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all the common soldiers, and entertained such as were willing to serve him, and required only from the rest an oath not to serve against him.

“ And his Majesty supposes such most apt and likely to maintain their power by blood and rapine, who have only got it by oppression and injustice. That his is vested in him by the law; and by that only (if the destructive counsels of others would not hinder such a peace, in which that might once again be the universal rule, and in which religion and justice can only flourish) he desires to maintain it; and if peace were equally desired by them as it is by his Majesty, he conceives it would have been proper to have sent him such a paper as should have contained just propositions of peace, and not an unjust accusation of his councils, proceedings, and person. And his Majesty intends to march to such a distance from his city of London as may take away all pretence of apprehension from his army that might hinder them in all security from yet preparing them to present to him; and there will be ready either to receive them, or to end the pressures and miseries which his subjects (to his great grief) suffer through this war by a present battle.”

Other declarations and replies followed between the King and the Parliament, but the unfortunate conflict at Brentford and its consequences had shaken confidence, and given fresh cause for dispute, and peace was no nearer at hand.

The King took up his winter quarters at Oxford. Marlborough was captured by the King's forces under Wilmot in the month of December, and a few days later the Parliamentary troops gained an advantage over a small force under the command of Lord Grandison near Winchester.?

"Lords' Journals, vol. v. p. 431.

Hist. Reb. vol. iii. pp. 340-3.

The King now took every means to strengthen his position. Along letter, explanatory of his present condition and in justification of his conduct, was addressed to the Privy Council of Scotland, to counteract the effect of the declaration addressed by the Parliament to that kingdom. Money was raised for the payment of the troops: and those who had attached themselves to the King's cause showed their loyalty by large contributions of money and plate. The Parliament was no less active, nor were there wanting instances as striking on their side of disinterested devotion to the cause they had espoused. Hostilities and negotiations were carried on, but neither victory was gained nor peace concluded. Indeed, the history of this period is so strange a mixture of legal discussion and military tactics, that it can hardly be understood or fairly judged without as careful a perusal of the journals of Parliament as of the details of military operations.

The life of a Secretary of State must always be closely interwoven with the history of his times, but the scanty materials from which are to be drawn any further details respecting Lord Falkland belong rather to personal than to historical narrative. During the residence of the Court at Oxford this winter, an incident occurred which shows that, however little personal attachment subsisted between the King and Lord Falkland, they were at least on terms of some familiarity.' The King had been speaking to Lord Falkland in terms of kindness of Mr. Hyde; and, remarking on the

· Clarendon, · Life,' vol. i. p. 136.

great peculiarity of his style of writing, he said that “ he should know anything written by him, if it were “ brought to him by a stranger amongst a multitude “ of writings by other men." Lord Falkland expressed his doubt as to his Majesty being able to do so, adding that “he himself, who had so long conversation and “ friendship with him, was often deceived, and often “ met with things written by him of which he could “ never have suspected him upon the variety of argu“ ments." The King replied, he “ would lay him an “ angel, that, let the argument be what it would, he “should never bring him a sheet of paper (for he “ would not undertake to judge of less) of his writing, “ but he would discover it to be his.”

Lord Falkland accepted the wager, and neither he nor the King mentioned it to Mr. Hyde Shortly afterwards Lord Falkland brought several unopened letters, together with the diurnals and speeches which were daily printed in London and sent to Oxford. Two speeches attracted the King's attention, the one by Lord Pembroke in favour of an accommodation, and the other by Lord Brooke against it. He remarked that he did not think Pembroke could have spoken at such length ; " though,” added he, “ every word was “ so much his own that nobody else could make it.” Lord Falkland whispered in his ear, there being other

· The King appears to have been critical as to style, and, to judge by his observations on Lord Falkland's manner of writing, he was not always well pleased at his own being altered : “ For," said he, “my Lord “ Carleton ever brought me my own sense in my own words ; but my Lord “ Falkland most commonly brought me my instructions in so fine a dress “ that I did not always own them.”-- Mem. of Sir Ph. Warwick, p. 72.

persons in the room, and claimed an angel; “which,” says Lord Clarendon, “his Majesty in the instant “ apprehended, blushed, and put his hand in his pocket, “ and gave him an angel, saying, he had never paid “a wager more willingly, and was very merry upon “ it.” 1

Life, vol. i. p. 137.-It seems that Mr. Hyde not unfrequently amused himself by thus counterfeiting the style of others, and affixing their names to speeches never made by them.

CHAPTER VII.

Story of Lord Falkland and the Sortes Virgilianæ - Its probable origin

- Lord Falkland advises the appointment of Mr. Hyde as Chancellor of the Exchequer — Lord Falkland's change of deameanour and anxiety for Peace — Negotiations for Peace at Oxford — Broken off by the King - Lord Falkland's advice to the King on the Petition of the Scotch Commissioners against Episcopacy - The War is renewed — Successes of the Royalists — Lord Falkland accompanies the King to Bristol.

As the term of Lord Falkland's residence at Oxford is drawing to a close, it may not be improper here to mention a story related by Dr. Welwood: “The " Lord Falkland,” says he, « to divert the King, “ would have his Majesty make a trial of his fortune “ by the Sortes Virgilianæ, which, everybody knows, 6 was an usual kind of augury some ages past. Where“ upon, the King opening the book, the period which “happened to come up was that part of Dido's im“precation against Æneas which Mr. Dryden trans“ lates thus :

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Yet let a race untamed, and haughty foes,
His peaceful entrance with dire arms oppose ;
Oppress'd with numbers in th' unequal field,
His men discouraged, and himself expell’d,
Let him for succour sue from place to place,
Torn from his subjects, and his son's embrace.

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