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prove them.

7 Be not ye therefore partakers with 21 Submitting yourselves one to another them.

in the fear of God. 8 For ye were sometimes darkness, but 22 "Wives, submit yourselves unto

your now are ye light in the Lord: walk as chil- own husbands, as unto the Lord. dren of light:

23 For 8the husband is the head of the 9 (For the fruit of the Spirit is in all wife, even as Christ is the head of the goodness and righteousness and truth ;) Church: and he is the saviour of the body.

10 Proving what is acceptable unto the 24 Therefore as the Church is subject Lord.

unto Christ, so let the wives be to their own 11 And have no fellowship with the un- husbands in every thing. fruitful works of darkness, but rather re- 25 'Husbands, love your wives, even as

Christ also loved the Church, and gave him12 For it is a shame even to speak of self for it; those things which are done of them in 26 That he might sanctify and cleanse secret.

it with the washing of water by the word, 13 But all things that are *reproved are 27 That he might present it to himself a made manifest by the light : for whatsoever glorious Church, not having spot, or wrinkle, doth make manifest is light.

or any such thing; but that it should be 14 Wherefore he saith, 'Awake thou that holy and without blemish. sleepest, and arise from the dead, and Christ 28 So ought men to love their wives as shall give thee light.

their own bodies. He that loveth his wife 15 See then that ye walk circumspectly, loveth himself. not as fools, but as wise,

29 For no man ever yet hated his own 16 Redeeming the time, because the days flesh; but nourisheth and cherisheth it, even are evil.

as the Lord the Church : 17 Wherefore be ye not unwise, but 30 For we are members of his body, of understanding what the will of the Lord his flesh, and of his bones. is.

31 For this cause shall a man leave his 18 And be not drunk with wine, wherein father and mother, and shall be joined unto is excess; but be filled with the Spirit; his wife, and they "two shall be one flesh.

19 Speaking to yourselves in psalms and 32 This is a great mystery: but I speak hymns and spiritual songs, singing and concerning Christ and the Church. making melody in your heart to the Lord; 33 Nevertheless let every one of you in

20 Giving thanks always for all things particular so love his wife even as himself; unto God and the Father in the name of and the wife see that she reverence her husour Lord Jesus Christ;

band. • Or, discovered. * Isa. 60.1.

8 ] Cor, 11. 3.

Mark 10.7. Verse 12. " Done of them in secret."—Whitby, Chandler, and others, think there is here an allusion to the sacred mysteries of the heathen. They were celebrated in the night; and, although none of the initiated might divulge them, on pain of death, it transpired that all manner of abominations were committed on such occasions. This may be included; but the apostle's allusion seems to have a larger and more general application.

18. Be not drunk with wine."—We are disposed to take this as a general dehortation from excess in wine, nnder any circumstances, without supposing it bears any exclusive reference to the notorious Bacchanalia of the heathen. But, no doubt, such celebrations are included, as offering too conspicuous an exhibition of excess, to be by any possibility overlooked or left out of consideration. These dissolute ceremonies were celebrated in honour of the god of wine, and during their continuance, men and women made it a point of religion to intoxicate themselves, and ran tumultuously about the streets, fields, and vineyards, with wild songs and shoutings. Some think that the apostle glances at this last part of such celebrations in the ensuing recommendation of decent and edifying psalmody. Plato says that, during the Bacchanalia, scarcely a sober person could be found in the whole territory of Athens ; and the case seems to have been much the same in other places.

19. Psalms and hymns and spiritual songs.—Some think that these are synonymous terms, associated to strengthen the sense. In itself, this would be not unlikely, since the ancient taste was studious of that accumulation of synonymous and cognate words, which the modern taste rejects and avoids as a blemish. But, in the present case, we are disposed to agree with those who conclude that different things are intended by these words. The psalms (fanfhor), some explain of the Psalms of David only; but it appears rather that, while the term includes these, it also comprehends other compositions, adapted, as they were, to instruments and voices. The hymns (uros) may be presumed to have been other and plainer compositions (chiefly of praise), both in words and as set to music; and were perhaps in one part, if not entirely, without instrumental accompaniments. The spiritual songs (ados), Bloomfield (whom we are following here) agrees with the ancient and best modern commentators in regarding as signifying not merely religious, or spiritual and edifying, in opposition to the carnal and impure songs at the heathen festivals and entertainments, but as being suggested by the Holy Spirit. These, as may be conjectured, were sung by one person alone, like our solo

6 Col. 4. 5. 7 Col. 3. 18. Tit. 2. 5. 1 Pet. 3. 1. 10 Gen, 2. 24. Matt. 19. 25.

11 I Cor. 6. 16.

9 Col. 3. 19.

anthems: it however appears probable, from Col. iii, 16, that they were not always sung, but merely recited; and if sa, these “spiritual songs" would have been something like the strains of the Italian improvisatore, in that sort of cusposition, half poetry and half prose, so characteristic of the Oriental style. The commentators instance the sons d Elisabeth, of Mary, and of Zacharias, recorded by St. Luke, ch. i.

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13 Wherefore take unto you the whole 1 The duty of children towards their parents, withstand in the evil day, and having done

armour of God, that ye may be able to serrants towards their masters. 10 Our life is a warfare, 12 not only against flesh and blood, but all, to stand. also spiritual enemies. 13 The complete armour 14 Stand therefore, having your loins girt of a Christian, 18 and how it ought to be used.

about with truth, and having on the breast21 Tychicus is commended.

plate of righteousness; CHILDREN, obey your parents in the Lord : 15 And your feet shod with the preparafor this is right.

tion of the Gospel of peace; 2 'Honour thy father and mother; which 16 Above all

, taking the shield of faith, is the first commandment with promise; wherewith ye shall be able to quench all the

3 That it may be well with thee, and thou fiery darts of the wicked. mayest live long on the earth.

17 And take the helmet of salvation, and 4 And, 'ye fathers, provoke not your chil- the sword of the Spirit, which is the word dren to wrath: but bring them up in the of God : nurture and admonition of the Lord.

18 Praying always with all prayer and 5 Servants, be obedient to them that are supplication in the Spirit, and watching your masters according to the flesh, with thereunto with all perseverance and supplifear and trembling, in singleness of your cation for all saints; heart, as unto Christ;

19 "And for me, that utterance may be 6 Not with eyeservice, as menpleasers; given unto me, that I may open my mouth but as the servants of Christ, doing the will boldly, to make known the mystery of the of God from the heart;

Gospel, 7 With good will doing service, as to the 20 For which I am an ambassador in Lord, and not to men:

bonds: that 'therein I may speak boldly, 8 Knowing that whatsoever good thing as I ought to speak. any man doeth, the same shall he receive of 21 But that ye also may know my affairs, the Lord, whether he be bond or free. and how I do, Tychicus, a beloved brother

9 And, ye masters, do the same things and faithful minister in the Lord, shall make unto them, "forbearing threatening: know known to you all things: ing that 'your Master also is in heaven; 22 Whom I have sent unto you for the 'neither is there respect of persons with him. same purpose, that ye might know our

10 Finally, my brethren, be strong in the affairs, and that he might comfort your Lord, and in the power of his might.

hearts. 11 Put on the whole armour of God, that 23 Peace be to the brethren, and love with ye may be able to stand against the wiles of faith, from God the Father and the Lord the devil.

Jesus Christ. 12 For we wrestle not against flesh and 24 Grace be with all them that love our blood, but against principalities, against Lord Jesus Christ 'in sincerity. Amen. powers, against the rulers of the darkness of this world, against spiritual wickedness Written from Rome unto the Ephein high places.

sians by Tychicus. 1 Col. 3. 20. 2 Exod. 20. 12. Deut. 5. 16. Ecclus. 3. 8. Matt. 15. 4. Mark 7.10. 3 Col. 3. 21. 4 Col. 3. 22. Tit. 2.9. 1 Pet. 5 Or, moderating. Some read, both your and their master. 7 Wisd. 6. 7. Ecclus. 35. 19. Rom.2. 11.

8 Or tricked spints. 9 Or, heavenly. 10 Or, having overcome all. 11 Col. 4.3. 2 Thess. 3. I. 12 Or, in a chain.

13 Or, thereof.

14 Or, with incorruption. Verse 11. Put on the whole armour of God.”—See the note and cut at 2 Cor. vi. There can be no question that, as there stated, the allusions to armour and arms in the New Testament have a particular reference to the appointments of the Roman soldiers, who were in those times dispersed everywhere in the countries and towns in which the sacred writers lived, or which they visited, and to which they wrote. "The cut will furnish a general illustration of the kind of armour and arms to which the apostle alludes in the ensuing specification; and for ample illustrations, pictorial and literary, of the several articles mentioned in the enumeration, we may more particularly refer to the copious notes on these subjects which have been given in the Old Testament.

14. Having your loins girt about with truth.”—It is not sufficient to explain this as an allusion to the belts with which the flowing robes of the Orientals required to be girded up for any active employment,” (Bloomfield.) For all



the allusions being to "armour," this must be comprehended as part of the "whole armour," which the apostle exhorts the Christian warrior to put on. It was therefore the military girdle, which was not only one of the most ornamental parts of military equipment, but was also important for defence, covering, as it did, the joints of the armour, keeping the whole compact and firm, as well as strengthening the loins of those who wore it. See the note on 1 Sam. xvii. 5.

Breastplate."-See the note on 1 Sam. xvii. 5.

15. “ Your feet shod,&c.—Here military sandals or boots are classed with armour, the propriety of which will appear from the note and cuts under Ruth iv. 8. If, with some commentators, we suppose the reference is to firmness of standing, as in the base or foundation of an edifice, the apostle may be well imagined to have had in view those military caligas which were furnished with spikes, to enable those that wore them to stand firm and unmoved. Or if, with others, the allusion is supposed to be merely to the defence of the feet from the roughness of the way, and from the designs of enemies, who were wont to throw caltrops into the fields and to set spikes in the ground, to impede the march and wound the feet of the soldiers—then we may well conclude the text to bear a reference to the boots, greaves, or sandals, which, to defend the feet from such annoyance, were composed of, or furnished with, brass, iron, or other metals. Specimens, serving to illustrate either explanation, will be found in the cuts under Ruth v., and to the note there we may also again refer.

16. “ Shield.” –See the note on Judges v. 8.

Fiery darts.”—This is an evident allusion to the arrows and javeling which, being charged with combustible matters and set on fire, were discharged against the enemy. These were easily extinguished if opposed by a shield; for while on this, being covered with metal, the fire could take no effect, we learn from Arrian that these “ fiery darts” were easily extinguished by any rapid or sudden jerk; for they had no great force, as, if arrows, they were necessarily discharged from a slack bow, as the fire went out if a tight one were employed. It was also necessary that, in order to have their destined effect, they should meet some soft substance in which they might fix. Hence, on both grounds, we see the peculiar propriety with which the apostle describes these missiles as being extinguished by a shield. These fiery darts, whether as fire-bearing arrows or javelins, were used both to distress and injure the persons of the enemy, or to set their tents and wooden buildings on fire. These missiles were, in their more simple form, twined round with tar and pitch, and discharged in a burning condition: but the more complete and injurious weapon, is described by Ammianus Marcellinus (l. xxiii. 4), as a hollowed reed, to the lower part of which, under the point or barb, was attached a round receptacle, made of iron, for combustible materials, so that such an arrow had much resemblance to a distaff. The reed was filled with burning naphtha: and when the arrow was discharged, if allowed to take full effect, it struck the enemies' ranks, or the objects at which it was directed, and remained infixed, the flame consuming whatever it met with, and was of such a nature that water had no effect upon it, but rather increased its violence, nor could it be extinguished but by being smothered with earth,

17. Helmet."-See the note on 1 Sam. xvii. 5. 6 Sword."-See the note on Num. xxxi. 8.

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long after you all in the bowels of Jesus CHAPTER 1.

Christ. 3 He testifieth his thankfulness to God, and his love 9 And this I pray, that your love may

toward them, for the fruits of their faith, and abound yet more and more in knowledge fellowship in his sufferings, 9 daily praying to and in all “judgment; him for their increase in grace: 12 he sheweth what good the faith of Christ had received by his

10 That ye may 'approve things that 'are troubles at Rome, 21 and how ready he is to glo- excellent; that ye may be sincere and withrify Christ either by his life or deuth, 27 exhort- out offence till the day of Christ; ing them to unity, 28 and to fortitude in perse- 11 Being filled with the fruits of rightecution.

ousness, which are by Jesus Christ, unto the AUL and Ti- glory and praise of God. motheus, the 12 But I would ye should understand,

servants of brethren, that the things which happened Jesus Christ, unto me have fallen out rather unto the furto all the saints therance of the Gospel; in Christ Jesus 13 So that my bonds Rin Christ are mawhich are at nifest in all the palace, and in all other Philippi, with places ; the Bishops

14 And many of the brethren in the Lord, and Deacons : waxing confident by my bonds, are much

2 Grace be more bold to speak the word without fear. unto you, and 15 Some indeed preach Christ even of

envy and strife, and some also of good God our Fa- will:

ther, and from 16 The one preach Christ of contention, the Lord Jesus Christ.

not sincerely, supposing to add affliction to 3 I thank my God upon every 'remem- my bonds: brance of you,

17 But the other of love, knowing that I 4 Always in every prayer of mine for you am set for the defence of the Gospel. all making request with joy,

18 What then? notwithstanding, every 5 For your fellowship in the Gospel from way, whether in pretence, or in truth, Christ the first day until now;

is preached; and I therein do rejoice, yea, 6 Being confident of this very thing, that and will rejoice. he which hath begun a good work in you

19 For I know that this shall turn to my 'will perform it until the day of Jesus salvation through your prayer, and the supChrist :

ply of the Spirit of Jesus Christ, 7 Even as it is meet for me to think this 20 According to my earnest expectation of you all, because "I have you in my heart; and my hope, that is nothing I shall be inasmuch as both in my bonds, and in the ashamed, but that with all boldness, as aldefence and confirmation of the Gospel, ye ways, so now also Christ shall be magnified all are *partakers of my grace.

in my body, whether it be by life, or by 8 For God is my record, how greatly I | death. 1 Or, mention, 2 Or, will finish it. 3 Or, you have me in your heart, • Or, partakers with me of grace.

OT, Sense,

* Or, bry. 7 Or, differ, 8 Or, for Christ. Or, Cæsar's courte 10 Or, to all others.


peace, from

21 For to me to live is Christ, and to die

27 Only "let your conversation be as it beis gain.

cometh the Gospel of Christ : that whether 22 But if I live in the flesh, this is the fruit I come and see you, or else be absent, I may of my labour: yet what I shall choose I wot not. hear of your affairs, that ye stand fast in

23 For I am in a strait betwixt two, one spirit, with one mind striving together having a desire to depart, and to be with for the faith of the Gospel; Christ; which is far better:

28 And in nothing terrified by your ad24 Nevertheless to abide in the flesh is versaries : which is to them an evident token more needful for you.

of perdition, but to you of salvation, and 25 And having this confidence, I know that of God. that I shall abide and continue with you all 29 For unto you it is given in the behalf for your furtherance and joy of faith; of Christ, not only to believe on him, but 26 That your rejoicing may be more

also to suffer for his sake; abundant in Jesus Christ for me by my 30 Having the same conflict which ye coming to you again.

saw in me, and now hear to be in me. 11 Ephes. 4. l. Coloss, 1. 10. 1 Thess. 2. 12.

Philippians.—This is another of the Epistles written by St. Paul during his imprisonment at Rome, as is manifest from various allusions which the Epistle itself contains (i. 7, 13; iv. 22). And it may further appear that it was written towards the end of his confinement, and was most probably the last of the series ; for there are distinct intimations that he had already been a considerable time at Rome, and was in expectation of being speedily released : he even meditated to allow Timothy, his most confidential assistant, to depart, and in a short time to come himself to them (i, 12, 14; ii. 19, 26).

This is a very gratifying Epistle. Philippi enjoyed the distinction of being the first city of Europe in which the Gospel was preached by St. Paul; and its church was, consequently, the first founded by him. And what is more, this church appears to have remained steadfast in those doctrines which it had received, without being disturbed by those divisions and controversies, or dishonoured by those irregularities, which in most of the other churches occasioned so much anxiety to their founder. Hence this Epistle is, as Horne observes, the only one of St. Paul's letters to the churches, in which not one censure is expressed or implied against any of its members ; but, on the contrary, sentiments of unqualified commendation and confidence pervade every part of the Epistle, Its style is singularly animated, affectionate, and pleasing."

It moreover appears that the church at Philippi had on all occasions manifested the most affectionate and generous interest in the apostle's welfare and comfort. When the Gospel was first preached in Macedonia, no other church, except that of Philippi, contributed to his support. Although Thessalonica was the chief city of the province, yet when the apostle was there, the considerate Philippians twice sent him money, lest the success of the great cause in which they felt so much interest, might be hindered by his becoming burdensome to the Thessalonians (iv. 15, 16). They did the same when he was at the wealthy Corinth, and “to cut off occasion from them that desired occasion," declined to accept the wages of his labour from the church there. And now, when the kind-hearted Philippians heard or guessed that their venerated teacher, in imprisonment at Rome, needed assistance, they hastened to send to him Epaphroditus, one of their pastors, with supplies of money. On his return home, Paul sent by him this letter, in which he gratefully acknowledges their kindness to him. From the manner in which he expresses himself, we learn, with some surprise, that he had really been in circumstances of considerable want at Rome: but this may be easily accounted for by the recollection, that not having converted the Romans, he did not think himself entitled to receive his support from them ; while in most of the other churches there were factions opposed to him, and from such churches it was his rule not to accept assistance. We may also consider that his situation at Rome, as a prisoner, probably precluded him from deriving much advantage from his trade. Under this concurrence of circumstances, it so happened that the church at Philippi was the only one to which the apostle could concede the privilege and honour of ministering to his wants.

Verse 1. Philippi.”—For some particulars concerning Philipri, see the notes on Acts xvi. 12. Specimens of the coins which, as there mentioned, substantiate the statement of St. Luke, that one of the Roman provinces of Macedonia was called Macedonia Prima, and that Philippi was a colony, we have caused to be engraved ; and we here introduce them.

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