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the General Superintendent may desire and to make recommendations to the Commissioner from time to time as to needed amendments to the law. Each of the four members of the Board, appointed by virtue of this section, shall receive as commensation ten dollars for each regular or special meeting which he shall attend. Any member of the Board who is a non-resident of Manila shall be paid his actual and necessary expenses for travel from his residence to Manila and his return and hotel expenses. Requisitions for the amount required to pay such compensation and expenses shall be made by the General Superintendent. The terms of office of the members of such Board appointed under this section shall be for three years or until their successors are appointed and qualified.
Sec. 5. There shall be a City Superintendent of Schools in the city of Manila who shall receive an annual salary of three thousand dollars ($3,000).
Sec. 6. In each school division established by the General Superintendent of Public Instruction, there shall be a Division Superintendent who shall receive an annual salary of not less than two thousand dollars ($2,000) and not more than twenty-five hundred ($2,500).
The actual expenses of the General Superintendent and the Division Superintendents while traveling or absent from their usual places of residence on official business shall be paid out of the Insular Treasury.
SEC. 8. Except where otherwise provided, provisions of this act describing the duties and powers of division superintendents shall apply to the City Superintendent for Manilla.
Each division superintendent shall, subject to rules prescribed by the General Superintendent, under section 3 (m), appoint the native school teachers to serve in the schools within his district and shall fix their salaries from year to year within the limits prescribed by law. He shall examine the schoolhouses occupied for public instruction within his division with a view to determining their suitableness and hygienic condition. Should the schoolhouse in which any school is conducted appear to the Division Superintendent to be unsuitable and dangerous for the health of the children, and should no other schoolhouse be available, he shall have power, subject to the approval of the General Superintendent, to discontinue such school, and it shall be unlawful thereafter to use the schoolhouse thus condemned for public school purposes. He shall pass upon and accept or reject or modify the plans for any new schoolhouse, proposed by the local authorities to be erected, and for the proposed sight thereof, and shall make report of his action thereon to the General Superintendent of Public Instruction. If the local authorities or the local school board shall be dissatisfied with the decision of the Division Superintendent as to the suitableness of the plans or site of the proposed schoolhouse, they may appeal to the General Superintendent, whose decision shall be final. He shall make careful investigations into the agricultural conditions existing in his division and shall make reports thereon to the General Superintendent of Public Instruction, with a view to aiding the General Superintendent in making recommendations as to the places and number of the agricultural schools hereafter to be estabHe shall see to it by personal visits and by requiring reports from the principal teachers of each school that the curriculum for primary and secondary schools prescribed by the General Superintendent of Public Instruction is complied with. He shall make himself familiar with the supplies and text-books needed in each school in his division, and shall make report of the same at as early a date as possible, in order that they may be contracted for and furnished by the General Superintendent. He shall appoint one half of the local school board in each pueblo in his division, as provided in section 10. He shall have and maintain his residence and an office in one of the large towns in his division, from which all the pueblos in his district can be most conveniently reached. SEC. 10.
There shall be established in each municipality organized under any General Order of the Military Governor or under such municipal code as may be hereafter enacted, a local school board, consisting of four or six members, as the Division Superintendent may determine, in addition to the President or Alcalde of the Municipality, who shall be a member exofficio. One half of the members, except the member ex-officio, shall be elected by the Municipal Council, and the remaining half shall be appointed by the Division Superintendent, and the term of office of all members, holding by appointment or election, shall be two years and until their successors shall have been duly elected or appointed.
SEC. II. The appointed or elected members of the local school board may, after due notice and hearing, be removed at any time by the Division Superintendent, subject to the approval of the General Superintendent of Public Instruction, who shall have power to suspend such membors temporarily. Sec. 12.
It shall be the power and duty of the local school board :(a) To visit from time to time the schools of the pueblo and to report bi-monthly to the Division Superintendent their condition and the attendance of pupils;
(6) To recommend sites and plans to the Municipal Council for school houses to be erected;
(c) Where there are two or more schools in the pueblo, to adopt rules, subject to the supervision of the Division Superintendent, for assigning the pupils of the pueblo to the several schools;
(d) To report annually to the Municipal Council the amount of money which should be raised for the current year by local taxation for school purposes;
(e) To report, whenever it shall deem necessary, directly to the General Superintendent as to the condition of the schools of the pueblo and to make suggestions in respect thereto as may seem to it expedient.
SEC. 13. Every pueblo shall constitute a school district and it shall be the duty of the Municipal Council thereof to make as ample provision as possible by local taxation for the support of all the schools established within its jurisdiction. In exceptional cases, where the topography of the country or the difficulty of communication between parts of the same pueblo
require it, the Division Superintendent may attach a part of one pueblo to the school district of another and shall, in such case, fix the amount which it will be just for the Municipal Council of the former to contribute to the annual school expense of the latter.
Sec. 14. The English language shall, as soon as practicable, be made the basis of all public school instruction, and soldiers may be detailed as instructors until such time as they may be replaced by trained teachers.
SEC. 15. Authority is hereby given to the General Superintendent of Public Instruction to obtain from the United States one thousand trained teachers at monthly salaries of not less than seventy-five dollars ($75) and not more than one hundred and twenty-five dollars ($125.00), the exact salary of each teacher to be fixed by the General Superintendent of Public Instruction in accordance with the efficiency of the teacher in question and the importance of the position held. The necessary traveling expenses of such teachers from their places of residence to Manila shall be paid by the government.
Sec. 16. No teacher or other person shall teach or criticise the doctrines of any church, religious sect or denomination, or shall attempt to influence the pupils for or against any church or religious sect in any public school established under this act. If any teacher shall intentionally violate this section, he or she shall, after due hearing, be dismissed from the public service.
Provided, however, that it shall be lawful for the priest or minister of any church established in the pueblo where a public school is situated, either in person or by a designated teacher of religion, to teach religion for one half an hour three times a week in the school building to those public school pupils whose parents or guardians desire it and express their desire therefor in writing filed with the Principal Teacher of the school, to be forwarded to the Division Superintendent, who shall fix the hours and rooms for such teaching. But no public school teacher shall either conduct religious exercises or teach religion or act as a designated religious teacher in the school building under the foregoing authority, and no pupil shall be required by any public school teacher to attend and receive the religious instruction herein permitted. Should the opportunity thus given to teach religion be used by the priest, minister, or religious teacher for the purpose of arousing disloyality to the United States, or of discouraging the attendance of pupils at such public school, of creating a disturbance of public order, or of interfering with the discipline of the school, the Division Superintendent, subject to the approval of the General Superintendent of Public Instruction, may, after due investigation and hearing, forbid such offending priest, minister or religious teacher from entering the public school building thereafter.
There shall be established and maintained in the city of Manila a Normal School for the education of natives of the islands in the science of teaching. The rules and plan for the organization and of such school and the qualifications of pupils entering the same, shall be determined by the General Superintendent of Public Instruction.
Sec. 18. There shall be established and maintained in the city of Manila a Trade School for the instruction of natives of the islands in the useful trades. The powers and duties of the General Superintendent in respect to this school shall be the same as those provided in the section in respect to the Normal School.
There shall be established and maintained a School of Agriculture in the island of Negros. The Superior Advisory School Board shall recommend to the Commission for final determination a proper site for such school. The powers and duties of the General Superintendent in respect to this school shall be the same as those provided in the section concerning the Normal School. SEC. 20.
The General Superintendent of Public Instruction is authorized and directed, under the supervision of the Military Governor, to procure the making of plans and estimates for the creation of such school buildings as he may deem necessary and practicable at the present time, including a building or buildings for the Normal School in Manila and a building or buildings for a Trade School directed to be established in sections 17 and 18 hereof. The estimated cost of such buildings and their proper equipment shall not exceed four hundred thousand dollars $400,000). Such plans and estimates shall be submitted to the Commission.
Sec. 21. The General Superintendent of Public Instruction is directed to prepare and submit to the Commission thru the Military Governer a statement showing the text-books and other supplies which will be needed for the year 1901, the estimated cost of which shall not exceed the sum of two hundred and twenty thousand dollars ($220,000).
SEC. 22. The sum of twenty-five thousand dollars ($25,000), or so much thereof as may be necessary, is hereby appropriated out of any funds in the Insular Treasury not otherwise appropriated, for the organization and maintenance of the Normal School in Manila for the year 1901.
SEC. 23. The sum of fifteen thousand dollars ($15,000), or so much thereof as may be necessary, is hereby appropriated out of any funds in the Insular Treasury not otherwise appropriated, for the organization and maintenance of the Trade School in Manila for the year 1901.
Sec. 24. The sum of fifteen thousand dollars ($15,000), or so much thereof as may be necessary, is hereby appropriated out of any funds in the Insular Treasury not otherwise appropriated, for the organization and maintenance of the School of Agriculture for the year 1901.
Sec. 25. Nothing in this act shall be construed in any way to forbid, impede, or obstruct the establishment and maintenance of private schools.
SEC. 26. Whenever sums of money are mentioned in this act, they shall be understood to be money of the United States.
This act shall take effect on its passage. Enacted, January 21, 1901.
BY MISS ANNA C. WEEKS,
Principal of the Sacramento Grammar School. 1. CRITICS AND CRITICISM.- Probably none of our citizens realize more fully than do the teachers of our land, the great difference between the attainments and development of the ideal public school graduate, and the actual condition of the youth who leaves Grammar or High School to become a struggling atom in the great mass of humanity that strives, often so fiercely and so blindly, for the accomplishment of some result pathetically out of proportion to the force expended in its achievement. On the other hand, no others know so well how much has really been done for that pupil during the period of his connection with our schools, in the face of what difficulties he has been helped and trained, how many obstacles he and his teachers have together removed from his path, and how unnecessarily both have often been harassed and handicapped.
Perhaps this second aspect of the case is the one that is apt to present itself to our minds when we hear adverse criticism from the many people who consider it their duty and privilege to keep us humble and lowly-minded. Perhaps, also, we are moved to wrath and the use of vigorous language when we have forced upon our notice the fact that the harshest critics of methods and results are those who possess the minimum amount of accurate information concerning either.
If friends are very dear to us, we may be perfectly conscious of their shortcomings; we may deplore them deeply; we may possibly acknowledge their existence to some one whose affection equals our own, and whose power to help may be greater; but we bitterly resent the attitude of those who, knowing and caring nothing about those friends, their trials or their temptations, rejoice in making public their faults and their failures. At such moments all memory of the faults fades from our own minds, and we are ready to do battle with all the world, should the world fail to agree with us. Perhaps this is not far from the position of those who are closely identified with the schools. We are not blind, and we do not mean to be unreasonable, but we are extremely human, and we belong to the schools and the pupils, as they belong to us. They are our own, and we stand ready to defend them against open enemies or lukewarm friends. Could we always feel assured that we were talking to those who so desire the real success of our school system, and of our boys and girls, as to be willing to make some sacrifice of time and thought and money, we should frequently be glad to speak to them of existing defects, and ask of them their counsel and their assistance. To such earnest men and women these words are addressed.
2. PARENTS' RESPONSIBILITY.— The schools are founded and maintained for the proper development of the child — for the cultivation of every side of his many-sided nature. He should be trained so that he may go forth from our hands the ideal citizen, strong of muscle, active of brain, true of heart — brave, and intelligent, and compassionate. It is a noble aim, and we labor strenuously to make the fair vision a reality; hut sometimes when our failures reveal themselves to our saddened eyes where we vain would gaze upon the glory of happy youth and useful manhood or womanhood, with sinking hearts we judge ourselves more severely than could the harshest of our critics. We need then no words from other lips to keep us from undue self-satisfaction, for in the recollection of our own mistakes we tind the misery of our Valley of Humiliation.
And yet there is another side. It is right that we should recognize and accept our responsibility. We have no wish to escape it; but, after all, is it not a joint responsibility, and should we attempt to bear so much of it alone? Is it fair that a handful of teachers should reproach themselves and be blamed by