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expression; she is demure when reproved, but when unobserved steals pencils, kicks her neighbor and makes wry faces. The other children say she is a bad girl. But the teacher, having the sweet faith of Job and Wordsworth, encircles her with a tender arm, and looks into the eyes of mystery. Briar Rose has been told so many times that she is bad, that she thinks she has no other characteristic. On the playground she scratches and fights, and her sobbing victims seek the teacher while she holds her ground red-eyed and defiant. When the wise teacher comes she administers just pity, and a love that conquors while she bathes the heated face; she evokes the good spirit and it leapes into the tearful eye. Under the influence of the charm Briar Rose sobs out a confession that she wishes she was pretty like Rose.

An assurance that she can be as pretty as Rose, if she will be sweet-tempered, has a tendency to remove the ranking envy. Briar Rose is thus furnished with a business capital to work on. What she is make to believe she can be, she becomes.

The same principle may be applied to the ruin wrought in a school by a general lack of mental confidence.

Overgrown boys will announce dispassionately that they can't learn much “'nobow,” especially that grammar. Only actual accomplishment will introduce a lever under such an impediment. The dunce-in-chief will be assured that his well-formed head indicates much untried ability, then the verbs are promptly walked out, trotted out, and kept in such a state of healthful activity that he unwittingly becomes authority on verbs and king over verbals. One battle decides the war, the victor accepts the theory that he has brains, and the belief becomes contageous; others follow to the front.

Many good teachers hold that confidence in the middle grades is of more importance than accuracy, and keep in sight the star of hope rather than the whip of detail.

The child with a headache and an anxious "mama" is a living problem, and there is no answer in the book.” She romps merrily at recess, but her headaches come in convenient tablets for immediate use. She can only be surprised into baving an idea, and only something that makes her forget self entirely will cause her to perform actual mental labor. She has been warned at home against work and every process applied to her must need to be delightfully interesting.

A large group of suffering children are those who study, yet do not study; who perceive, yet do not perceive, and who make forgetfulness an excuse for any deficiency.

This condition is caused by lack of proper training, but there will be no growth till the obstruction is removed. This will be done by instituting the correct mental action, and not by turning the pupil back over the old tiresome ground. With any subject at hand the right process of comparison, reasoning, and arranging can be instituted until the memory is no longer a blank; when apperception comes, the extasy of real achieve ment is the teacher's helpmate. Every step of progress must be celebrated; when a prime number can be distinguished from its composite fellows a jubilee is in order. In this group of children is the one who has never given attention. He has the impression that by some trick, for which she is well paid, the teacher will impart to him an education and that the pupil should not be expected to do the major part of the work. He wishes to set sail on a deep sea in a paper boat. He has no evil intent, he is not stubborn, and a reproof would only arouse self-defense, and then resistance. He cannot be made to lean on the prop of good habit because he has none, but if he should suddenly discover that his mind will work like a pretty piece of mechanism, his pleasure may arouse his force. Let him find delight in small results; the common denominator should be very jolly, and the mixed numbers should merrily change their forms. Also if the teacher should walk out on the floor without a book and actnally memorize with the pupils, many a laggard would come forward to new glories. If a child of this class is neglected he becomes a clod; neither love nor fear will move him.

Love is not a cause, but the effect of right causes; the pupil loves the teacher whose agency improves his personal qualities, as the soldier respects the field officer who has made him a better man and soldier.

Not every teacher is able to read behind the varied faces that appear every Monday morning freshly masked in mystery. Happy is he who can see half of the mental troubles; the moral problems lie deeper yet, for the heart hides its defects as death its secrets.

At best the teacher gropes blindly; the way is dark and confined, and we are glad to hear the singing of birds, and feel betimes a pleasanter air. We are as grateful for what we call good days in school as we are thankful for bits of rare good fortune.

Children are but adults in miniature, and have like passions. Envy, jealously, rivalry, hatred, revenge, timidity, vanity, curiosity, and other emotions appear in school life to worry and perplex the teacher, who is busy explaining the principles of seven or eight subjects to as many grades. The pupils at the same time distrust the teacher or are prejudiced against her (or him) by outside influences; she cannot cross this chasm until she is proved to be a trustworthy friend. She has yet her Canaan to conquer,-the institution of good character with vigorous mental action, thru which struggle she must still believe in the essentially good in humanity. "With thoughts that often lie too deep for tears” she beholds the daily lives of those who may never come of the shadow of despair.

Then the "bad boy" rises up in his strength, prepared to dispell every good faith and hope. He is ill-favored of face and form; his home is without comfort, and his parents are not entitled to his respect.

He bas sulks and passions; he is cruel, profane and resentful, but the teacher is still determined to look back of this to the spark of the divine. She tries to rescue him from ridicule and humiliation. Under bis dull face she sees the emotions that have blinded him. Now he is not beaten, but protected. Under her clear eve his reconstruction goes on. The day comes, when after some lawless conduct, he is detained for a personal interview. He expects reproach, but looks up to see but a tear of pity, as the teacher extends her warm kind hand. She tells him that she is sorry for him, because he seems to be always in trouble and unhappy. Then his own eyes are suddenly wet, the teacher loves him, and the sufferer walks into that safe port. In the light of this new strange sympathy, he sees his way to win the respect of others, — be will no longer be a social outcast. He drops his uncouth mask, the teacher catches his attention, and the mental wheels are started. With care, praise, and appreciation she leads him on, even to the land of the ideal.

Hope and pride flash their lights from his eye, and he finds himself becoming the peer of his fellows. Then truly,

“He is monarch; pomp and joy."
Wait upon the once bad boy.

Educational Expansion.

By Elmer E. Brown.

University of California. The characteristic word of progress during the past year has been expansion. Educational expansion has been the accompaniment of political and industrial expansion.

The great accumulators bave been giving largely to educational institutions. Mr. Carnegie is the most conspicuous example. Gifts for educational purposes during 1900 aggregated about $23,000,000, and for libraries $3,000,000 more.

These great benefactions have raised anew the question of liberty of teaching. It is commonly believed that in the Ross case at Stanford University such liberty of teaching was abridged. But it should be remembered in all such cases that a university, like other institutions, must take account of the co-operative use fulness of its members. It is doubtful whether there is any general or serious danger threatening real and reasonable academic freedom. The discussion of scientific temperance instruction has brought forward the question of freedom of teaching in another form.

New educational movements in the South are closely bound up with political and industrial changes. The negro is making his own contribution to the solution of the problem, and the Tuskegee school bas been one of the centers of educational interest during the year.

The movement toward the establishment of Roman Catholic bigh schools is important.

The organization of American educational systems in Porto Rico and the Philippine Islands is now fairly begun. The movement of American teachers toward those islands is one of the best forms of educational expansion.

American education was well represented at the Paris Exposition, the exhibit winning more awards than that of any other country except France.

It is evident that education is now called on to play not only a greater part, but a relatively greater part than ever before in the progress of civilization. Its expansion is accompanied with more thoro internal organization, closer co-operation with other agencies, and heightened sense of responsibility.

Teachers are Under Educated.


Dean of the Teachers' College, Columbia University. We teachers as a class are the most bigoted and narrow-minded set of people of which I know who are engaged in anything like a profession. We spend our lives always looking down. The lawyer finds himself against men his equal and many times his superior and his wits are being constantly sharpened. He is being constantly subjected to criticism, but it broadens him and lengthens him and deepens bim. The business man, the physician, and the minister find themselves in very much the same position. The teacher in the country all alone day after day with only little children becomes narrower and narrower. It is a life hard to bear because of a lack of association to inspire. It is very much the same in the cities, especially where teachers are specialists in certain subjects. The rut is woru deeper and deeper every day and under the circumstances I wonder that one ever gets out of it.

On the part of many teachers there is a lack of ability to do the work we are expected to do. We are not as a class fitted to do the work. We know it, but we must confess that we would rather it would go no further than these four walls. We as teachers have many faults. We haven't sufficient command of the instruments used in our schools; we don't know enough of the subjects we are teaching. We take up the work the day after we quit being scholars.

There is no curse in the American public school system as great as this lack of preparation on the part of teachers. If we are to make a step forward we must have a more thoro going and a more finished scholarship than ever before. We as teachers must take hold of this question and put our profession where it belongs. We must fight against incompetent teaching as malpractice is fought against in surgery. Teachers of the future must be more fitted for the work professionally and scholastically.

President Benjamin Ide Wheeler, University of California. Your college home again opens its doors to you and bids you heartiest, cheeriest, loving welcome-all of you, women and men, teachers and taught, new-comers and old-comers.

I count it an opportunity worth living for that I can stand here and have a hearing before this vast body of healthy American students who are beginning in all freshness and vigor of hope and zeal a college year. I count it, too, a high and solemn responsibility, and I pray the God of all light and all good sense that I may be spared from saying to you aught that may pervert or mislead, aught that is untrue of balance, aught that the sound experience of the past does not justify and your experience in the future will not confirm, and that I may be able to say to you some few plain, practical things that may help you a little toward a better and more useful living. Each of you has one life to live. The opportunity presented by this particular college year will never be repeated. Misuse it, and it is lost forever, and far worse than lost. You cannot stand still; waste begets waste, gain begets gain. It is law of the universe: “Unto him that hath shall be given, and from him that hath not shall be taken away even that he hath.”

I am well persuaded that every one of you has come here this year with full desire and intent to lay foundations for a successful life-career, - there is no one of suicidal intent among you,—but I am also well persuaded that many of you are blinded to the importance, the overpowering importance of the right use of this year's opportunity. If you do not clearly and firmi know that what you do and what you are this year will play its unerring pirt in determining what you are to be all through this one life of yours, you are blind to a plain fact of experience. I have with my experience with college men and women, that they are almost without qualification just that in life which they are in college.

Recognizing, therefore, my high responsibility for the words I am to speak I ask to give heed to them each according to his individual need and in solemn consciousness of a responsibility to the Giver of all life for the use you shall make of this year and its high opportunity.

A college course may not improperly be regarded as a training for life but it is far safer to treat it simply as a part of life wherein the habits of thinking, acting and being which are to be most useful in life are formed thru healthful and correct activities in connection with materials and processes such as life is to deal with. All correct activity in life is educative. College people are not the only educated people. Education does not cease with school or college. It is indeed only so far as college work is life, that it educates at all. A false notion is that which makes a college a place wherein human beings are temporarily isolated from life to the end that they there may ripen and season like wine in a big dark cellar, or pears in a bureau drawer. So far as the college life removes men from the responsibility to the same diligence, punctuality, respect for property, and orderliness that hold in life at large, is a detriment and uot a help. College students cannot afford to regard themselves as specially privileged members of society or as

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