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turing to suggest our views of a remedy, Your Petitioners are also unable to disyour Petitioners would by no means desire cover what advantage it would afford to the same wages to be given for good work them to put it still more out of the power as for inferior in any branch or department; of their agricultural fellow-labourers than it nor do your Petitioners desire any partial now is, to purchase the goods of the manulegislation, but such as shall be fair both to facturing labourers; and your Petitioners masters and men, and beneficial to both. conceive, that to discourage home cultivation, But unless the principle of equal competition and to cast off our home customer for a far between power-looms and hand-looms be less certain and less profitable foreign cu first put into execution, such a regulation tomer is neither just nor politic, and is the as this might make the last state of the less agreeable to us, as it is the favourite hand-loom masters and men worse than the scheme of THE MONIED INTEREST who are present.
wont to fatten upon the distresses of the inYour Petitioners having complained of dustrious of all classes. The distress of the great depreciation of wages may expect to agricultural districts which is declared in be met with the allegation that provisions the last Speech from the Throne, is not are much reduced in price, and it has been likely to be diminished by exposing that indeclared that your Petitioners have now terest to a competition as ruinous to them with their present gross wages (averaging as that of unrestrained power-looms and among male adult worsted weavers from 78. machinery is to us. to 98. per week,) a greater command than Your Petitioners have been thus specific ever over bread—the staff of life. Your because they may have no better opportuPetitioners need not acquaint your Honour- nity of making their sentiments knownable House that this is a real fallacy, and they disclaim all party feelings and all anithat if provisions generally have fallen 20 mosities between men and employers, and per cent. taking the average of three years are happy on this occasion to see employers next after 1815, and three years before the and men united in one object. last year, 1834, the wages of labour have Convinced that the present system must also fallen in a far greater proportion. lead to immense and certain evil—to the
Taking the prices of meal and flour as a annihilation of hand-loom weaving-to the fair criterion, it has been proved to your beggary of many happy domestic circles of Honourable House by sundry witnesses that the present respectable class of hand-loom we have less command than ever over the employers to increased poor rates-inchief necessaries of life; so that we are creased vice, immorality, and irreligionalready taking rather too freely the pre- and, finally, to NATIONAL RUIN! scription of certain Political Economists, to Your Petitioners humbly entreat your work longer and longer, for less and less, Honourable House to restrain the mischievous and to live on" coarser food."
operations of machinery, especially of powerYour Petitioners are often told that great looms—to provide for the better regulation relief would be felt by the FREE IMPORTA- of wages—to diminish in every possible way TION OF CORN, and that cheap as it now is and to equalize the burden of taxation—to it might be had 20 per cent. cheaper, and protect the producers of wealth in every that this would admit of 20 per cent. being branch—and to encourage every plan which added to the wages and profits of manufac- tends to the diffusion of capital, and checks turers. But the experience of your Pe- its undue accumulation—by which means titioners has taught them that many things contentment, knowledge, religion and loyalty which might be done, are not done, and we may be promoted, and peace and happiness have found that a fall of provisions has been be extended to future generations. both the signal and excuse for a still greater And your Petitioners will ever pray, &c. fall in wages.
TO THE EDITOR OF THE AGRICUL- will carefully and impartially examine them,
TURAL AND INDUSTRIAL MAGA- and if found correct, that they will give the ZINE.
sanction and assistance of your society in
applying them to practice, feeling confident Sir, At a crisis like the present, it is that such establishments would furnish an cheering to observe a publication like yours, un source of employment for the prefor the encouragement of domestic industry, sent unemployed labourers, both agricultural patronized by men of weight and influence and manufacturing, prove a profitable and in the country, whose object appears to be, safe investment for capital, provide a good to prevent the increase of distress amongst tenantry for the landed proprietor, and a the industrious classes, and to devise the certain means of well training and educating best means of alleviating that already ex- the children of the working population, so isting. With the view of assisting in this as to make them useful members of society, laudable undertaking, I send you the fol- and thus supersede the necessity of building lowing calculations, hoping you will think coercive workhouses, as contemplated by the them worthy a place in your valuable public poor law amendment act, and demonstrate cation.
the absurdity of the Malthusian doctrine of To these calculations I earnestly invite excessive population. the attention of the noblemen, gentlemen,
JAMES BRABY. landed proprietors and capitalists, who form Chalk Farm Lane, Hampstead Road, part of your society, and intreat that they
April 8th, 1835. Calculation shewing the result of the industry of 500 persons of the working classes, in the usual proportions, viz. : 110 men, 110 women, and 280 children of different ages, located on 1,000 English acres of land, assisted by manufactures, with the aid of ma. chinery. Shewing the quantity of labour required, the quantity and value of the produce, the cost of building an industrial village for their accommodation, &c. The land to be cultivated principally by the spade :
1000 acres cultivated by ......
100 labourers, 300 days in the year. N. B. - The cropping and stocking a farm of 1,000 acres, of course would require to be
varied according to the nature and quality of the soil and situation, the above is supposed to be a fair average quantity, from an average quality, of soil, as now produced by the plough.
* 430 acres will feed annually 500 sheep, 24 sheep per acre, 200. 70 cows, 24 acres each cow, 175. 15 bullocks, 2 acres each, with flax seed, 30. 350 hogs, 7 acres garden, with surplus oats, or barley, bran and pollard, skim milk and refuse from kitchen and dairy 7. 6 horses, 3 acres each, with surplus oats, 18:—Total, 430.
£. s. d. 1500 0 0 1000 0 0 1500 0 0
The whole annual produce will be as under.
S. d. 5,000 Bushels of wheat,
at 6 0 8,000 Do. of oats, or barley,
at 2 6 36,000 Do. of Potatoes,
at 0 10 500 Sheep: producing with lambs, 3,500lbs. of wool
) 5,000} 4 70 Cows, producing 455,000 pints of milk, at & per pint (or
18,200lbs. of butter, or 50,555lbs. of Cheese) 15 Bullocks slaughtered, producing 1,500 stones of beef, at 3 4 350 Hogs, of 30 stone each, producing 10,500 stones of pork, at 3 4
Eggs, poultry, &c. 3,500 Pounds of wool manufactured by 7 persons into 1,682
by 20 persons into 28,264 yards of linen, averaging 18. 2d.
In a working population of 500 persons, the trades and manufacturers should assist of the ordinary proportion of men, women in agriculture, and vice versa: the boys and children, two thirds, or 333, would be should be taught some useful trade in addicompetent to labour; and it should be so tion to agriculture, and the girls, household arranged that in some seasons of the year and needle-work in addition to manufactures.
Allowing each individual of the men, milk, (or what it will produce in butter or women and children to consume three cheese) with a sufficient quantity of fruit quarters of a pound of flour, one quarter of and vegetables from the garden, Daily; six a pound of oatmeal, two pounds of potatoes, yards of linen, and two and a half yards of six ounces of meat, a pint and a half of broad cloth, or equivalent thereto in other
woollen or cotton goods, YEARLY, the annual # The stone of eight pounds.
produce and consumption will stand as follows:
bushels. bushels. bushels. lbs. pints. yards. yards. Produce, 5,000 8,000 36,000 136,000 455,000 1,682 28,264 Consumption, 2,975 1,983 9,125 68,437 273,750 1,250 3,000
The surplus 6017 bushels of oats or barley, each of the 6 horses, (with hay from the 3 26,875 bushels of potatoes (with the skim acres each before stated) leaving 1505 bushels milk, &c.) will give 76 bushels of potatoes of oats or barley for malting, feeding poultry, and 12 bushels of oats or barley to each of &c. the 350 hogs, one bushel of oats per week to The establishment will have the following surplus to dispose of.
£. S. d. 2,025 Bushels of wheat,
at 6 0
607 10 67,563 Pounds of meat of different kinds,
at 0 5
1407 11 3 181,250 Pints of milk (or what it will produce in butter or cheese,
at 0 0$ per pint, 377 12 0 432 Yards of broad cloth,
at 10 0
216 0 25,264 Yards of linen,
averaging 1 2 per yard, 1473 14 8 Eggs, poultry, &c.
100 0 0 113 Surplus hands, employed in 'manufacturing what might be con
sidered saleable in the neighbourhood or in the general market, >1469 0 0 will earn for the establishment 58. per week each,
Value of surplus, after feeding and clothing 500 persons, £5651 7 11 N. B. The hides and skins from the bullocks and sheep slaughtered would nearly purchase leather for shoes for 500 persons: the fat and tallow from the same, and the hogs, would find candles and soap; and some part of what is called the offal from the same would be an article of food for the adults, in addition to the six ounces of meat daily, before stated.
It may be presumed, that on every 1000 dation of 500 persons would be dwellings acres of land in England now under cultiva. for the married, either separate or together, tion, barns, graneries, and other farm build- dormitories for the single adults and chilings sufficient to preserve the crops, and for dren, public kitchen, dining-room, lecturethe piggeries, dairy, &c. and perhaps to be room orchapel, gymnasium, and play-grounds converted into manufactories, are already for amusement and exercise, &c. the expence erected. The buildings, therefore, that would of which may be estimated at about fifteen be required to be erected for the accommo- thousand pounds.
The establishment would require to borrow £. 15,000 For building dwellings, &c. which would be kept in
- at 5 per cent. repair by themselves, 1,500 For machinery for manufactories, with wear, at 10 per cent. 800 For 80 head of cattle, at £10 each,
at 5 per cent. 500 For 500 sheep, at I each,
Do. 60 For 20 breeding sows, at 3 each,
Do. 120 For 6 horses, at 20 each,
750 0 0
For mange, which after the first two years would be produced by}
£. 17,980 Brought forward.
Brought forward, 974 0 0
100 00 themselves; but say per annum, For seeds of all sorts, annually,
375 00 3,000 For labour in cultivating the land the first year,
150 0 0 400 For implements for spade husbandry, &c.
20 Rent of 1000 acres, including tithes, at 20s. per acre,
1000 0 0 To purchase articles not produced, as tea, coffee, sugar, fuel, and
1000 0 0 other incidentals, per annum, 21,380, Debt,
Yearly charges, £361900
The account will stand thus : Produce to dispose of after feeding, and clothing, and educating 500 persons, 5651 7 11 Yearly charge for rent, &c. &c.
Yearly profit, £ 2032 711 As the whole of the produce of the 1000 the whole of which should be carefully preacres appears to be about £10,000, including served, the cattle being kept principally in labour from surplus hands, and the quantities stall or yard, that the produce in two or being calculated as now produced by the three years would be much increased, say to plough, it may be presumed that by spade the amount of £1000, per ann. which would cultivation judiciously managed, and nearly enable the establishment to pay off the the whole of the produce consumed on the money borrowed in eight or ten years, allowspot, and returned on the land in manure, ing two years to put it in full operation.
Standard will ruin the country, and pull NOTICE TO CORRESPONDENTS.
down every Institution.
We are obliged to Mr. Brown for the Gentlemen who have kindly notified their information that the Highland and Agriculintention to subscribe are requested to for. tural Society of Scotland has offered a Preward the amount to the Banking House of mium of £200. for a Steam Plough, to which Spooner, Attwood, and Co., Gracechurch the East Lothian Agricultural Society has Street, London.
added £100., and the Border Union £100. Mr. Branfil's concise and lucid exposition information relative to the Agricultural
The Secretary has received the following of the Malt tax has been received—his re- Associations, and as additional facts come in quest shall be attended to.
they will be published in the succeeding The reply of the Worsted Hand-Loom that the names of the President and Chair
numbers of the Magazine. It is suggested Weavers of Bradford to G. Poulett rope, Esq. M. P. has come to hand; it is one of Secretary, and the number of members em
man be furnished together with that of the the many gratifying evidences of the spread braced in the Association. of sound principles among the working classes as to the real cause of their distress, East Kent Agricultural Association.-Prenamely, “want of money to go to market sident the Earl of Winchelsea, Eastuell Park, with."
Ashford. Chairman of the Committee, Sir
B. W. Bridges, Bart., Goodwistone Park, The Secretary in the name of the Com- near Wingham. Secretary, Mr.J. C. Abbot, mittee, begs to thank Mr. Massey for the Canterbury. The Committee meet reguprices of Bullion, &c. which shall appear. larly at Canterbury the last Saturday in
each month. Mr. Eames' request shall be considered : -every Agricultural Association should pe- Ashby de la Zouch Agricultural Associatition Parliament respecting the necessity of tion, consists of nearly 150 Members. J. a reform in the Currency, the leading point Eames, Esq. Treasurer; W. Dewes, Esq. being the restoration of the ancient Silver Secretary. Standard ; the continuation of an attempt to uphold a costly and impracticable Gold
PRISTED BY W. NICOL, 51, PALL NALI.