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ICE-MAKING AND COLD-STORAGE PLANTS IN

THE UNITED KINGDOM

ENGLAND

BIRMINGHAM DISTRICT

Consul John F. Jewell, July 6 and 27, 1923

ICE-MAKING PLANTS

Periods of extreme heat occur so irregularly in the Birmingham district that there is as yet no adequate preparation for them. An ice shortage, consequently, almost always is experienced during the hottest weather. Although the largest hotels have their own ice plants, these, too, are inadequate. It is not unlikely that more icemaking equipment will be required, but it is not probable that there will be any large immediate expansion. Increased consumption during the summer months, however, is evident.

Ice-making machinery is not manufactured in this district, and, so far as can be ascertained, that in use is of British manufacture. The following three firms, listed in the local directories as handling equipment, are merely branch offices of concerns located elsewhere: H. Pontifex & Sons, The Farrington Works, May Mills, Birmingham, head office Pontifex House, Shoe Lane, London, E. C. 4, England; Lightfoot Refrigeration Co. (Ltd.), Digbeth, Birmingham, head office 35 Queen Victoria Street, London, E. C. 4, England; and the Pulsometer Engineering Co. (Ltd.), Central House, 75 New Street, Birmingham, head office 9 Elms Ironworks, Reading, Eng. land. Manufacturers of Ice.

There are nine firms in the various cities of the Birmingham district engaged in the manufacture of ice. A list follows:

County Ice & Cold Storage Co. (Ltd.), Abington Square, Northampton: Capacity, 10 tons per 24 hours; system, ammonia compression; insulation, silicate cotton.

Coventry Pure Ice & Cold Storage Co. (Ltd.), Freeth Street, Coventry: Capacity, 4 tons per 24 hours; system, ammonia compression; insulation, slag wool. French & Son, Godiva Street, Coventry: No information.

Lightfoot Refrigeration Co. (Ltd.), Digbeth, Birmingham: Capacity, 80 tons ? per 24 hours; system, cold air; insulation, silicate cotton. H. Normansell, Bell Street, Birmingham: No information. A. & B. Risi, Little Bricklin Street, Wolverhampton: No information. E. J. Smart & Son, Fazely Street, Birmingham: Ammonia compression system. W. H. Smart & Co. (Ltd.), Birmingham: No information.

Worcester & Midland Ice Co. (Ltd.), 134 Bromyard Road, St. John's, Worcester: Capacity, 7 tons per 24 hours; system, ammonia compression ; insulation, silicate cotton.

1 Ton of 2,000 pounds used in this bulletin, unless otherwise noted.

COLD-STORAGE ESTABLISHMENTS Birmingham receives few direct imports, most goods, particularly food products, being forwarded from firms established in London, Liverpool, Bristol, or other British coastal cities. Frozen and chilled meats appear to arrive almost entirely by way of London. Apparently, only one concern engaged in the direct importing of meat is located in the district, the Campania Sansinena de Carnes Congeladas, 1 Bromsgrove Street, Birmingham, and it is only a branch, with head offices at 133 Central Markets, London, E. Č. 1.

New Zealand is considered the source of the best mutton. A large quantity, however, is received from Australia. Large amounts of frozen beef arrive from the Argentine Republic and Canada. Unfrozen rabbits are obtained from the Continent of Europe, but the frozen almost entirely from Australia. Dairy products are imported largely from Canada, although some also come from Denmark and other continental countries.

No definite information is available concerning the prospects for additional cold-storage warehouses. Their popularity has been increasing for a number of years, and it is not unreasonable to believe that improved industrial conditions will result in the extension of existing plants and the erection of new ones. Cold-storage apparatus is more commonly used, on a small scale, by dealers in perishable food products. Household refrigerators have only a moderate sale, but demand for them is increasing. Those now in use are of British manufacture, but there appears to be a limited but expanding market for American refrigerators. List of Cold-Storage Establishments.

The following list of the 10 cold-storage plants located in the Birmingham district is supplemented with important data :

Birmingham Coal Storage Co. (Ltd.), Liverpool Chambers, 8 Cherry Street, Birmingham: Handles hops only; capacity, 350,000 cubic feet.

County Ice & Cold Storage Co. (Ltd.), Abingdon Square, Northampton: Products handled, meat, provisions, dairy produce, game, rabbits, hops, and other perishable goods ; capacity, 120,000 cubic feet.

Coventry Pure Ice & Cold Storage Co. (Ltd.), Freeth Street, Coventry: Products handled, meat, game, and other food ; capacity, 12,000 cubic feet.

Lightfoot Refrigeration Co. (Ltd.), City Meat Market, Birmingham: Products handled, frozen meat, rabbits, game, poultry, dairy produce, provisions, and similar commodities ; chill rooms for beef and mutton.

Lightfoot Refrigeration Co. (Ltd.), Digbeth, Birmingham: Products handled, frozen meat, eggs, butter, bacon, rabbits, and general provisions; capacity, 120,000 cubic feet.

H. Normansell, Bell Street, Birmingham: Fish, game, and poultry handled.
Simpsons (Ltd.), 6 Bull Street, Birmingham: Fish and fruit handled.
E. J. Smart & Son, Fazeley Street, Birmingham: Meat handled.
Walsall Ice & Cold Storage Co., Shortacre Street, Walsall.

Worcester & Midlands Ice Co. (Ltd.), 134 Bromyard Road, Worcester: All kinds of perishables handled ; capacity, 80,000 cubic feet.

BRADFORD DISTRICT Vice Consul George L. Fleming and Vice Consul Abbott C. Martin, in charge, Bradford,

October 23 and June 26, 1923

ICE-MAKING PLANTS The demand for ice in the Bradford district is limited practically to butchers, proprietors of fish markets, and ice-cream dealers. The quantity used by hotels is comparatively small, and very little is consumed by private families.

Four Ice-Making Plants.

The are four ice-making plants in the district, all British. They furnish the total ice requirements, and are not contemplating any extensions or new building. Production, equipment, and other details are shown in the following summary:

The Bradford Clear Ice & Cold Storage Co., Mulgrave Street, Bradford : Produces 4 tons daily and supplies all of the clear ice required for general use. Carries a reserve of 600 tons, which is made during the winter season. Blocks, 4 feet 6 inches long, 2 feet 4 inches wide, 12 inches thick, weighing 560 pounds. Raw-water-agitated and ammonia-compression system, 262 cells (cans arranged in series) and 140 single cans. Equipment manufactured by Lightfoot Refrigerating Co., London. Price of ice, 28 pounds for 1s., or 128 pounds for 2s. 6d. No extensions contemplated.

The City of Bradford Cooperative Society (Ltd.): This organization has its own ice-making plant, which produces daily 6 tons for refrigerating purposes. Operated mainly to supply ice to about 50 stores owned by the society and sells only a very small quantity to nonmembers. Blocks, 3 feet long by 2 feet 3 inches wide and 12 inches thick; weight, 224 pounds. Equipment consists of 104 cans filled with raw water and then immersed in a tank containing coils of piping and filled with calcium brine. Temperature reduced to 16 or 18° below zero by ammonia expansion. Equipment manufactured by Enock & Son (Ltd.), Thone Works, Tottenham, London.

The Halifax Ice & Cold Storage Co., Halifax: Production of 10 tons daily; supplies demand of city of Halifax and surrounding district. Blocks, 5 feet 2 inches long, 3 feet 10 inches wide, 11 inches thick. Raw-water system; temperature obtained by compression. Equipment manufactured by Smith Bros. & Eastwood, a Bradford firm who went out of business several years ago.

The Huddersfield Ice & Cold Storage Co., Colne Road, Huddersfield : No details available.

COLD-STORAGE ESTABLISHMENTS The Bradford Corporation Cold Stores, a British concern under the control of the Markets Superintendent's Office, Kirkgate, Bradford, is the only cold-storage establishment located in the Bradford district. It has a capacity of 18,262 cubic feet between 32 and 40° F. and 95,738 between 10 and 32° F. The lowest temperature obtainable in winter is 10° F. and in summer 15° F. The principal products handled are fresh, chilled, and frozen meats; fish, game, rabbits, and poultry; provisions; and fruits and vegetables, including imports from Ireland, Australia, Canada, New Zealand, South Africa, the United States, Argentina, China, Denmark, France, Italy, and Norway. Facilities for receiving goods are excellent. A railway station is adjacent to the plant, and paved roads connect the warehouse with another a mile distant and one half a mile away. Motor and horses are used for hauling. Additional business can be handled without further extensions. The plant was erected by the old Linde (British) Refrigerating Co., London-now the Lightfoot Co., and the cold-storage establishment is an extension of the Bradford abattoir.

BRISTOL DISTRICT

Consul Robertson Honey, Bristol, June 26 and July 9, 1923

ICE-MAKING PLANTS

There are two ice-making plants in Bristol-one owned by Benjamin Perry & Son (Ltd.), railway carriers, 11 Temple Street, Bristol and the Avon Cold Storage & Ice Co., St. Philips Bridge,

Bristol. Both have British-made equipment supplied by the Lightfoot Refrigerating Co. (Ltd.), 35 Queen Victoria Street, London.

The Perry plant, only recently opened after having been closed down for five years, is operated principally for the convenience of the firm's cold-storage establishment and does not serve the general public. It has a capacity of about 12.32 tons per 24 hours. Length of block is reported as 4 feet 8 inches; width, 2 feet; thickness, 0.2 foot; weight, about 560 pounds. Raw water, 9 cans, with air agitation, is used, and also the compression system.

The Avon Cold Storage & Ice Co. has a capacity of about 78.4 tons per 24 hours. Cakes are 6 feet long, 2 feet 6 inches wide, and 12 inches thick, and weigh 784 pounds. Raw water, 220 cans, with air agitation, is used, and also the compression system. An extension is in course of erection. So far as is known no new plants are contemplated.

COLD-STORAGE ESTABLISHMENTS

Refrigerating facilities in the Bristol district appear to be sufficient for pres nt requirements. The machinery has been obtained principally from the Lightfoot Refrigerating Co., London. A description of Bristol stores follows:

Benjamin Perry & Sons (Ltd.), Temple Street, Bristol. Railway carriers for the London Midland and Scottish Railways (formerly the Midland Railway), handling goods consigned to cold stores for and off rail, including fruit, fish, meat, milk, vegetables, bacon in boxes, butter in boxes, and all continental traffic. Capacity, 360,000 cubic feet-100,000 at 16° F. and 260,000 at 24° F.

The Avon Cold Stores--Bristol Industries (Ltd.), St. Philips Bridge, Bristol, Meat chiefly handled, including Australian mutton, as well as butter in boxes, and continental traffic. Capacity, 300,000 cubic feet, 18° F., except 30,000 cubic feet at 32° F.

Eastman's (Ltd.), Barton Hill, Bristol: Owns multiple meat shops and handles its own goods, largely from Argentina and Australasia. Capacity, 120,000 cubic feet, 15° F., except 6,000 at 90° F.

W. Burgess (Ltd.), Redcliff Street Bristol: A general warehouse, and, similarly to Benjamin Perry & Sons, with whom it is affiliated, takes care of all perishables, especially continental traffic. Capacity, 54,000 cubic feet, 25 to 40° F.

The Bristol Municipal Cold Stores, Avonmouth Dock: Chiefly concerned with oversea traffic, other than continental, including frozen meat from New Zealand and Australia, butter in boxes from Canada and New Zealand, and bacon in boxes from the United States and Canada. Capacity, 800,000 cubic feet; normal temperature, 15° F.

The Bath Cold Storage & Ice Co. (Ltd.), Walcot Street, Bath : General warehousemen, handling meat, fruit, milk, vegetables, and bacon and butter in boxes. Capacity, 100,000 cubic feet; temperature about 18° F. Facilities for Receiving Goods.

Benjamin Perry & Sons, Avon Cold Stores, W. Burgess, and the British Municipal Cold Stores have direct communication with dock wharf. Eastman's has 11/4 miles of cartage over city streets to railway and Bath Cold Storage & Ice Co., 1 mile. Both use motor trucks.

HULL DISTRICT

Consul John H. Grout, Hull, September 20, 1923

ICE-MAKING PLANTS. The only plant in the city of Hull manufacturing ice is a British concern, the Hull Ice Co. Its production is consumed principally by fishing and other vessels. Comparatively little ice is required for domestic use. Markets and ice-cream makers, however, demand a certain quantity. The machinery consists of six plants from the Lightfoot Refrigeration Co., London, and one from the pluperfect Refrigerating Co., Dean's Gate, Manchester. The capacity of the Lightfoot plants is reported as 360 tons per day and that of the Pluperfect as 130 tons. The Lightfoot blocks weigh_2 to 2.25 hundredweight each, and the pluperfect about 10 hundredweight. The Light foot uses a raw-water can system, without agitation, and the pluperfect the center freeze method. Compression is also employed. No new plants or extensions are under consideration.

The Northern Counties Ice-Making & Cold Storage Co. (Ltd.), Newcastle on Tyne, makes ice and also operates a cold-storage plant. No information is available.

COLD-STORAGE ESTABLISHMENTS

The following information has been obtained concerning the coldstorage establishments of the Hull district :

The Union Cold Storage Co. (Ltd.), Hull-a branch ; main offices in London: The greater part of this company's cold-storage space is situated within the docks, so that steamers can discharge alongside, and there is direct rail communication from the stores to all parts of the country. In this respect the accommodation in Hull for frozen meat is not only far ahead of present requirements but provides traffic facilities unsurpassed by any other port in the kingdom. During the last two years the average stocks of frozen meat have not occupied more than 15 per cent of the total space available. The cold stores operated by the Union Co. in Hull are reported to have a capacity equivalent to 244,000 carcasses of mutton. Recently, according to the North Eastern Morning News, Hull, proposals were submitted for increasing the capital to £8,780,000 by the issue of 3,300,000 6 per cent cumulative preference and 700,000 ordinary shares. There has also been considerable agitation toward absorbing control of more than 2,400 retail shops, depots, and market stalls located in England. (See also Union Co. under London, Liverpool, and Glasgow.)

The Sansinena Meat Co. (Ltd.), otherwise known as the Compania Sansinena de Carnes Congeladas: This firm has extensive direction in Argentina. Its activities in Hull are principally confined to the cold storage of stocks of meat, butter, and eggs, which it imports from Argentina. Facilities for receiving goods at warehouse comprise wharf and railway alongside. No extension of plant or equipment are contemplated. Capacity, 120,000 cubic feet; temperature, 10 to 32° F.

Eastman's (Ltd.), Newcastle on Tyne: Exclusively a cold-storage concern. Capacity, about 400,000 cubic feet. No further information available.

LEEDS DISTRICT

Consul Percival Gassett, Leeds, June 13 and 20, 1923

ICE-MAKING PLANTS

Leeds has two large ice-making establishments, which supply the surrounding country. A dairy company also produces a small amount, but its plant is used principally for the cold storage of milk and other dairy produce. Details for each concern follow :

The Leeds Consumers Ice & Cold Storage Co. (Ltd.), 38 Marsh Lane, Leeds : Plant consists of two machines, each with a capacity of 4,480 pounds per 24 hours. Blocks are 7 feet long, 3 feet 6 inches wide, about 6 inches thick, and weigh approximately 674 pounds. Direct-expansion system. Machinery of American manufacture.

The Yorkshire Pure Ice & Cold Storage Co., New York Street, Leeds: Can produce 40 tons in 24 hours. Blocks, 4 feet long, 2 feet 6 inches wide, 1 foot

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