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The notable features of the export trade in dried fruits have been the increased shipments of raisins and the enormous exports of dried prunes in 1924.
Exports of prunes from the United States in 1924 reached the record figure of 220,912,000 pounds, valued at $13,218,000. One of the factors contributing to the unusually high exports was the failure of the prune crops in France and Bosnia last year. A further factor was probably the lower export price of prunes. In 1924 the export price per pound was 6 cents as compared with 8.8 cents in 1923
. the high of 15.6 cents in 1920, and the pre-war average price of 5.5 cents.
Of the various items of trade in dried fruit raisins show the largest increase in exports as compared with the pre-war trade. The highest figure was reached in 1922 when 93,891,000 pounds were exported. In 1924 the exports amounted to 92,140,000 pounds valued at $7,027,000. Development of new markets, particularly in the Orient, and increased attention to the export trade in general, account for the larger shipments of raisins.
Exports of dried apricots have averaged somewhat less since the war (1920–1924) than during 1910–1914. Dried apples have also been exported to a lesser extent since the war, whereas exports of dried peaches have been about the same with the exception of 1924. when shipments were about twice as large as in previous years.
FEEDS AND FODDERS
Exports of feeds and fodders, of which cottonseed and linseed cake and meal are the principal items, show a decreasing relative importance in the foodstuffs trade. During 1910–1914 these products made up 6.5 per cent of the total foodstuffs exports as comparei with only 3 per cent in 1924.
The total exports of cottonseed cake and meal averaged 933,288,000 pounds during 1910–1914 as compared with 621,766,000 pounds in 1924. Linseed cake and meal made a somewhat better showing, with a pre-war average of 661,819,000 pounds and 653,555,000 pounds in 1924. The exports of 1924 were the largest since pre-war days. Most of the cottonseed and linseed cake and meal goes to wes rn Europe. A peculiar feature of this trade is the preference shown by the leading importing nations for one or the other of these products. The Netherlands, for example, is the leading market for linseed cake and meal but takes very little cottonseed cake and meal. Denmark is the leading market for the latter products but takes practically none of the former. Germany prefers cottonseed cake and meal, while the United Kingdom favors the linseed products.
The exports of other feedstuffs have been much smaller since the war than before. The average pre-war exports of bran and middlings amounted to 54,898 tons valued at $1,577,000, as compared with 2,644 tons valued at $88,000 in 1924. The United States now imports more of these products than it exports. Canada is the source of supply. Exports of dried grains and malt sprouts, which are by-products of brewing and distilling, averaged 70,975 tons valued at $1,797,000, as compared with 207 tons in 1922 and no exports whatever in 1923 and 1924.
Vegetables constitute only about 1.5 per cent of the total foodstuffs exports, but they amount, in the aggregate, to almost $14,000,000 a year.
The principal items of the export trade in vegetables are potatoes, onions, and dried beans and peas. Exports of all these products have been larger since the war than in 1910–1914. Near-by countries --Cuba, Canada, and Mexico-take most of these shipments.
Fresh vegetables other than those shown in the table were exported in 1924 to the amount of 92,074,000 pounds, valued at $3,307,538. Certain vegetable preparations are also included in this class. The exports of yeast, which is the principal vegetable preparation, amounted to 2,699,000 pounds, valued at $701,000, in 1924. In the same year exports of vinegar were valued at $111,000.
The principal dairy products (with the exception of canned milk, which was considered under canned foods) exported from the United States are butter and cheese. Eggs are also included in this class.
Eggs show the largest gain over the pre-war trade. Exports of butter have been considerably larger in postwar years. The postwar exports of cheese, with the exception of those of 1924, have also been larger than during 1910–1914.
VEGETABLE OILS AND FATS
Vegetable oils and fats, particularly cottonseed oil, were exported in much smaller quantities during 1920–1924 than before the war. Some of the items included in this class, such as linseed oil, are inedible.
PRINCIPAL VEGETABLE OILS AND FATS EXPORTED FROM THE UNITED STATES
(All figures represent thousands)
Not separately stated.
Exports of cottonseed oil declined from a pre-war annual average of 271,428,000 pounds to 43,343,000 pounds in 1924. One of the principal reasons for this decline, and the decline also in the exports of corn oil, has been the increasing competition in the European markets of such oriental oils as soy bean, peanut, rapeseed, and sesame.
Exports of linseed oil, which is used principally in the manufacture of paints, have not decreased to the same extent as the edible vegetable oils, although with the exception of only one year, 1920, the exports during the past five years have been smaller than the pre-war average.
With the exception of canned fish, which is included under canned foods, exports of fish from the United States are insignificant.
PRINCIPAL FISH PRODUCTS EXPORTED FROM THE UNITED STATES
(All figures represent thousands)
Salmon, fresh and smoked:
29 $1, 403
29 $1, 399
27 $1, 298
4, 118 $473
Total fish (value)........
1 Quantity not stated
: Not separately stated.
Pickled salmon in barrels is the most important item in the above table. The exports of this product amounted to 27,000 barrels valued at $1,298,000 in 1924. Exports of dried and cured fish except salmon (which includes haddock, hake, pollock, and herring) amounted to 11,591,000 pounds in 1924, as compared with the pre-war average of 14,045,000 pounds.
The most important of the miscellaneous items in the foodstuffs trade of the United States are shown in the following table. Under the miscellaneous classification are included all of those items which do not logically belong to any one of the other 11 classes. PrincipAL MISCELLANEOUS FooDSTUFFS EXPORTED FROM THE UNITED STATES
1 Quantity not stated.
. Included with cornstarch. With the exception of coffee there has been an increase in the exports of all of the important items included in this class of foodstuffs. The increase in the exports of refined sugar is probably the outstanding feature. Exports of refined sugar averaged 70,988,000 pounds during 1910–1914, as compared with the record exports of 1,836,722,000 pounds in 1922 and 440,495,000 pounds in 1924. The decreased production of beet sugar in Europe, particularly in Germany and Russia, is the principal reason for the large postwar exports of refined sugar from the United States.
The inclusion of Porto Rico and Hawaii as customs districts of the United States accounts for the domestic epxorts of coffee. Most of the domestic coffee is exported directly from Porto Rico, but a considerable amount is shipped to New York and New Orleans and exported from those ports. Exports of green coffee have been smaller since 1920 than before the war. The pre-war exports of coffee averaged 44,904,000 pounds, as compared with 26,693,000 pounds in 1924.
Exports of glucose have averaged considerably higher in post-war years than during 1910–1914, and the same is true of cornstarch and hops. The value of exports of confectionery from the United States has averaged $2,000,000 during the past three years, as compared with $1,000,000 before the war.