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and voted a Remonstrance or Declaration, which they intended to prefer to his maj. containing (though palliated with glossing terms) sis well many dishonourable aspersions upon hit majesty and upon the sacred memory of his deceased father, as also dilatory excuses for their not proceeding with the Subsidies, adding thereto also coloured conditions, crossing thereby his maj. 's direction; which Iiis maj. understanding, and esteeming it, as ho ha.l cause, to be a denial of the promised Supply: and finding that no admonitions could nio\e, no reasons or pcrsuasious could prevail (when the time was so far spent that they had put an impossibility upon themselves to perform" their promises, and when they esteemed all gracious messages unto them to be but interruptions) his maj. upon mature advisement, discerning that all further patience would prove fruitless, did, on the 15th of this present June, dissolve this unhappy parliament; •the actios; whereof, as it was to his maj. an une^picssiblc grief, so the memory thereof doth renew the hearty sorrow, which all his good . and well affected subjects will compassionate with him. These passages his maj. hath at the more length, and with tlie true circumstances thereof, expressed and publislied to the world, Ic-t tiiat, which hath been unfortunate in itself, through the malice of the authors of so great a mischief, and the malevolent report of such as are ill affected to the state, or the true religion here professed, or the fears or jealousies of friends and dutiful subjects, might be made more unfortunate in the consequences of it: which may he of worse effect than at f.rst can be well apprehended: and his majesty being best privy to the integrity of his own Jieart, for the constant maintaining of the sincerity and unity of the true religion professed in the church of England, and to free it from the open contagion of Popery, and secret, infection of Schism; of both which, by his public acts and actions, he hath given good testimony, and with a single heart, as in the presence'ot {iod, who can best judge thereof, purposeth resolutely and constantly to proceed in the due execution of either; and observing thesubtilty of the adverse party, he cannot but believe the hand of Joah hath been in this disaster; that the common incendiaries of Christendom have subtilly and. secretly insinuated those things, which unhappily (and, as his maj. hopeth, beyond the intentions of the actors) have caused these diversions and distractions; and yet notwithstanding, hjs most excellent maj. lor the comfort of his good and well-affected subjects, in whose loves he doth repose himself w ith confidence, and cstcemcth it as his greatest riches; for the assuring of his friends and allies, with whom, by God's assistance, he will not break, ill tiie substance of what he hath undertaken: for the discouraging of his adversaries, and the adversaries of his cause, and of his dominions and religion; hath put on this resolution, which he doth hereby publish to all tiie w orld; that as God hath made

him king of this great people, and large dominions, famous in former ages both by land and sea, and trusted him to be a father and protector both of their persons and fortunes, and a defender of the faith and true religion, so he will go on cheerfully and constantly in the defence thereof; and, notwithstanding so many dithcultios and discouragements, will take his sword and sceptre into bis hand, and not expose the persons of the people committed to his charge to the unsatiable desires of the king of Spain, who hath long thirsted alter the Universal Aionarehy, nor their consciences to the | yoke of the 1'ope of Home: and that at home j he will take that care to redress the just grievances of his good subjects, as shall be every way fit for a good king.—And in the mean time his maj. doth publish this to all his lori-ig subjects, that they may know what to think with truth, avid speak with duty, of hi*' majesty's actions and proceedings in these»two last dissolved parliaments."

"Thf Intended Remoxstrance Of Tub Commons.

| " Most Gracious Sovereign, We your loyal and faithful subjects, the commons assem| bled by your majesty's most royal authority in ( this present pari, having, with all dutiful alI lection, from the time of our first meeting, earnestly i udcavoured to proceed speedily in those affairs, that might best and soonest conduce to ; our dispatch of the intended .Supply of your I majesty's great designs, to the enlargement of your support, and to the enabling of ourselves, and them whom we represent, to the full and timely performance of the same; have notwithstanding, by reason of divers misinformations, interruptions, and oilier preventions, been- hitherto so retarded in the prosecution of these affairs, that we now thought it a necessary part of our most, humble duties thus to declare both those interruptions and preventions, with the true, original, and continual cause of them; as also, our most earnest devotion to the parliamentary service of your most excellent maj. and to the careful safety and defence of your dominions, crown and dignity: and we most humbly, therefore, beseech your most excellent maj. to be graciously pleased here to cast your eye on some particulars, that have relation, as well to your lirst parliament, us to this; out of which weeannot doubt, but that your great goodness may receive an ample satisfaction touching our most loyal and faithful intentions.—In the first pari, of the first year of your majesty's most happy reign over us, the commons then assembled, after they had cheerfully presented to your maj. as the first fruits of their affections, 2 entire Subsidies, were exceedingly pressed by the means of the duke of Buckingham, and for his own ends, as we conceive, to enlarge that Supply; which when he conceived would not be there effected, he procured, for the same ends, from your maj. an adjournment of the pari, to the city of Oxford^ where the commons, then taking into just consideration the great mischief's which this kingdom variously hath suffered, and that chiefly by reason of the exorbitant power, and frequent misdoings of the said duke, were entering iuto a parliamentary course of examination of those mischiefs, power, and misdoings, but no sooner was there any mention made of his name to this purpose, but that he, fearing lest his actions might so have been too much laid open to the view of your most excellent inaj. and to the just censure that might then have followed; presently, through his misinformations to your maj. of the intentions of your said commons, (as we bare just cause to believe) procured a dissolution of the said pari.: and afterwards, alto, in the same year, througli divers misrepurts made to your niaj. iu his behalf, touching some members of the said commons, who had more particularly drawn his name jnto just question, and justly professed themselves averse to his ends there, procured, as we cannot but conceive, the said members to be made sheriffs of several counties tor this year that followed, * to the end that they might have all been precluded from bein;* chosen members of the present pari, lest they should again.have there ijxstioncd him; and, by the like practice also, (as we are persuaded) he procured, soon after the said dissolution, anothcrf member of the laid house, because he had justly professed himself against his ends, to be sent as secretary of your majesty's last fleet, hereby indeed to punish him, by such drawing him from his [ ra-tice of the law, winch was his profession, under colour of an honourable employment. —It pleased your maj. afterwards, in Feb. last, to call this present pari.; wherein, though iiuue of those, whom the said duke had so procured to be made high sheriffs, have sate as members; vet we (tinning in ourselves the lueaffection, lirst, to the service of your maj. a>id next, to the good of the commonwealth) took into serious consideration several propositions; how, fur the safety and happiness of )'our mnjesty's kingdoms and allies, we might enlarge your supports, and add to the military itrcngth without charge to the poorer sort of Tour subjects; and give a larger Supply to your maj. for your instant and pressing occasions, than hath ever yet, but once, been given "i parliament: whereupon, for the enabling of ourselves, and those whom we represent, we conceirc it, first, necessary to search into the causes of those mischiefs, w hich this your kingdom suffereth, and divers of the Grievances that over-burden your subjects; without doing of which, we coultl neither be faithful to your nraj. nor to the country that doth trust and employ us; ns yonr royal father also, of blessed memory, adiaonished the house of commons in the itb session of his first pari. In this consideration we found, that the most pressivu and

* Sir Kdward Coke, and others. Sue p. 45. t Mr. Glanvile, one of the managers of the Charge against t|je duke.

comprehensive mischief that we suffered, wa» fundamentally settled in the vast power and enormous actions of the said duke ; being such, that by reason of his plurality of offices, all gotten by ambition, and some for money, expressly against the laws of your realm; lus breach of trust in not guarding the seus; his high injustice in the admiralty; Ins extortion; his delivering over the ships of this kingdom into the hands of a foreign prince; his procuring the compulsory buying of honours for his own gain; his unexampled exhausting of the treasures and revenues of the kingdom; his transcendent presumption in that unhappy applying of physic to your royal father oi blessed memory, a few days before his death; and soma other his offences carefully and maturely examined by us: we made a parliamentary Charge of the same matters and offences against him to the lords, then by your maj. assembled in parliament; thero expecting some remedy by a speedy proceeding against him: but, may it please your most excellent maj. not only during the time of our examination of the matters and offences of the same Charge, we were diversly interrupted and diverted by Messages procured, through misinformation, from your maj. which, with most humble duty and reverence, we did ever receive, whence it first fell out, that so not only much time was spent amongst us, before the same Cliargc was perfected; but also, within two days next after the same Charge was transmitted by us to the lords, upon untrue and malicious misinformations, privately,and against1 the privilege of parliaments, given to your nmj. of certain woids supposed to have been spoken by sir D. Dilms and sir John Elliot, kuts, (two of the members of our house, in their service of the transmitting of the said Charge, both of them having been especially employed in the chairs of committees with us, about the examination of the said matters and oti'ences) they were both, by your maj.'s command^ committed to close imprisonment in the I'owerj of London, their lodgings presently searched, and their papers there found, presently taken away; by reason whereof, not only our known privileges of parliament were infringed, but w* ourselves, that upon lull hope of speedy course of justice against the said duke, were preparing with all dutiful affection to proceed to thedi?patch of the Supply, and other services to your maj. were wholly, as the course and privilege of parliament bind us, diverted for divers day^ to the taking into sole consideration soma courses for the ratifying and preservation of the privileges so infringed: and we think it ourduties, most rightly to inform hereby your most excellent maj. of the course held in the commitment of the two members: for whereas, by yoirr maj.'s warrant to your messengers for the arresting them, ybu were pleased to command that they should repair to their lodgings, and there take them; your maj.'s principal secretary, the lord Convvay, gave the said me«engerty nj thoy

wealth, strength, and honourof this your king- 1 expected from them such a large and cheerful dom, and the support of your friends and allies testimony of their loyalty, ;as might be acabroad: and we doubt not but through God's | ceptable to himself and exemplary to his peoMesuag, as voo are the best, so shalfyou ever ) pie.—From the city of London the king debe the best-beloved, and greatest monarch, that t manded a I-oan of 100,000/. which, all excuses ever sat on the royal throne of this famous kingdom."

A Proclamation for burning the foregoing Remonstrance.'] Soon after the king published a Proclamation, taking notice of the foregoing Remonstrance, intended to have been presented to him: " Wherein, he said, were many things contained to the dishonour of himself and his royal father of blessed memory; and whereby, through, the sides of a peer of this realm, they wound their sovereign's honour: as also, that some members of that house, illaffected to his sen ice, to vent their own passious against that peer, and to prepossess the world «ith an ill opinion of him, before his cause was heard in a judicial way, had, before-hand, scattered copies of that intended Declaration, thercbv to detract from their sovereign: wherefore his maj. for the suppressing of this insuperable wronn to himself, doth command, upon pain of his indignation and high displeasure, all persons of whatsoever quality, who have, or shall have hereafter, any copies or notes of the said Remonstrance, or shall come to the view thereof, forthwith to burn the same; that the memory thereof may he utterly abolished, and never give occasion to his maj. to renew the remembrance of that, which, out of his grace and goodness, be would gladly forget."

Projects for raising Money, by Loans, Benevolences, SfC."\ Deprived of any parliamentary Aids, through the late dissolution, the court fell upon such projects, as had been practised in like cases, for raising money without them. By nn order of council, it was declared, That all customs, duties and imposts on all goods anil merchandizes exported and imported, which, for many ages had been continued, and esteemed a principal and necessary part of the revenue of the crown, should be levied and paid. Nevertheless, it was intended to have this settled by parliament, as it had been, from time to time, formally royal successions; but the dissolution of the last prevented it, before the matters therein treated of could be brought to perfection. Therefore, an instrument was to pass, under the great jeal, to authorize these levies, until, as in former times, it might receive nn absolute settlement by parliament. The forfeitures, also, arising to the crown by the execution of the laws against Jesuits, Priests, and Popish Recusants, were dedicated to the pressing necessities of the stnte. A proclamation was published, declaring the king's resolution to make his revenue certain; by granting his lands, as well copyhold as otherwise, to be holdcn in feefarm. The king sent to the. nobility to acquaint them, That according to the custon;s of former times, upon pressing occasions, the crown had ever had recourse to raise contribution: on ths subject; and therefore he now

set aside, v. as ordered by the council to be complied with. And, all the sea-port towns behig ordered to lit out ships for the guarding of their own coasts, the city w as appointed to set forth 20 of the best ships that lay in the river; with all manner of tackle, sea stores and ammunition, manned and victualled for 3 months. There were likewise privy-seals issued to diver* persons; to others, the old way of Bencvoleuca was proposed.

Persons committed to Prison fur refusing the Loan). This Loau however did by no means pass current through the kingdom; on the contrary, it bred a great deal of disturbance and laitl the foundation for more Grievances to be complained of next parliament. Several persons, and some of good rank and quality, refused to subscribe to it; these in their several counties, were bound over, by recognizance, to make their appearance at the council-table; from whence, (livers of them were committed to different prisons, not in their own, but in distant counties: the names of many of these gentlemen are preserved in Rushworth, and arc too remarkable to be slightly passed over. Sir Tho. Wentworth, (afterwards earl of Strafford,) and Geo. Ratcliffe, esq. (afterwards sir George) Yorkshire gentlemen, were sent for by messengers, and removed out of York, into Kent. Sir Walter Karl and sir John Strangewaves, Dorsetshire men, were confined in Bedfordshire. Sir Tho. Grantham, and others e>f Lincolnshire, in Dorsetshire. Sir John lleveningham, and others of Suffolk, into Somersetshire. Rd. Knightly, esq. and others of Northamptonshire, intoSouthampton andWiltshire. Sir Natb. Rarnardiston, of Suffolk, and William Coriton, esq. of Cornwall, in Sussex. Sir Harbottle Grimstone of Kssex, and sir Jiob. Point/, were secured in Northamptonshire. John Hampden, esq. and others of Bucks, were secured in Hampshire: and the like course was taken with the gentry of-other counties, who refused the Loan. The council also ordered, that all those refractory persons before named who are appointed, by his niaj.'s command to their several commitments, shall presently obey the order of the board sent with their messenger in that behalf, or he committed close prisoners; any pretence of inability, want of cf.-nveniency, or other excuse whatsoever notwithstanding.

Sir-Joint Elliot's Petition, from the Gatehouse, on his Imprisonment.] Many of those gentlemen were afterwards sent for by pursuivants, out of those counties where they had been confined by order of the council, and committed to sovcral prisons; some to the Fleet, som« to the Marshalsea and Gatehouse, and others remained in custody of the messengers: from the latter sir John Elliot, who had rendered himself so remarkable, as a Manager against

the duke of Buckingham (seep. 122.) sent the following Petition to the king.

"To die King's most Excellent Majesty. The Humble Petition of Sir John Elliot, Knt. Prisoner in the Gatehouse, concerning the Loan, Sheweth,

That your poor suppliant, affected with sorrow and unhappiness, through the long sense of your majesty's displeasure; willing, in every act of duty and obedience, to satisfy your msj. ef the loyalty of his heart, thnn which be hath nothing more desired; and that tbere may not remain a jealotisie in your royal breast, that any stubbornness of will hath been the motive of his forbearing to condescend to the said Loan: low at your highness's foot, with a sad yet a faithful heart, for an apology to your clemency and gnce, he now presumes to offer up the reasons tUt induced him ; which he conceiveth necessity of his duty to religion, to justice, and to your maj. did inforce.—The rule of justice he ['ikes to be the lnw; the impartial arbiter of government and obedience, the support and strength of majesty, the observer of that j ustice by which subjection is commanded: this and religion, added to this pow er not to be resisted, bind up the conscience in an obligation to that rule, which, without open-prejudice and violence of these duties, may not be impeached. In this particular, therefore, of the Loan, being desirous to be satisfied how far the obligation might extend; and resolving where he was left master of his own, to become servant to your will, he had recourse unto the laws, to be informed by them; which, in all humility, he submitted) to your mostsacred view in the collections following.—In the time of Edw. I. he findcth that the commons of that age were so tender of their liberties, as they feared even their own free acts and gifts might turn them to a bondage of their heirs. Wherefore it was desired and granted, "That for no business, such manner of aids, taxes, nor prizes, should be taken, but by common assent of the realm, and for the common profit thereof."* The like was in force by the same king, and by two other laws, again enacted: ' that no tallage or *id should be taken or levied, without the good-will and assent of the archbishops, bishops, earls, barons, knights, burgesses, and other freemen of the land.' And that prudent and magnanimous prince, Edw. 3, led by the same *i*dom, having granted: "that the greatest gilt given in parliament, for the aid and speed of his matchless undertaking against France, should not he had in example, nor fnll to the prejudice of the subject in time to come; did likewise add, in confirmation of that right, That they should not from thenceforth be grieved to sustain any charge or aid, but by the common absent, and that in parliament. And more particularly upon this point, upon a Petition of the t'ommons afterwards in parliament, it was esta.

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blished: That the Loans, which were framed to the king by divers persons be released; and that none, henceforth, he compelled to make such Loans against their wills, because it is against reason, and the franchises of the land; and that restitution be made to such as had paid such Loans.' And by another ;tct in the time of it. 3. it was ordained:" That the subject in no wise be charged with any stidi charge, exaction, or imposition tailed a Benevolence, nor such like charge; and that suchlike exactions be damned and annulled for ever.— Such were the opinions of those times, for all these Aids, Benevolences, Louns, and such like charges, exacted from the subject not in parliament; which they held to be grievances contrary to their liberties, and illegal: and so pious were their princes in continuation of their liberties, that having secured them for the present, by such frequent laws and statutes, they did likewise by Lhem provide for their posterity, and in some so strictly, that they bound the observation with acursu, as in that of 95. Edw. [. and also under pain of excommunication; which w as to be denounced against all those that violate or break them: all which acts extend to us. And these reasons he presents to your maj. as the first motive taken from the law.— There are others also, which, in his humble apprehension, he conceived from the action itself, which ho likewise tenders to your most excellent wisdom: 1st. That the carriage and instructions, accompanied with the authority of the great seal, imported a constraint; sucli requests to subjects being tacit and implied commands, and so preventing that readinessand love, which, in a free way, would have far exceeded those demands; whereas the wonted Aids given to your happy ancestors were 'ex spontanea voluntate & charitate populi,' v\ hereby they made that conjunction of their hearts at home, which wrought such power and reputation to their acts abroad.—And whereas the firmest obligation of that readiness and love, ii the benignity of princes, giving and preserving to their people their just rights and liberties; which, to this kingdom, are derived from the clcmencv and wisdom of your progenitors, to whom there is owing a sacred memory for them: he could not, as he feared, without pressure to these immunities, become an actor in this Loan; which, by imprisonment and restraint, was urged, contrary to Grants of the Great Charter, by so many glorious and victorious kings so many times confirmed; being therein most confident of your maj. that never king that reigned over us, had, of his own benignity and goodness, a more pious disposition to preserve the just libeilies of his subjects, than your sacred self.—Though he was well assured by your maj.'s royal promise, whote words he holds as oracles of truth, that it should not become a precedent, during the happiness of your reign ; (the long continuance whereof is the daily subject of his prayers) yet he conceived from thence a fear, that succeeding ages might thereby take ucca=iun for P

posterity to strike at the very property of their goods, contrary to the piety and intcution of vour map so graciously expressed.—And these being the true grounds and motives of his forbearance to the said Loan, (shewing such inconveniences in reason, and representing it an act contradicting so many of jour laws, and most of them by the most prudent and happiest of our princes granted; which could not, without presumption beyond pardon in your suppik ant, in taking to himself the dis| eusatiou of those laws, so piously enacted by them, he violated or impeached, in the least degree;) in the fulness of all submission and obedience, as the apology of his loyalty anil duty, he lowly oilers to your most sacred wisdom, for the satisfaction of your maj.: most humbly praying your maj. will be graciously pleased to take them into your princely consideration; where when it shall appear, (as ho doubts not, hut from hence (t will to your deep judgment,) that no factious humour, nor any disaffection, lot! on by stubbornness of will, hath herein stirred or moved him ; but the just obligation of his conscience, which binds him to the service of your maj. in the observance of your laws; he is hopeful, presuming upon the piety and justico of your maj. that your maj. according to your innate clemency and goodness, will he pleased to restore him to your favour, and his liberty; and to afford him the benelit of those laws, which, in all humility, he craves.''

But notwithstanding this extraordinary Petition, sir John Elliot continued a prisoner in the Gate-house, till the general order of discharge came. Sir Peter 1 layman also, refusing to part with Loan-Money, was called before the lords of the council, who charged him with refractoriness, and with an unwillingness to serve the king; and told him if he did not pay, he should be put upon service. Accordingly they commanded him to go into his majesty's service into the Palatinate: and having first settled his estate, he undertook and performed the journey, and afterwards returned uito England.—Notwithstanding the vigorous opposition to this method of raising money by Loans, a considerable sum was raised, and some things were done with it, which tended to public service : though what sums these exactions raised in the kingdom is not particularly mentioned.—The next year, a large licet w.is fitted out, and had a numerous laud army on board, designed for a descent on the Isle of Mice in France, under the conduct of the duke of Buckingham. The bad success of that enterprise is too well known to need a repetition; and this joined to a general defeat of the king of Denmark's army, by count Tilly, near Luttern in Germany, gave a mortal stroke to the Protestant cause in those parts, and rendered the fate of the Palatinate still more desperate. So that, both at home and abroad, Charles's affairs were then in a melancholy situation. For, when the unfortunate action at Rhee was know n over tire kingdom, the cry of the people was to great, and the king's necessities no

pressing, that it was in every man's mouth, ' A parliament must needs be summoned.' Th* nation had now provoked two potent neighbouring kings to be their enemies, the coasts aud ports were unguarded, the able commanders worn out, or not employed, and the marine affairs were every where in as bad a condition as possible.

.Sir li. Cotton's Advice to the Council to call a Parliament.] Under those unhappy circumstances, the king held a grand council at Whitehall, how to extricate himself and the nation out of such difficulties. To this council the famous historian aud antiquary, sir Robert Cotton, was culled; whose Advice to the lords there present, contains a succinct, though general history of these times, along with the best advice how to settle matters tor the future, which we shall give in bis own words t for, though not strictly parliamentary in itself, yet it induced the king and council to believe there v\ as no other way, and obliged tliem to thiuk of culling, a pai l lament for the general good of the nation,*

"My lords; as soon as the bouse of Austria had incorporated itself into the house of Spain, and, by their new discoveries, gotten to themselves the wealth of the Indies; they began to affect, aud have ever since pursued, a fifth monarchy.—The emperor Charles would first have laid the foundation thereof in Italy, by surprising Rome: but from this he was hindered by the force and respect of religion, Hen. 8. being made caput foederis against him. He then attempted it in High-Germany, practising by faction and force, to reduce those petty states to his absolute power. In this Hen. 8. again prevented him, by tying the Lutheran princes under his confederacy and assistance. His son, Philip 2, pursued the same ambition in the Nether-Germany, by reduction whereof he intended to make his way further into the other. This the late queen of England interrupted, by siding with the aillicted people on the one part, and making herself head of the protectant league with the princes on the other side; drawing in, as a secret of state, the countenance of France, to give the more reputation and assistance to thcia, and security to herself.—Spain seeing his hopes thus fruitless by these unions aud sleights, began first to break, if he might, the amity of France au<l England: but liniling the common danger to he so lust a tyc, he raiseth up a party in tiint kingdom of his own, by the which the French king was so distressed, that, had uot the English council aud assistance relieved him, Spain bad there removed that next and greatest obstacle of his ambition.—His council now teljs him, from these examples, that the way to his great; work is impassable, so king as England lies a lett in his w ay; and adviseth him, that the removal of that obstacle be the first of his intents. This drew on those often secret practices

* From his Posthumous Works, published by James How vl^ cvy.

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