consider who were the promoters of these new Canons, and who the principal actors; and what execution has been made upon them, and by whom; and to consider how far, in particular, the lord abp. of Canterbury has been an actor in all the proceedings of them; and further to examine how far he has been an acttar in the great design of the subversion of the laws of the realm, and of the religion; and to prepare and draw up a Charge against him and such others as shall appear offenders in these particulars. To have power to send for persons, papers, records, books, and witnesses, and to do any other act which they, in their judgments, think fit.

Dec. 17. The Treasurer of the Household informed the house, "That the king, being acquainted by him with the great care and affection of the commons, to advance and settle his majesty's Revenue, doth very graciously interpret the same; and had commanded him to give the house thanks for it in his name. That his majesty doth give the house free leave to enter into the debate of his Revenues and Expences, as is desired; and hath given orders, that all his officers and ministers, from time to time, shall assist the house therein, as occasion shall be."

The late Breaches of Parliamentary Privileges inquired into.] Dec. 18. A committee was appointed to take into consideration the Breaches of Parliamentary Privileges, both in the last parliament, and in that of 3tio Caroli; and, especially, the proceedings against Mr. Hollis, Sir Peter Hayraan, Mr. Strode, Mr. Valentine, Mr. Seldcn, Mr. Walter Long, Sir John Elliot, Sir Miles Hobart, Mr. Crew, Mr.

Bcllasise, Sir John Hotham, Mr. Hampden, Mr. Pym, and Sir Walter Erie, members of either the last pari, or that of Stio Caroli. And they are likewise to consider what reparationi arc fit to be granted to the parties grieved; and to think of some course to prevent the like hereafter; but the committee is first to inquire after, and to consider of the Breaches of Parliament, Stio Caroli, and report tbem to the house.

Jh: I.nuil, Archbishop of Canterbury,char(td with High Treason.] It was resolved upon the quastion, "That a Message be sent to the lords, to accuse Wm. Laud, nrchbisbop of Canterbury, of High Treason, in the name of this house, and of all the commons of England; and to desire that he may be forthwith sequestred from parliament, and be committed. That, within some convenient time, this house will resort to their lordships with particular accusations and Articles against him." Mr. Hollis was appointed to go upte the lords with this message; who, soon after returning, reported, 'That he had delivered it; and that the lord keeper told him the lords had considered of the message, and, accordingly, had sequestred the archbishop from die house, and committed him to the custody of their gentleman usher."—In the Journals of the J.okk there is nothing more particular relating to this affair, except, That when the nrchbisbop was accused there, as is said, he desired leave to speak, and dropped some unguarded eipressions, which he afterwards begged to recant, but was refused. He then desired into go to his house to fetch some papers (hit might enabled him to make his defence, which the house granted, provided he did n»t!»>. but in sight of the gentleman usher, in whose custody he was ordered to remain.

On this occasion, we find a speech made Mr. Grimston. The trial nt large of the archbishop being printed singly, and also in the State Trials, we shall pass it over cursonli; but shall nevertheless give this speech, becau* it exhibits, by way of abstract, tiie whole accusation against that prelate.

Mr. Grimston said:—' Mr. Speaker; There hath been presented to the house a most faithful and exact report of the conference we had with the lords yesterday, together with the opinion of the committees that we employed in the service, that they conceived it fit, that the abp. of Canterbury should be sequestred; and I must second the motion: and, with the favour of this bouse, I shall be bold to offer my reasons, why I conceive it more necessarr we should proceed a little further than the desire of a bare sequestration only.—Mr. Speaker, long introductions are not suitable to weighty businesses: we are now fallen upon the {real man, the abp. of Canterbury. Look upon him as he is in highness, and he is the sty of all pestilential filth, that hath infected tbe start and government of this commonwealth ■ loot upon him in his dependences, and he i* r man, the only man, that hath, raised tnd "J*

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