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to meat; for when in the hospital, where fome of the patients refufed to take their medicines, Domery had no objection to perform this for them; his ftomach never rejected any thing, as he never vomits, whatever be the contents, or however large.
Wishing fairly to try how much he actually could eat in one day; on the 17th of September, 1799, at four o'clock in the morning, he breakfasted on four pounds of raw cow's udder; at half past nine, in prefence of Dr. Johnfton, commiftioner of fick and wounded feamen, admiral Child and his fon, Mr. Fofter, agent for prifoners, and feveral refpectable gentlemen, he exhibited his power as follows:There was fet before him five pounds of raw beef, and twelve tallow candles of a pound weight, and one bottle of porter; thele he finished by half paft ten o'clock. At one o'clock there was again put before him five pounds of beef and one pound of candles, with three bottles of porter; at which time he was locked up in the room, and fentries placed at the windows to prevent his throwing away any of his provifions. At two o'clock, when I again faw him with two friends, he had nearly finished the whole of the candles, and a great part of the beef, but had neither evacuation by vomiting, ftool, or urine; his fkin was cool and pulfe regular, and in good fpirits. At a quarter paft fix, when he was to be returned to his prifon, he had devoured the whole, and declared he could have eat more; but from the prifoners, without telling him we wished to make fome experiment on him, he began to be alarmed. It is alfo to be obferved, that the day was hot, and not ha
Total 16lb. be
fides five bottles of porter.
The eagernels with which he attacks his beef when his stomach is not gorged, resembles the voracity of a hungry wolf, tearing off and fwallowing pieces with canine gree dinefs. When his throat is dry from continued exercife, he lubri cates it by ftripping the greafe off the candles between his teeth, which he generally finishes at three mouthfuls, and wrapping the wick like a ball, firing and all, fends it after at a fwallow. He can, when no choice is left, make fhift to dine on immenfe quantities of raw potatoes, or turnips; but, from choice, would never defire to taste bread or vegetables.
He is in every refpect healthy, his tongue clean, and his eyes lively.
After he went to the prifon, he danced, fmoked his pipe, and drank a bottle of porter; and, by four the next morning, he awoke with his ufual ravenous appetite, which he quieted by a few pounds of raw beef.
He is fix feet three inches high, pale complexion, grey eyes, long brown hair, well made but thin, his countenance rather pleasant, and is good tempered.
The above is written from his own mouth, in the prefence of, and attefted by
Deftauban, French furgeon.
Le Fournier, steward of the hof- 2d. What is his heat by the therpital. mometer?
Revet, commiffaire de la prison. Le Flem, foldat de la fer demi brigade.
Thomas Cochrane, M. D. infpector and furgeon of the prison, and agent, &c. for fick and wounded
Liverpool, Sept. 9, 1799. (A true copy.)
John Bynon, clerk in the office for fick and wounded fea
Queries and Anfwers.
1ft. What are the circumftances of his fleep and perspiration?
He gets to bed about eight o'clock at night, immediately after which he begins to fweat, and that so profufely, as to be obliged to throw off his thirt. He feels extremely hot, and in an hour or two after goes to fleep, which lafts until one in the morning, after which he always feels himself hungry, even though he had lain down with a full ftomach. He then eats bread or beef, or whatever provision he may have referved through the day; and if he has none, he beguiles the time in fmoking tobacco. About two o'clock he goes to fleep again, and awakes at five or fix o'clock in the morning in a violent perfpiration, with great heat. This quits him on getting up; and when he has laid in a fresh cargo of raw meat (to ufe his own expreffion) he feels his body in a good state. He fweats while he is eating; and it is probably owing to this conftant propenfity to exhalation from the furface of the body, that his kin is commonly found to be cool.
I have often tried it, and found it to be of the standard temperature of the human body. His pulle is now eighty-four; full and regular.
3d. Can this ravenous appetite be traced higher than his father?
He knows nothing of his anceftors beyond his father. When he left the country, eleven years ago, his father was alive, aged about fifty, a tall ftout man, always healthy, and can remember he was a great eater; but was too young to recollect the quantity, but that he eat his meat balf boiled. He does not recollect that either himself or his brothers had any ailment, excepting the fmall-pox, which ended favourably with them all. He was then an infant. His face is perfectly smooth.
4th. Is his muscular strength greater or less than that of other men at his time of life?
Though his mufcles are pretty firm, I do not think they are fo full or plump as thofe of moft other men. He has, however, by his own declaration, carried a load of three hundred weight of flour in France, and marched fourteen leagues in a day.
5th. Is he dull, or intelligent?
He can neither read nor write, but is very intelligent and conver fable, and can give a diftinct and confiftent answer to any queftion pat to him. I have put a variety at different times, and in different fhapes, tending to throw all the light poffible on his hiftory, and never found that he varied; fo that I am inclined to believe that he adheres to truth.
6th. Under what circumftances did his woracious difpofition firft come on?
It came on at the age of thirteen, as has been already ftated. He was then in the fervice of Pruffia, at the liege of Thionville: they were at that time much ftraitened for provition, and as he found this did not fuit him, he deferted into the town He was conducted to the French general, who prefented him with a large melon, which he devoured, rind and all, and then an immenfe quantity and variety of other fpecies of food, to the great entertainment of that officer and his faite. From that time he has preferred raw to drefled meat; and when he eats a moderate quantity of what has been either roafted or boiled, he throws it up immediate ly. What is flated above, therefore, refpecting his never vomiting, is not to be underfood literally, but imports merely, that thofe things which are moft naufeous to others had no effect upon his stomach,
There is nothing farther to remark, but that fince the attefted narrative was drawn up, he has repeatedly indulged himfelf in the cruel repafts before defcribed, devouring the whole animal, except the fkin, boues, and bowels; but this has been put a flop to, on account of the fcandal which it juftly
In confidering this cafe, it feems to afford some matters for reflection, which are not only objects of confiderable novelty and curiofity, but interefting and important, by throwing light on the procefs by which the food is digefted and difpofed of. Monftrofity and difeafe, whether in the ftructure of parts, or in the functions and appetites, illuftrate particular points of the animal economy, by exhibiting them in certain relations in which they are not to
be met with in the common courfe of nature. The power of the tomach, in fo quickly diffolving, aflimilating, and difpofing of the aliment in ordinary cafes, muft strike every reflecting perfon with wonder; but the hiftory of this cafe affords a more palpable proof, and more clear conception of thefe proceffes, juft as objects of fight become more fentible and friking, when viewed by a magnifying glais, or when exhibited on a larger fcale.
The facts here fet forth tend allo to place in a ftrong light the great importance of the difcharge by the fkin, and to prove that it is by this outlet, more than by the bowels, that the recrementitious parts of the aliment are evacuated: that there is an admirable co-operation eftablifhed between the fkin and the ftomach, by means of that confent of parts fo observable, and so necelfary to the other functions of the animal economy; and, that the purpofe of aliment is not merely to adminifter to the growth and repair of the body, but by its bulk and peculiar ftimulus to maintain the play of the organs effential to life.
the actual pofition of places, on the currents, nor even on the coafts and their foundings. They have never given particulars of that nature; they fcarcely ever improve by practice: and their vellels are alfo very ill conftructed and badly provided.
The five principal rivers which pour their waters into the Euxine muft neceffarily produce currents, the force and direction of which it would be highly advantageous to know. Thefe rivers convey into it a prodigious quantity of fand; which, being diffufed in all the creeks and bites of the fhores that are moft diftant from their mouths, is drifted by the winds fo as fometimes to form a fort of downs. It has already been remarked that the coaft of the Euxine is generally freep, and formed of layers of rock frequently inclined, and intermixed with ftrata of clay or gravel, covered at top by a good black mould, fometimes ftoney, but extremely well adapted to cultivation. No fand is found any where but at the mouths of the rivers; and the fhores even of the Dniepr and of the Dniefir, on the margin of the fea, are composed of strong land which refifts the pickaxe: whence it may be inferred that the fands which they convey come from a greater diftance, and that, thofe which are lodged in the creeks are carried thither by force of the currents. It has likewife been obferved that the fleep fhores being inceffantly worn by the violence of the waves, the winds, and the currents, the figure of the coaft is changed; which allo produces an alteration in the fand-banks. The deftruction of a cape is fometimes fufficient to choak up a creek, which VOL. XLII.
before afforded a safe anchorage for hips.
The commerce of the Euxine is capable of being rendered more beneficial both to Turkey and to European nations, if it were carried on by more able mariners and more intelligent merchants: but the flownefs of the navigation causes the expenfe of freight to be exceffive; and the unfkilfulness of the merchants, who are alfo deftitute of fpacious warehoufes for their goods, ftill farther enhances the price by retarding the departure of the velfels. It is partly for this reafon that the Turks prefer fmall craft to larger fhips for coafting this fea; loading them indifferently with all goods which offer, without any regard to their ftowage. No public work is executed for the benefit of commerce; and the bad condition of the roads contiguous to the feveral maritime towns, with the want of commodious quays or wharfs for fhipping or unfhipping the cargoes, always occafion additional expenses and prejudicial delays.
The principal exports from this country are, grain (ufually restricted to Conftantinople), wool, timber, tar, hemp, wax, honey, lea ther, cotton, and copper. The articles which might be carried thither are cloths, coffee, fugar, and gold and filver lace: but for this purpose, factories fhould be establish ed at all the fea-ports, protected by the Turkish government, to secure them from the plunder of the paíbas and other fubaltern authorities.
THE iflands comprehended under the appellation of Canary are fituated about the 28th degree of north latitude. The moft confiderable is Teneriffe, and next to it in extent is the great Canary. The rainy feafon fets in about the end of November, and continues with intervals, until the month of March. This period correfponds to winter, though it never fnows, except on the mountains, efpecially the Peak. During the fummer months, not a drop of rain falls near the coaft, where the fky is then invariably clear, and the heat moft intenfe. Yet at Laguna, a village feated on the brow of the mountain, and only a league diftant from Santa Cruz, they have frequent fogs and rain. The clouds melt and diffolve away as they approach the fea. There are no rivers in Teneriffe, but only mountain torrents, called in Spanish barrancos; which, in winter, fweep away much ufeful foil. The traces of volcanic fire every where ftrike the eye. The neighbourhood of Santa Cruz confifts of favage mountains piled together, and bearing herbs only fit for goats to browie, with many of the prickly euphorbia. Higher up the country, the foil is richer, better cultivated, and abundantly productive. It is a fort. of clay refting on calcined rock, which in every diftrict occurs at a certain depth.
Little attention is paid in thefe inlands to the important article of manure. Marle and fea-weed are totally neglected, and animal dung is only laid on the adjoining fields of maize or potatoes; to which it is carried directly from the fiables.
For the food of man, they grow wheat, very little rye, much barley and maize, potatoes, French beans, and ticks, called garbanfos. As provender for cattle, they raise a few lupines, pease, lentils, beans and a fmall quantity of oats. Flax, anifeed, and coriander, are almon the only productions cultivated for the arts. Archil and fumach grow fpontaneoufly. The archil, which is efteemed of fuperior quality, is gathered by the peasants on the naked rocks. Kali, termed in Spanifh vidriera,* grows along the feafhore, and might afford as good foda as that of Alicant. The natives ufe only the feeds, which are feparated from the plant by washing, and, being flightly roafted, are ground, to make a fort of gofio. The cotton fhrub and the fugar cane also thrive in the Canaries, yet are much neglected. Wheat and barley have been cultivated in Teneriffe from the remotest times: but rye, maize, ticks, and potatoes, have been introduced more recently, and in fucceffion. Only 30 or 40 years have pafled fince potatoes were firft planted there, though at prefent they conftitute almoft the chief food of the inhabitants. With refpect to the rotation of crops, and the change of feed, the people fhew extreme ignorance or neglect. Some attention is directed to irrigation, fo neceffary in hot climates. Wheat and barley are town in November and December, and ufually reaped in April and May. The corn is careleffly raked to gether, and carried home in facks, on the backs of affes, mules, or camels. It is then trodden out by cattle, and the grain is feparated
From citrum, glass; being used in that manufacture.